The female reproductive system is a very complex mechanism, the correct operation of which depends not only on women's health, but also on the ability to reproduce offspring. Any abnormal discharge that can be noted in the absence of menstruation will be a factor for referring to specialists. The presence of changes in its composition of discharge before menstruation is a symptom that is dangerous to the woman's body.
The appearance of discharge long before menstruation should make a woman alert
Symptoms of the pathological process in the body
Symptoms that speak of danger:
- Most often, the discharge between the monthly appear when a woman has a hormonal failure. To determine the presence of hormonal disruption in the body can be on some symptoms: hyperhidrosis and increased nervousness, irritability, disturbances in the work of the central nervous system, accompanied by sleep disturbance. Hormonal failure in the body of a woman can be triggered by the use of combined oral contraceptives.
- Danger to the female body are not only the spotting, but also their accompanying symptoms. The dangerous symptoms include: itching and the presence of burning in the external genital organs, the appearance of dryness in the vagina and pain during sex, the presence of pain when trying to urinate, and difficulty urinating. Sometimes a woman may have pain in the lower abdomen and high body temperature.
- A clear sign of the presence of pathology in a woman’s body is the appearance of menstrual flow during menopausal changes. If a woman has long passed the period of menopause and the body has been in the stage of climacteric changes for several years, the appearance of menstrual bleeding character indicates the presence of pathological processes. This condition can be dangerous for the woman's body.
- There are also dangerous symptoms of discharge between menstruation in any period of the cycle after intercourse.
- Intermenstrual bleeding can also open during the recovery period after gynecological surgery (curettage, cauterization of cervical erosion or termination of pregnancy). A dangerous symptom is the rapid filling of hygiene products and the presence of high temperature.
Spotting after intercourse is not always the norm.
Bleeding in the presence of infection or inflammation
But premenstrual discharge can manifest itself if a woman has acquired the disease:
- Gonorrhea. In addition to the usual symptoms of gonorrhea: yellowish vaginal discharge and the presence of pain, intermenstrual bleeding may occur. Identify gonorrhea is not so easy, it will require the delivery of microflora for sowing. And since the disease may manifest itself with atypical symptoms, its treatment is complicated.
- Trichomoniasis. Trichomoniasis manifests itself by the presence of a sharp itch and the appearance of redness in the region of the external genital organs, and in the advanced stage can cause the appearance of: pain during sexual contact, intermenstrual discharge may also appear. Therefore, any abnormal discharge from the external genital organs should be of concern to the woman.
- Chlamydia. In addition to a strong pain syndrome, it can be accompanied by secretions of a different nature with an unpleasant smell. Monthly mid-cycle, which are accompanied by abundant blood loss require immediate hospitalization.
- Endometritis. This inflammatory process takes place in the uterus. The reasons for its occurrence are hidden in the infection of the woman's body with sexually transmitted diseases or during their relapse. Endometritis provokes secretions of a different color after or before menstruation. But most often the selection are red.
The specialist will help to recognize the pathology, therefore, when the first negative symptoms appear and if they are accompanied by intermenstrual bleeding, it is necessary to urgently consult doctors for help.
Trichomoniasis causes intermenstrual bleeding
Neoplasm as the cause
Sometimes the causes of brown discharge on menstruation other than menstruation may be hidden in the presence of tumors of the reproductive system:
- Uterine fibroids. The reasons for the secretion of brown secretion in other days from menstruation can lurk and in the presence of the patient such tumors as uterine fibroids. And the selection itself of brown color indicates the growth of a benign tumor or twist the legs.
- Endometriosis. Endometriosis is a pathological proliferation of endometrial cells outside the uterus. Such growth does not only interfere with the normal functioning of the reproductive organs, but also affects the functioning of the organs that are located nearby. The proliferation of cells can cause the appearance of brown secretions before or after the onset of menstruation and affect the entire cycle.
- Polyps. Polyps are pathologically altered endometrial cells of the uterus, which can be located as inside it. so in the cervical canal. Such neoplasms negatively affect the reproductive system, causing various symptoms: pain and dryness in the intimate area, a sharp pain syndrome in the lower abdomen, the appearance of brown discharge, changes in the hormonal background, increased body mass index. The reasons for the appearance of such tumors are unclear.
- Neoplasms of the reproductive system, which are malignant. In the presence of tumors and neoplasms with malignant overtones, a woman may experience prolonged bleeding that requires immediate hospitalization. With their presence, there is also a constant increase in body temperature, accompanied by signs of intoxication of the body (dizziness, nausea, vomiting, indigestion).
Sometimes contributes to the appearance of bleeding ectopic pregnancy. With the appearance of sharp pain and severe blood loss, lowering blood pressure, it is recommended to immediately seek help from specialists. After all, this condition threatens the patient's life.
Uterine diseases, such as polyps and endometriosis, can cause bleeding
False signs of pathology
But most cases of the appearance of a few drops of blood that stain the discharge in a red or brown color are not associated with pathology. Do not panic if:
- Most women are confident that their cycle consists of 28 days and any abnormalities are pathological. But the cycle period can vary from 28 to 35 days. That is why, if a woman incorrectly compiled the menstruation calendar and noticed the appearance of bloody discharge on the wrong day, the reason lies in the calculation error. Do not panic, and you just need to watch the changes. If a few days went full monthly, then the cause of the discharge is clear.
- Taking certain combined oral contraceptives can control not only the cycle, but also influence the appearance of bleeding. Therefore, if you have switched to a new drug or are taking contraceptives for the first time in your life, then simply consult with a specialist about this symptom.
- The appearance of brown discharge in the absence of menstruation can be affected by excessively violent sexual intercourse. If during sexual intercourse microdamages form on the vaginal wall, then after sex you can observe the appearance of blood. A long-term healing of the vaginal mucosa can provoke a repeated tear during excessive activity or playing sports. In this case, you should visit a specialist and refuse to have sex and excessive physical activity during the recovery period.
- If such discharge occurs after the first sexual intercourse on the second or third day, which is different from the monthly, this does not indicate pathology. And blood clots are the remains of a hymen.
Spotting may occur due to hormonal contraceptives
Diagnosis of the appearance of secretions
If any negative changes are detected, any woman who cares about her health will be obliged to seek help from specialists. In order to identify the cause of the pathology and identify its cause, the doctor conducts a number of diagnostic measures:
- The study of the patient's history. Anamnesis includes complete interrogation of the patient about the presence of gynecological pathologies and susceptibility to them. Refinement and fixation of data on the hereditary genetic pathologies of the patient and acquired diseases. The doctor will ask the patient about the presence of concomitant diseases that may indirectly provoke the appearance of pathological processes.
- Ultrasound study. This type of diagnostic measures will allow a specialist to study in detail the system of the pelvic organs and its features.
- Colposcopic examination. This type of diagnostics allows not only to study the pathology in detail, but also to take the required amount of material for research. Diagnostics with a colposcope is a painless, but effective, research method that allows you to examine the cervix in detail.
- Hysteroscopic examination. This type of diagnosis allows to detect the presence of tumors and developmental pathologies in the uterus. These pathologies include endometriosis and uterine fibroids, polyps, and cystic changes.
Any negative changes in the body, accompanied by the appearance of: pain in the external genital organs and lower abdomen, bright red discharge of abundant nature, require immediate consultation with a gynecologist.
In order to avoid the appearance of complications in the work of the whole organism.
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The causes of bleeding between menstruation are varied. Most often this indicates the presence of a pathological process. The main causes of bleeding are as follows:
- Hormonal disorders.
- Use of oral contraceptives.
- Benign and malignant tumors of the genital organs.
- Diseases of the cervix.
- Endometrial diseases.
- Infectious or inflammatory disease.
- Ectopic pregnancy.
- The use of intrauterine device.
- Injuries during sexual intercourse.
- Therapeutic manipulations: curettage, electrocoagulation of cervical erosion, the introduction of an intrauterine device and others.
In some cases, bleeding between menstruation is considered normal.. Brown discharge from a healthy woman is possible in such situations:
- A day or two before the onset of menstruation.
- From the uterus out the blood after menstruation. This can occur within three days.
- Injuries during sexual intercourse.
- Acceptance of some oral contraceptives. You should know that such bleeding is considered normal if no more than three cycles recur, then they should stop.
- During the first sexual contact and the next few.
- Scanty and non-lasting discharge in the middle of the cycle can be observed during ovulation
- Implant bleeding is a rare occurrence, which is the first sign of pregnancy.
When discharge is considered a pathology?
You can also read:
Talking about the disease can be in some cases, such as:
- Increased body temperature during bleeding, pain in the abdomen, discomfort (itching, burning) in the vagina, pain during intercourse.
- The woman did not take any medications, and she began to bleed.
- Spotting is observed after each sexual intercourse.
- Spotting during menopause, when for a year or more menstruation was absent.
Pathologies that cause bleeding, not associated with menstruation
Often the causes of bleeding between menstruation are various diseases, not necessarily gynecological.
Endometriosis. Characterized by germination of mucosal cells in the cervix, vagina and other places. In this case, before or after the menstruation appear brownish discharge.
With abnormal bleeding between periods, there may be complaints of abdominal pain.
Endometritis. In this inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane of the inner surface of the uterus, discharge of blood may occur after menstruation. Often develops in the presence of sexually transmitted infections.
Uterine fibroids. A benign growth that may cause mid-cycle bleeding.
Polyps. The causes of polyps are not fully understood. They appear as a result of the proliferation of the mucous membrane of the uterus. They may appear both in the genital organ itself and on the neck. When polyps can experience abdominal pain, bleeding, infertility. Often, external polyps (on the cervix of the uterus) are detected on routine gynecological examinations, while intrauterine devices are not easily diagnosed.
Malignant tumors of the genitals. With such tumors, as a rule, regular bleeding after menstruation opens. In addition, women complain not abundant colorless discharge, swelling of the legs, back pain, bowel problems, fever.
Ectopic pregnancy. This is a very life-threatening condition that requires immediate assistance in the hospital ward. With this pathology, bleeding opens, there is pain in the abdomen and dizziness, arterial pressure decreases.
Hypothyroidism. Non-menstrual bleeding from the vagina can be observed with reduced thyroid function. In addition, the woman complains of irritability, fatigue, constant fatigue.
Video about the pathology of the cervix:
For any bleeding from the vagina, a medical examination is necessary. Only after a thorough diagnosis prescribed individual treatment, which can last up to six months. This pathology is treated conservatively or operatively.
Therapeutic methods include:
- Symptomatic treatment, which consists in taking medications that contribute to a better reduction of the uterus and hemostatic agents.
- A course of hormone therapy for up to three months, after which a break is taken to assess how effective the treatment has been.
- Reception of fortifying means, reduction of physical and emotional loads.
With severe and prolonged bleeding, curettage (curettage) may be indicated, and in the case of neoplasms, removal of the tumor or genital organs.
What does bloody discharge between menstruation show?
The female reproductive system is a very delicate instrument, and any unusual discharge from the genitals should be a cause for concern about one's own health. Blood discharge between menstruation is an alarming symptom, although not always dangerous. Such deviations occur at least once in a lifetime in a fifth of women, the main thing is to recognize the cause of the deviation and eliminate the danger in time.
Discharges between periods can be dangerous if:
- Their appearance is not accompanied by hormonal disruption (its presence can be determined by indirect symptoms: sleep disturbance, irritability, nervousness, sweating) and oral contraceptive pills.
- Along with the discharge comes itching, burning in the genitals, drying of the vaginal mucosa, pain during intercourse or urination. This often increases the temperature, pain in the lower abdomen.
- The woman has already ended the period of menopause, menstruation was long gone (more than 12 months).
- After intercourse, bloody discharge occurs regularly, regardless of the cycle time.
To worry about the appearance of discharge in the middle of the cycle should not be in such cases:
To worry about the appearance of discharge in the middle of the cycle should not be in such cases:
- The cycle was calculated incorrectly and spotting after a few hours (up to two days) gave way to full monthly periods.
- There is a reception of contraceptive drugs, and the body has not yet adapted to them.
- If, before the discharge, there was violent sex during which the walls of the vagina could be damaged (for example, a sufficient amount of lubricant was not released).Any sexual intercourse is a small injury to the vagina, and if the mucosa is dry, then during sex there are several such microtraumas from which blood can flow.
- If it was the first sexual contact in the life of a girl (or 2 subsequent). In this case, it is not a selection due to a violation of the cycle, but remnants of a broken hymen.
Causes and treatment
In the middle of the cycle, the natural process of ovulation occurs, and it is sometimes accompanied by atypical secretions.
If their character is smearing, they are brown, then there is nothing to worry about. And if the discharge is bloody, with clots, then you need to undergo a full examination. What can cause such deviations and how to solve the problem?
Bleeding, which does not relate to menstruation, are divided into two groups: uterine and intermenstrual.
Uterine bleeding does not depend on age and the presence of menstruation, it can mean one of the following diseases:
- Fibroma of the uterus.
- Cancer of the uterus or its cervix.
- Cervical erosion.
- Uterine sarcoma.
- The appearance of a tumor in the appendages.
L Any of these diseases is a serious threat to the life and health of women, and therefore the diagnosis and treatment should be approached with special care. If everything else is also observed pulling pain in the lower abdomen, the temperature rises, the disease is complicated by inflammation.
Intermenstrual bleeding in the middle of the cycle, despite the fact that the effect of hormones and hormonal contraceptives is excluded, can mean the following complications:
- Acceptance of products, medicines or food supplements, which include estrogen and which strongly affect hormonal levels.
- Left inside the uterus contraceptive spiral.
- Use of drugs of postcoital contraception ("Postinor", "Eskapel").
- Disorders in the thyroid gland, diabetes.
- The presence of sexually transmitted diseases, infections and inflammations in the vagina.
- Consequences of injuries of internal organs, including the genitourinary system.
- Polycystic ovary.
- Improper gynecological procedures.
- Lack of progesterone in the body.
The reasons may be more trivial - climate change, depressed state, stress, neurosis. Also, the body can produce such a reaction to an abrupt change in day regimen (for example, a hard transition from day to night shifts), changes in diet (lack of vitamins, minerals, especially heavy diets, starvation, anemia - a drop in hemoglobin).
If the blood discharge in the middle of the cycle is abundant, bright in color, accompanied by severe pain, and shortly before they had one or more unprotected sexual acts, ectopic pregnancy could be a possible cause.
Diagnosis of deviations
To understand the cause of the discharge, to make a conclusion about their nature and to choose a method of treatment, the doctor carries out the following diagnostic measures:
- Analysis of the patient's history - oral questioning and recording information about a woman's susceptibility to gynecological diseases, the presence of poor heredity, previous diseases.
- Ultrasound is the simplest and at the same time informative method that allows to identify the state of the pelvic organs.
- Colposcopy is a gynecological examination method in which the cervix is seen in multiple magnification.
- Hysteroscopy is a test for the presence of abnormalities within the uterus that caused bleeding. These can be polyps, endometriosis, etc.).
Any violation of the menstrual cycle, and even more so accompanied by bloody discharge, should serve as a reason for seeking medical attention. And if it is accompanied by pain, the discharge is abundant, red, not brown, this should be done immediately.
Blood discharge often occurs early in pregnancy. The egg cell fertilized by the sperm cell is attached (implanted) into the endometrium of the uterus, which is permeated with blood vessels. When injected, capillaries may be damaged. Occurs non-abundant, non-durable implant bleeding. It occurs a week before the onset of menstruation, which is why women take it for menstruation and do not suspect that they have become pregnant.
Common causes of bleeding between periods:
- hormonal imbalances in the body,
- the beginning of ovulation
- taking or stopping the use of oral contraceptives,
- stress or depression
- diseases of the glands belonging to the endocrine system,
- taking drugs and supplements that affect the production of hormones in the body, the regularity of the menstrual cycle,
- acute and chronic pathologies of the uterus and its cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes,
- venereal diseases,
- risk of miscarriage,
- injuries of the reproductive organs and genital tract, including defloration,
- ectopic pregnancy,
- due to gynecological procedures (scrapings, abortion, cauterization of erosions, conization of the neck),
- taking aspirin and other blood thinners.
The cause of discharge between menstruation, including clots, is the bend of the uterus or its cervix, myoma, fibroma, increased thrombosis, lack of vitamins from group B, polyps, endometriosis.
Another reason for the presence of blood discharge, not related to the menstrual cycle, is rough or excessively active sex. They are called postcoital and are due to mechanical damage to the female genital tract. The underlying causes of bleeding are inflammation and diseases of the ovaries, uterus (cervicitis, vaginitis, cervical erosion, intrauterine polyps), or sexually transmitted diseases.
A medical instrument can cause microtrauma to the mucous membrane, especially if during the procedure it is necessary to take a scraping from the walls of the canals, organs of the genitourinary system. This is the main reason why damaged tissue will bleed, resembling the onset of menstruation, but will not turn into a heavy discharge. If the daub does not stop, there is also a burning sensation, pain, itching in the genital tract, you should re-consult your doctor.
Among the causes of the appearance of blood discharge is taking Regulon, Diane, Jes and other hormonal contraceptive drugs. If they continue to go for the fourth month of using the medication, or menstruation may not appear in time, you should consult a gynecologist.
Often, women after 38 years between the last and the first critical day, bloody discharge occurs. And before the start of menopause, the menstrual cycle is often lost through the fluctuations of hormones. Women are recommended to be examined to exclude other causes of their appearance, for example, malignant neoplasms.
The rate of occurrence of blood discharge
In girls, whose menstrual cycle is already stable, in women of childbearing age, brown daub appears a few hours before menstruation. It often continues after menstruation. Often, on the first day of menstruation, red blood immediately appears instead, gradually turning into menstrual bleeding. Such secretions do not constitute pathology if an intrauterine device is located.
- implant bleeding,
- ovulation, menopause,
- correction of cycle regularity with hormonal drugs.
If the duration is less than 20 days or there is a strong loss of fluid from the uterus, seek emergency help from a doctor.
Pathology with the presence of blood discharge
In girls after menarche, between the months the appearance of blood is often associated with abnormal development of the organs of the reproductive system. During this period, bleeding may occur, which mothers confuse with menstruation. The main symptoms are abundant menstruation (blood loss in excess of 150 ml over the period of critical days), irregular cycle. The reason for such discharge in adolescents up to the age of 15–16 is dysfunction or pathology of the reproductive organs and glands, infections, stressful conditions, starvation, vitamin deficiency. Anemia, hemorrhagic shock, infertility is considered a complication of heavy bleeding; therefore, it is recommended to undergo regular examinations.
For women of childbearing age, the brown or black color of secreted mucus, the fluid between periods, is a sign of cancer. They also occur due to the destruction of blood cells in the uterus, rupture of the tissue of the inner membranes, endometriosis, erosion or cervical cancer, and infectious diseases of the reproductive organs. The presence of a long period of smear indicates a bend of the uterus, polyps inside it, the growth of the endometrium.
You should go to the gynecologist if the blood discharge smells unpleasant (specific fish spirit, sharp, sour, etc.), accompanied by itching, pain, fever or other symptoms of disease.
Diagnosis of causes and treatment
Between menstruation and during pregnancy for any type of colored discharge, including blood secretions, it is necessary to consult a gynecologist. The doctor will carefully listen to the complaints, ask about the shade, smell and consistency of mucus, examine on the gynecological chair. For the diagnosis you will need to donate blood, make smears for microscopic and bacteriological research.
From instrumental methods, the patient may be assigned:
- video colposcopy
- Schiller's test.
Using ultrasound, the doctor will analyze the condition of the pelvic organs. It is performed through the skin of the abdomen or a special nozzle is inserted into the vagina to take pictures from the side of the cervix. Hysteroscopy is required to identify the condition of the endometrium. With the help of all types of colposcopy from all angles, instrumental examination is carried out, pictures of the cervix are taken.
Therapy is planned and emergency. Immediate medical intervention is required if there is a risk of bleeding, the risk of miscarriage, cancer, ectopic pregnancy. Methods and tactics of treatment will be selected depending on the reasons that caused blood or other discharge in color between menstruation. With abundant intermenstrual bleeding, first eliminate it, compensate for lost blood, and then look for the cause.
When confirmed by laboratory testing of hormonal imbalance, conservative treatment is carried out. Preparations, level the level, regulate the functions of the thyroid gland and adrenal glands, prescribe hemostatic drugs, vitamins.
The patient is prepared for planned treatment in home or inpatient conditions, if the cause of discharge does not pose a threat to her life. Polyps are removed - the operation is mandatory, because growths inside the uterus can trigger the appearance of a tumor.
If blood discharge between menstruation occurs systematically after intimacy, there are blotches of pus, it smells unpleasant, it is recommended to undergo a test more quickly. The gynecologist deals with the treatment of pathologies causing such a condition. During therapy and after its termination it is impossible to lift weights, and it is necessary to undergo scheduled inspections at least 2 times a year.