Progesterone is produced in the body of both women and men. He is responsible mainly for the functioning of the reproductive system. In the female body, this hormone is especially important. It determines the ability to conceive, the regularity of the cycle and the general well-being of women.
If pregnancy is planned or there are problems with the menstrual cycle, first of all it is recommended to take a blood test for hormones.
The value and function of the hormone in a woman's body
Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is produced in both female and male bodies.
Progesterone is a sex hormone that is produced in the woman’s ovaries as well as the adrenal glands. At the beginning of the menstrual cycle, the level of progesterone is very low, but by the time of ovulation it increases, which allows a woman to become pregnant.
When the follicle is broken and the egg is released, that is, in the second half of the cycle, the concentration of progesterone in the blood becomes maximum. If the pregnancy has occurred, it continues to grow, if not, the level decreases by the beginning of the next cycle.
The rate of progesterone on the 21st day of the cycle is individual. Many doctors recommend testing hormones for several cycles to determine the rate. The reference values of progesterone are quite high. If a woman tries to get pregnant and cannot, donate blood for hormones several times in different phases of the cycle.
Progesterone in the body of a woman performs the following functions:
- Increases metabolism. The hormone contributes to the maintenance of normal weight and the breakdown of subcutaneous fat, converting it into energy.
- Prepares the uterus for implantation of the embryo. Progesterone is responsible for the growth of the uterus before puberty, the formation of its tissues and the creation of an optimal favorable environment for the implantation of the embryo.
- Reduces the tone of the uterus. During pregnancy, progesterone relaxes the muscles, prevents the uterus from contracting, and prevents miscarriage.
- Normalizes blood clotting. Progesterone controls blood clotting and reduces the risk of blood clots, so before the onset of menopause thrombosis in women are less common than in men.
- It prevents the growth of cysts. It is proved that a sufficient amount of progesterone in the body does not allow cysts to form in the mammary glands and ovaries.
An analysis of progesterone levels is prescribed for women who plan to conceive in the near future or have problems with conception, as well as with the appearance of disturbing symptoms associated with the cycle. It was noted that with a hormonal failure in a woman, the PMS and menstruation are more abundant.
Preparation for the procedure and analysis
The hormone influences the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and fetal development.
The doctor prescribes a blood test for progesterone, usually with other hormone tests. It is recommended to pass it on to women who cannot become pregnant, have a history of miscarriages and miscarriages, have problems with the menstrual cycle.
It is required to donate blood for progesterone several times per cycle. The level of the hormone of each woman is individual, so it is usually evaluated in the dynamics.
When passing the analysis, you must adhere to the following rules:
- Blood is given strictly on certain days of the cycle. If the doctor says to come to the laboratory on the 21st day (with a cycle of 28 days), then you need to correctly calculate the date. If the cycle is irregular, the date of delivery is selected individually.
- Sometimes with uterine bleeding and cycle disorders it is difficult to calculate exactly the 21st day. This should be reported to the doctor. You may need to retake the analysis several times.
- The blood is given, as it should be, on an empty stomach. There must be at least 8 hours between the last meal and the lab visit. In the morning you can drink clean, non-carbonated water. From smoking, chewing gum in the morning is desirable to abstain.
- If a blood test is scheduled for a day, then after a meal should be at least 6 hours. From the diet on the day of delivery, you must eliminate fatty foods, otherwise the serum will become cloudy.
- Be sure to consult with your doctor about taking medications. If a woman takes hormones, oral contraceptives and other medications, this may affect the result.
- If a woman suspects that she is pregnant or has started menopause, this should also be warned to the doctor.
- Before research it is necessary to exclude active sports, stress, do not overheat and take alcohol.
The result is ready within a few days after the tests. To take a test for progesterone should be about a week before the start of menstruation. That is, if a woman’s cycle is 33 days, then you should visit the laboratory not at 21, but at 26 days.
The rate of progesterone and the reasons for its increase
Elevated hormone levels may indicate pregnancy.
Decoding the result may not be as unambiguous as it may seem at first glance. Hormonal fluctuations in the body of a woman occur over a cycle. If in the follicular phase the level is rather low and is only 0.32-2.23 nmol / l, by the time of ovulation the amount of the hormone increases and can reach 9 nmol / l, then in the luteal phase the rate is very blurred. It ranges from 7 to 56 nmol / L.
Any indicator within these values will be the norm, so it is not so easy to determine a reduced or elevated level. In women during menopause and menopause, progesterone levels are consistently low and do not rise above 0.64 nmol / l.
If a woman has a pathologically high level of progesterone, this may indicate the following conditions:
- Cyst of the corpus luteum. This is a type of cyst that occurs in the last phase of the menstrual cycle under the influence of a hormone. It can dissolve itself within 2-3 cycles. Such cysts are almost asymptomatic, but require observation. If the cyst does not disappear itself, it is removed, in rare cases - together with the ovary.
- Pregnancy. During pregnancy, progesterone levels increase, but in the first weeks it rarely exceeds 30 nmol / l. If a pregnant woman has a pathologically high level of progesterone, this may indicate various pathologies.
- Diseases of the adrenal glands. As you know, the adrenal glands in small quantities produce progesterone. If their work is disturbed, they either start to develop it too actively, or vice versa, it is not enough. In the first case, there may be a high level of progesterone.
- Renal failure. Adrenal glands depend on kidney function. The kidneys are the filter of the body. In cases of kidney problems, the whole body suffers.
With increased levels of the hormone uterine bleeding is often observed. In pregnant women, it can be threatened with blistering and improper development of the placenta. At the same time, progesterone drugs are not prescribed until the bleeding is stopped, since they can provoke various side effects.
Causes of low hormone levels
If progesterone levels are lowered after ovulation, this indicates a hormonal failure.
The lack of a hormone in the body of a non-pregnant woman can lead to various unpleasant consequences, such as infertility, painful periods, irritability, and hormonal diseases of the sexual sphere, for example, endometriosis.
If a woman is already pregnant, but does not know about it, and at the initial stages the level of progesterone in her blood does not rise, the body does not respond to pregnancy. In other words, the fertilized egg is rejected in the next menstrual cycle. If a miscarriage occurs early, the woman may not know it.
There are the following reasons for reducing progesterone in the blood:
- Disorders of the corpus luteum. It is the yellow body in the last phase of the cycle that provokes the production of progesterone. If its insufficiency is observed, the level of the hormone decreases, which means fertilization does not occur. This can cause female infertility.
- Hormonal disbalance. Disorders of hormonal background are often observed after prolonged use of OK, abortions, as well as during menopause.
- Inflammatory process. Most of the hormone is produced by the ovaries. If there is inflammation of the urogenital system that affects the ovaries, progesterone levels can decrease significantly.
- Bad habits. Doctors believe that hormonal disruption in a woman’s body can trigger smoking and alcohol abuse. This may also include the wrong way of life.
From the video you can learn about the role of the hormone progesterone during pregnancy:
The lack of progesterone quite significantly affects the condition of the woman. Hair and skin become dry and problematic. The woman has puffiness of the legs, irritability, poor sleep, frequent mood changes, severe pain during menstruation, various skin rashes, acne, etc.
Treatment must be selected by a doctor. Most commonly prescribed drugs like Utrozhestan or Duphaston, normalizing progesterone levels.
Progesterone. What is it?
Before moving on to what values are considered normal on some days of the cycle, you need to know more about the hormone itself.
Progesterone is produced in the female body by the ovaries and adrenal glands. If we are talking about a woman who does not bear a child. If she is pregnant, then the placenta is also actively involved in making it so that the child develops normally.
In the event that progesterone is produced in insufficient quantities, the woman will not be able to become pregnant or she will be threatened with abortion.
That is why at the planning stage, the couple is recommended to pass a series of tests, among which the woman will be tested for progesterone. Moreover, they rent it several times on different days of the menstrual cycle in order to fully see the whole picture.
Progesterone in the female body performs a number of functions:
- It contributes to the creation in the uterus of an atmosphere conducive to conception. The process of fertilization of an egg is so mysterious and complex that in order for this to happen, everything must come together, literally the whole body will work like a clock at that second.
- Provides normal implantation of the ovum, so that no further problems arise, such as ectopic pregnancy, etc.
- Improves the survival of the ovum. In the first days he has a pretty hard time, especially until such time as it reaches the uterus.
- Helps the embryo survive throughout pregnancy.
Progesterone is called the "pregnancy hormone"
Not many women know that the ability to get pregnant will depend on the amount of this hormone in the blood. It often happens that married couples who cannot conceive a child for more than a year spent their time in vain, because progesterone was at the lowest level, which practically reduced the chances to zero.
Of course, progesterone plays an important role not only at the moment when a woman tries to get pregnant.
If we talk about other functions of the hormone, then they include:
- An obstacle to the formation of cysts in the glandular tissue, which further harm the female body
- It helps the fatty tissue to transform into energy, which is very important, since many women lose weight constantly, because of which the body needs more energy, but it does not receive the necessary amount of nutrients. Therefore you have to spend your "stocks"
- Helps to normalize the level of blood viscosity so that it does not clot too quickly, and vice versa
- Helps in the regulation of blood sugar
In addition, some doctors have noticed a clear pattern that women with progesterone deficiency in the blood are tormented by premenstrual syndrome, and their periods are much more painful.
Very often, doctors send a woman several times in the same cycle to take a blood test for the content of progesterone in it. As a rule, this is done at the very beginning, in the middle (during ovulation) and already after, for about 21 days.
A blood test is performed to determine the level of progesterone.
In the luteal phase, just where 21 days belong (if the cycle is 28 days in a woman), the hormone level can vary from 6.99 to 56.63, that is, the gap is quite large. But before paying attention to the result, it is necessary to remember about the individual features and the fact that for some women the cycle is not 28 days, but more.
True, the level of the hormone for women who do not take birth control pills and those women who use them will be different on the same day.
For women taking oral contraceptives, the level of the hormone will be normal:
- In the follicular phase, when follicles are formed and grow - up to 3.6 nmol per liter of blood
- In the ovulation phase - from 1. 52 to 5.45 nmol per liter of blood
- In the luteal phase - from 3 to 66 nmol per liter of blood
In addition, the result will be affected by the fact whether a woman has become pregnant in that menstrual cycle or not.
For women who do not take any contraceptive, the rates will be about the same.
Preparation for the analysis
It is very important to properly prepare for taking blood tests for hormones, otherwise they will be unreliable.
At best, thanks to the experience of the doctor, he can give direction to re-surrender, but in some cases will prescribe treatment, based on the available indicators.
Preparation before passing the analysis includes:
- Specification of the date of the last menstruation, as the appointed day for testing will depend on it
- The absence of any food before the analysis, it is only allowed to drink water
- The last meal before the analysis should be no less than 8 hours, but it is best if this happens in about 12 hours.
- A day before the analysis, it is necessary to exclude any physical activity, stop eating fatty and spicy foods.
- It is simply impossible to talk with your doctor about taking the necessary medications, sometimes to stop taking one or another medication, even before taking hormone tests, as this may adversely affect the general condition
It is also very important to arrive at the analysis on the appointed day. Most often, doctors send on the 19th or 21st day of the cycle so that the results are as reliable as possible.
Hormone in the luteal phase
It is in this phase that the hormone reaches its greatest concentration. It is necessary
The process of fertilization depends on the level of hormones in the body.
because at this stage fertilization can occur and he will need to perform all of the above functions.
As long as the corpus luteum lives, which is formed after the follicle ruptures, the hormone level will be high. But, as soon as the body realizes that fertilization has not occurred, it will gradually decrease.
If fertilization did occur, the progesterone level in the blood will only increase because now he will need to maintain a normal diet and the growth of a “new man”.
Many women noticed that it was in the middle of the cycle that they were particularly attracted to the opposite sex.
This is the way the female organism works, it is aimed at the continuation of the race, therefore it is important to catch this moment, especially if the married couple tries to get pregnant.
After ovulation has passed, the hormone level increases. Gradually, the attraction to the opposite sex disappears, and eventually disappears altogether. And from about 21 to 24 days of the cycle, when the peak falls, it disappears altogether.
As mentioned above, most often doctors send a woman to take an analysis on progesterone on the 21st day of the cycle. The rate in this case will depend on the individual characteristics of the organism. But in the normal state, it cannot be higher than 66 nmol per liter of blood and lower than 3 nmol per liter of blood.
It is very important to monitor the level of hormones in the blood, as they take an active part in the fertilization process, as well as in the first few days of the baby’s life, especially progesterone. After all, no wonder he is called the "pregnancy hormone."
A video expert will talk about progesterone and the menstrual cycle:
General description of the hormone
Progesterone is produced by the female corpus luteum, which is formed in the ovary immediately after the release of an egg from it. It is said that pregnancy is impossible without this substance. That is why it is so often carried out studies of this particular hormone.
Immediately after ovulation, a gradual increase in progesterone production begins. If the pregnancy has occurred, the progesterone rates for the weeks of fetal development increase accordingly. In the case when conception did not take place, the level of the substance decreases, and the woman begins a new cycle.
Norm progesterone on day 21 of the cycle
It is said that almost always the analysis for the study of this hormone is appointed exactly three weeks from the first day of the last menstrual period. Why at this particular time?
Normally, in a woman with a 28-day menstrual cycle, ovulation occurs two weeks from the first day of menstruation. Progesterone is produced immediately after ovulation. Однако своей наивысшей концентрации он достигает только через одну неделю после выхода яйцеклетки, то есть на седьмой день. При помощи элементарного сложения можно получить следующий вывод: две недели до овуляции плюс одна неделя после нее, в результате получается ровно три недели, то есть 21 день.
When pregnancy occurs, the level of this hormone does not decrease after the designated day, but, on the contrary, begins to rise. So, what is the rate of progesterone on the 21st day of the cycle and in the event of pregnancy?
Progesterone in healthy women:
- before ovulation - from 0.32 to 2.23 nmol / l,
- during ovulation - from 0.48 to 9.41 nmol / l,
- after ovulation - from 6.99 to 56.53 nmol / l.
In pregnant women:
- in the first trimester - from 8.90 to 468.40 nmol / l,
- in the second trimester - from 71.55 to 303.10 nmol / l,
- in the third trimester - from 88.70 to 771.50 nmol / l.
When taking oral contraceptives and in the anovulatory cycle, the rate of progesterone on the 21st day of the cycle is much lower.
Progesterone is higher than normal in the following cases:
- with the progression of pregnancy
- during menstrual irregularities and uterine bleeding,
- with a large cyst of the yellow body,
- during the disruption of the kidneys and possibly the adrenal glands.
If during childbirth, the hormone level is greatly elevated, it may indicate that the placenta is not functioning properly.
Progesterone is below normal, unfortunately, it is very common. His low score suggests:
- violations of the female cycle and frequent bleeding,
- frequent anovulatory cycles
- inflammatory processes in the pelvis.
In pregnancy, a decrease in the level of the hormone may indicate a threatened miscarriage or an abnormal development of the embryo.
In the event that you have passed progesterone on day 21, the rate is not detected, and significant deviations are found, it is necessary to make an appropriate correction. Since there is no specific medicine for treatment, the doctor prescribes the use of additional progesterone in the second phase of the cycle for women who are planning a pregnancy. If the lady is not going to acquire offspring in the near future, then she will most likely be offered oral contraceptives that normalize the ovaries and restore normal hormone production.
When to take an analysis?
Usually this study is assigned to women when they go to the doctor with certain complaints. It can also be carried out by self-contacting a private laboratory.
In the case of a prolonged absence of pregnancy, subject to regular sex life, this analysis is prescribed. In this case, the individual rate of progesterone is examined on the 21st day of the cycle. This analysis should be carried out for several months, only in this case it will be possible to say about the presence or absence of pathology.
Also, the study is assigned to women with irregular monthly, frequent bleeding and scanty discharge. In this case, it is recommended to conduct the analysis after a certain number of days. Only in this way the doctor will be able to track how the level of the hormone changes, and make its verdict.
An analysis to determine the amount of progesterone may be prescribed to pregnant women. Usually, frequent pains in the lower segment of the abdomen, unusual discharge from the genital tract and the suspicion of a non-developing pregnancy are the reason for it. In this case, there is no fundamental difference when and at what time to take a blood test for progesterone (hormone). The rate in women may increase daily in the first trimester of pregnancy. It is worth noting that in the second and third trimesters such an analysis can be assigned to determine the state of the placenta.
Since in most cases, the doctor prescribes a standard day for the study, an unreliable result may be obtained. As already mentioned, a week after ovulation, progesterone (hormone) peaks. The norm in women with a shortened or long cycle may not fit into these standards.
For example, a woman has a regular cycle of 32 days. This is a variant of the norm and does not require treatment. Having made the calculations, we can establish that the lady's ovulation occurs approximately on the 18th day of the cycle. Taking into account that the analysis is scheduled for 21 days, from the moment of ovulation only 3 days will pass by this time. In this case, as a result, the woman will receive a significantly underestimated level of the studied hormone. That is why the doctor should take into account the duration of the female cycle before prescribing the analysis.
How to take an analysis?
Before conducting a study, it is not recommended to be nervous and subject your body to stress. Also for several days it is necessary to abandon the use of hormonal drugs. On the night before the analysis you should sleep well and be rested.
It is not recommended to eat or drink caffeinated beverages before taking the material. For a few hours you must refrain from smoking.
A blood test is taken mainly from a vein. Manipulation is carried out fairly quickly and almost painlessly. You can get the result in a few hours in a private clinic. Or a few days in a public medical facility.
After obtaining the result, you can independently examine the norms and verify with your data. If there are any deviations from the norm, it is necessary to consult a doctor to prescribe a qualified treatment.
If you receive incorrect data, you can retake the analysis again in the next cycle. Sometimes there are errors in the study. Especially with strong deviations from the norm and, if necessary, the treatment is carried out, specialists strongly recommend a re-examination.
Watch your hormone levels and stay healthy!
What is progesterone and where is it produced?
Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is synthesized in the female body mainly by the ovaries and placenta, as well as in a small amount by the cortical layer of the adrenal glands.
In non-pregnant women, progesterone is responsible for the health of the reproductive function, namely, for the regular onset of the ovulatory period and menstruation. In pregnant women, progesterone allows you to carry the child.
What is the menstrual cycle?
To better understand how progesterone is produced and when it is better to determine it in the blood, we suggest that you first understand what the menstrual cycle is.
The menstrual cycle is a sign of puberty in women, which suggests that a woman can perform a reproductive function.
Normal is the duration of the menstrual cycle from 25 to 33 days. This period can be divided into four phases, namely:
menstrual (from 1 to 5-7 days of the cycle), when the decidual endometrial layer is rejected,
- follicular (from 6-8 to 12-14 days of the cycle), which is characterized by the maturation of the dominant follicle in the ovary,
- ovulatory (13-15 day cycle), during which the dominant follicle is torn and the egg is released into the abdominal cavity,
- luteal, which begins on the day of ovulation and lasts until the next menstruation. In this phase, the decidual layer of the endometrium prepares for falling away and going out with menstrual blood.
What is the role of progesterone in the female body?
Progesterone in women performs many tasks among which are the following:
- preparation of the reproductive organs of a woman for pregnancy,
- ensuring the normal course of pregnancy and childbirth,
- ensuring a well-established implantation of an egg fertilized by a sperm cell into the endometrium of the uterus.
- stopping rejection of the decidual layer of the uterus, thereby preventing the appearance of menstruation,
- adaptation of the nervous system during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding,
- maintaining a relaxed state of the uterus when carrying a child in order to prevent miscarriage or premature birth,
- increase sebum secretion,
- turning lipids into energy
- participation in the development of the glandular apparatus of the breast,
- preparation of the breast for lactation,
- reducing the risk of fibrous cysts in the mammary glands,
- participation in maintaining normal blood glucose levels,
- regulates blood sugar levels
- increased blood pressure
- providing libido,
- ensuring the formation of maternal instinct, etc.
Progesterone: the norm in women
The test result in the results of the blood test is reflected in the form of grams per milliliter (ng / ml) or nanohm per liter (nmol / l). To convert ng / ml to nmol / l, you need to multiply this number by 3.18.
As we have already mentioned, progesterone standards in women are directly dependent on the age and day of the menstrual cycle, and during pregnancy - on the period. Also, the amount of progesterone in the blood is affected by the use of oral contraceptives, so this must be taken into account when deciphering the results.
Norms progesterone table by day
If any abnormalities indicate a failure of the second phase, the doctor prescribes a blood test from 21 to 28 days, depending on the duration of the cycle, seven days before the expected monthly.
The table indicates what should be the level of progesterone by day:
Not every time the indicators are reliable, and as a result of the analysis their deviations in any direction can be observed. The reason may be:
- Long-term use of contraceptives. Hormonal pills contribute to the suppression of FSH and LH, as a result - its own progesterone ceases to be produced,
- Strong stress situations prevent the development of pregnancy hormone, protecting the body at an unfavorable moment from fertilization,
- Nutrition is involved in the process of conception due to cholesterol, which enters the woman’s body with food,
- During menopause (menopause), along with the level of estrogen, progesterone levels also decrease.
What is the cause of increasing progesterone?
Elevated values of progesterone in the second phase of the cycle do not always indicate the occurrence of pregnancy. They can provoke:
- The presence of cysts yellow body. This type of tumor occurs under the action of a hormone in the last phase of the cycle. As a rule, it is asymptomatic, and resolves itself within 2-3 cycles. If the cyst is not canceled independently, it is removed surgically, sometimes with the ovary,
- Adrenal gland diseases. By themselves, the adrenal glands produce this hormone in small quantities. Any changes in their work, lead to violations, due to which the organs begin to produce progesterone in insufficient or excessive amounts,
- Renal failure. Its presence can directly trigger an increase in hormone levels, since the kidneys are the body’s filter,
- Pregnancy. In early pregnancy, progesterone levels rarely exceed 30 nmol / L. Its too high values can cause various pathologies.
With increased progesterone, uterine bleeding often occurs.
If the woman is pregnant, it can serve as a pathological development of the placenta. To eliminate the problem, treatment is prescribed until the problem completely disappears and the bleeding stops. Since this can provoke not only complications and side effects, but also become an obstacle to further carrying.
Causes of Progesterone Reduction
If progesterone decreases after ovulation, it signals a hormonal failure. An insufficient amount of this hormone in a woman’s body is often the result of undesirable consequences: infertility and hormonal disorders. And also becomes a consequence of painful menstruation and irritability.
Low progesterone in women can be observed in such cases:
- Impaired functioning of the corpus luteum. After all, it stimulates the production of progesterone in the second phase of the cycle. With its insufficiency, the level of the hormone itself decreases and, accordingly, fertilization does not occur. An untimely problem becomes the cause of infertility,
- Inflammatory process. A certain part of the hormone is produced by the ovaries. With inflammation of the female urogenital system, a significant blow is incurred on them, which leads to a decrease in the substance
- Galactorrhea is another reason. It is associated with the absence of menstruation and is a consequence of increased prolactin. This condition is associated with possible pituitary tumors or injuries,
- Bad habits, according to doctors, provoke hormonal disruption in the body of a woman. These include not only alcohol and smoking, but also the absence of a regimen,
- The risk of miscarriage is associated with the inability of the placenta to perform specified functions. This directly affects the amount of this hormone in the blood. You can confirm the diagnosis on ultrasound, as well as cardiotocography.
If the pregnancy has nevertheless occurred, and on the 21st day the level of progesterone does not increase, rejection of the ovum occurs with preparation for the next menstrual cycle.
A spontaneous miscarriage often happens at the shortest possible time, and a woman may not even be aware of an interrupted pregnancy and existing problems.
When do I need to take an analysis?
If you want to determine the level of progesterone, you can contact the lab in private. If there are corresponding complaints, the doctor will prescribe an additional examination.
Often the reason is the absence of pregnancy for more than a year, with regular sex life. To do this, for several months, on the 21st day of the cycle, it is proposed to examine individual indicators in order to identify or disprove the existing pathology.
Irregular monthly, as well as scanty discharge - one more reason to pay attention to hormones, and to track the change in their level. Only analysis on a specific day of the cycle will help the doctor to make the correct diagnosis.
Pregnant women a similar analysis is also very often prescribed. Usually the reason is the presence of regular pain in the lower abdomen, specific vaginal discharge and the gynecologist's suspicion of missed abortion. In this case, unprincipled blood is donated on a certain day. In the 2 and 3 trimesters, a similar appointment is recommended for diagnosing the state of the placenta.
Normal Progesterone Level
There is no single indicator for the content of progesterone in the body, since its amount is dynamic and depends on such features:
- phases of the menstruation cycle
- taking hormones or oral contraceptives,
- state of the girl (pregnancy)
- age changes - a climax.
Progesterone in different phases of the cycle
Before taking the analysis, the woman must determine the day of the menstrual cycle. This is easy to do if it is regular and has a length of 28-30 days. If the girl has irregular periods, then most likely the doctor will prescribe a follicular or pelvic ultrasound to clarify the period of the cycle. Such measures are necessary because with the approach of the luteal phase an increase in the progesterone rate in the blood is noted.
The lowest amount of progesterone is observed during the follicular phase - before ovulation. During this period, only the adrenal glands are involved in the development of the hormone, because the yellow body that forms after the follicle has matured and ruptured has not yet appeared. When taking the assay during the follicular phase, the progesterone content will be from 1 to 4.84 nmol / ml.
After the follicle matures under the action of FSH, an ovulatory period begins, during which the follicular sac ruptures, and an egg cell is released from it. The residual tissues of the follicle turn into the corpus luteum, which will further synthesize progesterone for several weeks, then it degrades.
During the ovulatory phase, the amount of progesterone in the blood begins to increase rapidly, and its value in the analyzes will vary from 2.4 to 9.54 nmol / ml.
If the menstrual cycle is 28 days or its duration is 29 days, on the 22nd day the luteal phase occurs - the period of the highest level of progesterone. At this particular time, the corpus luteum vigorously produces a hormone. At 21-22 days of the cycle in the analysis of blood, the indicator ranges from 6,99-56,63 nmol / ml. Such a concentration spread is due to the fact that not one, but several follicles can mature in the ovulation period.
When during the luteal phase the level of the above-mentioned hormone sharply increases within 3-4 days, and then quickly begins to fall, we can speak of accelerated destruction of the corpus luteum. If during this period a high level of progesterone lasts too long, then this may be the main symptom of a cyst in the ovaries.
Progesterone during pregnancy
During pregnancy, progesterone stays high, because this hormone inhibits estrogen synthesis and endometrial rejection. With the advent of the placenta at the end of the first trimester, its production increases even more.
It is advisable to collect analyzes from a pregnant woman every first week of a new trimester - this way you can correctly track the dynamics of the desired active substance. During the first three months, the hormone content will be in the range of 8.95-108.13 nmol / l. The second analysis in the next trimester may show 71.55-303.1 nmol / l progesterone, in the last weeks of pregnancy, this figure will be in the range of 89-771.5 nmol / l.
Progesterone is one of the most important factors that must be controlled in future mothers.
Отклонение в сторону уменьшения его количества сигнализирует о плохом развитии плаценты, помимо этого, недостаток гормона может спровоцировать отделение эндометрия и кровотечение. Если же у беременной женщины анализы показывают его избыток, это является следствием ускоренной деградации плаценты, которая может спровоцировать преждевременные роды.
Прием противозачаточных препаратов
Any hormonal and oral contraceptives will regulate the endocrine system, stimulating the production of some hormones, and suppressing the synthesis of others. The daily dose of contraceptives constantly maintains this effect, which is why they must be taken strictly daily, skipping a single pill can significantly reduce contraceptive properties.
There are different types of oral contraceptives: progesterone containing - antiestrogens, estrogen, combined and others. They are selected by the doctor depending on what blood tests the woman will have initially. With the correct dosage or regular use of tablets in the period of application of OK, the level of progesterone will be in the range from 3 to 66.85 nmol / l. Deviation from this norm may signal that the dosage or drug is selected incorrectly.
During postmenopause, the woman stops the menstrual cycle, the maturation and release of the eggs, so the yellow body after menopause does not appear. But at the same time, progesterone does not disappear from the blood of a woman, it continues to be synthesized in small doses in the adrenal cortex. The hormone content in the analysis of postmenopausal women will be up to 0.6 nmol / l.
What affects progesterone
The level of progesterone may go beyond the norm, since its synthesis by the endocrine system is influenced by many factors:
- nutrition and weight loss.
The first thing a woman should do if her level of this hormone began to rise sharply - a pregnancy test.
The effect of menopause on progesterone levels is easy to explain. With age, the menstrual cycle stops, so progesterone is no longer synthesized by the corpus luteum, a small amount of it is allocated only by the adrenal glands.
With nervous tension, the functioning of the reproductive system is disturbed, as in stressful conditions it is not the best period for pregnancy, according to the philosophy of the organism. This is associated with a decrease in the concentration of this hormone.
In addition, the value and nutrition of a woman, as well as her body weight. With considerable weight or lack of it, the periodicity of the menstrual cycle is disturbed, and the level of progesterone changes.
FSH, which is synthesized by the pituitary cells, also has an indirect effect on the level of this hormone. This active substance stimulates the growth and development of follicular tissue, therefore, when it is deficient in women, the regularity of ovulation is disrupted, and the content of progesterone in the blood decreases, because without the maturation of the follicles, the corpus luteum is not formed.
For future moms, progesterone jumps are much more dangerous, they can be triggered by such reasons:
- stress, poor nutrition,
- strong toxicosis,
- violation of the formation of the placenta,
- rapid degradation of the placenta.
Throughout the menstrual cycle, the rate of progesterone varies, it also depends on the age, position of the woman and whether she takes any hormonal preparations. Before taking the tests, it is necessary to determine the phases, and better the exact day of the menstruation cycle, and in case of pregnancy, it is necessary to know the gestational week.
Ovulation process and hormone production
The woman's blood progesterone levels fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. In the first days (follicular phase) its level is very low - no more than 0.31 nmol. This level of hormone is provided by the adrenal glands.
The corpus luteum, which directly produces progesterone, is formed after the maturation of the egg and its release from the follicle. The remaining sheath of the follicle is called the corpus luteum. Thus, progesterone begins to be produced on the 12-17th day of the cycle. This time is called ovulation, which lasts only 24 hours. If the egg is not fertilized, it dies.
After ovulation, the luteal phase occurs, progesterone at this time produces up to 56 ng / ml - this is its maximum level, then if fertilization did not occur, then it decreases.
If conception has occurred, the production of the hormone continues and rapidly increases - several hundred times.
This scheme operates during the natural fertilization, if the ECHO method is used, then the woman does not develop a yellow body, respectively, there is no necessary level of hormones. In this case, hormone therapy is prescribed, until the progesterone rate is reached and further, throughout the pregnancy.
Progesterone Norm by Cycle Days
In women, the rate of progesterone is determined depending on the day of the menstrual cycle. Each phase has its own value. Progesterone in the luteal phase reaches its maximum value - this indicates the beginning of ovulation and the preparation of the uterus for implantation of the egg. If during this period the level of the hormone is low, and fertilization has occurred, then a spontaneous miscarriage will occur. That is why women planning pregnancy should control the amount of progesterone in the second phase of the menstrual cycle.
A blood test is scheduled for day 22, but for a more detailed picture, doctors recommend taking it several times in a row to track the dynamics. What is the normal level of progesterone? It should be noted that in women who take hormonal contraceptives, the indicators will differ significantly. The table presents the standard indicators for each stage of the cycle:
If a woman has postmenopause, then her hormone level should be from 0.32 to 2.51 nmol / l.
If conception has occurred, the hormone grows rapidly, and the pregnant woman will have the following indicators:
Two days before birth, the hormone level drops sharply - to 2.3 nmol / l. This is necessary so that the uterus can contract and, thus, stimulate labor. However, the amount of progesterone remains high - it is involved in stimulating milk production.
What are the effects of reduced and elevated progesterone levels in women?
Lack of hormone levels primarily affects the female reproductive system.
If the rate of progesterone in the luteal phase is reduced, then the fertilized egg can not attach to the walls of the uterus, dies and goes out naturally with the endometrium - this is the menstruation.
If the amount of the hormone is reduced in the first trimester of pregnancy, a miscarriage occurs because the uterus is intensively reduced, and the endometrium is insufficiently prepared to hold the amniotic egg. But if the problem is only in progesterone, then it is solved by special preparations, which are appointed by the gynecologist.
The level of the hormone decreases due to the following problems in the body:
- chronic stage of ovarian inflammation,
- lack of ovulation
- irregular monthly cycle
- dysfunction of the corpus luteum,
- adrenal gland diseases.
If the amount of progesterone decreases, it affects the level of estrogen - it increases and as a result, the woman has:
- sleep disturbance,
- weight gain
The norm of estrogen should be in the range from 11 to 191 pg / ml. In women during menopause, from 5 to 90 pg / ml.
Increased progesterone levels in the body can be caused by the following reasons:
- uterine bleeding,
- placental abnormalities,
- due to the formation of a cyst in the corpus luteum,
- adrenal pathology.
The effect of woman's age on progesterone levels
With age, hormones in women completely change - the production of certain hormones, including progesterone, decreases, while others increase. With the onset of menopause, the ratio of estrogen and progesterone changes. Estrogen stimulates the activity of various body systems, and progesterone inhibits it. If an imbalance occurs, so-called hot flashes are observed in women. In this state is characterized by:
- increased excitability
- frequent mood swings,
- malfunction of sweat glands,
- breast pain,
- weight gain.
The production of hormones in the period of menopause due to the attenuation of ovarian function decreases. Fewer eggs are ripening, ovulation is absent, and progesterone is not produced. But this does not mean that its blood level drops to zero - the necessary amount is produced by the adrenal glands, if their function is not impaired.
How to pass a progesterone test
To determine the level of progesterone need to pass a blood test. But before delivery it is necessary to consult a gynecologist - he will tell you how to choose the right day. Many people prescribe an analysis on the 20th day of the cycle, but this is not quite true, because you need to consider the following points:
- the onset of the ovulation phase. If the menstrual cycle is normal, then it begins on the 15th day, counting from the first day of the beginning of the menstrual period, and with a non-constant cycle, it is necessary to measure the basal temperature. Every day the temperature is fixed in the rectum, and when a sharp decline is noted, and the next day, an increase, this indicates the onset of ovulation,
- you can take an analysis 4 days after ovulation,
- it is better to fix the dynamics of changes in indicators - to take several days in a row, from 15 to 23. Only this way it is possible to fix the phase increase in the production of the hormone and compare the results with the regulatory,
- to take in the morning, on an empty stomach, and it is better not to eat at all for 12 hours before the estimated time of blood collection.
It must be remembered that if during the period of testing there is a malaise and treatment is carried out with various drugs, the results may be unreliable. In this case, they should be retaken in a month or after the end of treatment.
How to decipher the results of the analysis
The level of progesterone hormone is measured in nanograms (0.000001 milligrams) in one milliliter of blood. According to another system in nmol - nanomoles (10 -9 mol) per liter. Normative indicators are most often given exactly in nmol / l. Therefore, the question often arises about how to convert ng / ml to nmol / l. It is not difficult at all, you just need to use the formula:
1 ng / ml * 3.18 = 1 nmol / l.
For example, in a patient, the result of the analysis showed a blood hormone level of 22.4 ng / ml. Substituting the result in the formula, you can get:
22.4 ng / ml * 3.18 = 71.23 nmol / l.
Given that blood is taken during the luteal phase, and the rate of progesterone on day 21 of the cycle is 16.2–85.9, this result may indicate normal function of the corpus luteum and ovaries - there are no deviations.
Norms of progesterone in the menstrual cycle
Follicular phase - 1-1.5 ng / ml - 3.2-4.8 nmol / l
Luteal phase - 2-28 ng / ml - 6.4-89 nmol / l
1.5 ng / ml (4.8 nmol / l) - High level
Yellow body phase
10 ng / ml (32 nmol / l) - Normal level
1 trimester of pregnancy
25 ng / ml (80 nmol / l) - Normal level, viable uterine pregnancy (98%)
2 trimester of pregnancy
40 ng / ml (125 nmol / l) - Normal level
3 trimester of pregnancy
80 ng / ml (255 nmol / l) - Normal level
Girls tell me progesterone on day 22 of a cycle of 7.65 ng / ml or 24nmol / ml is it a pregnancy?
Good day. Handed over progesterone for 23 ds, 8 dpo. Result 8.6. According to your table out abnormal pregnancy. Tell me how?
Alexandra, this is for pregnant information. You need to evaluate your results according to the norms of the luteal phase. 8dpo - too early for pregnancy.
Tell me progesterone on the 20th day of the cycle 14.08 ng / ml normal? I have a cycle of 26-28
Good evening. Tell me that I passed the progesterone test for a result of 33.0 nmol / L. FF 0.3-2.2 of 0.5-9.4 lf 7.0-56.65 passed on day 15 after menstruation. Is this a bad result? Plan B
Help, please, I tested for progesterone on the 20th day of the cycle, the cycle is 24-26 days, the progesterone level is 6.5ng / ml, can I get pregnant? Really want to
Can you please tell me that progesterone is on day 6 after ovulation, 22dts out of 30 dz is the result of 29.80ng / ml at laboratory rates of 5.16-18.56-lutein phase, today there is a 12 dp test negative
Hello. Has donated blood on the 24th day of the cycle, the result is 16.6nmol / l, what does this mean? I pass inspection for conception baby.
Hello, I beg you very much. Please do not ignore. I need an answer. Today is the 28th day of the cycle, the whole cycle lasts 31 days. Hgch analysis 3.6 and progesterone 26.7 There is still no delay, can you say 26.6 for my phase this is a lot? Pregnancy is possible.
Hello. If the analysis for polgesterone on day 23 of cycle 26.
20 nmol, is it a pregnancy or something?
Your answer is very necessary.
progesterone passed on the 20th day of the menstrual cycle the result of 22.1 tell me the rate or not
Has handed over progesterone on 23 d.ts. With an average cycle of 28 days. the indicator is 29.4 nmol / L, it seems to be within the norm, and the site calculator shows that it is low (you need to start taking dufaston with this result and according to what scheme, to be able to get pregnant. Thank you)
My result of progesterone on the 22th day of the cycle at the 28th day is 44.22. But in the laboratory he was stressed. What does this mean?
handed over for the 16th day, rez-t = 16,6 ng / ml. Tell me, is this the norm? (prolactin)
Good afternoon, I have 21dts. the result is 33.3 nmol / l, what are the chances that this is a pregnancy? Thanks.
Tell me please, I was preparing for CRYO transfer, my progesterone was always normal (at 3 dz it was about 3). The last two months saw birth control pills (after hysteroscopy) - “Lindinet 30” and went to physical therapy (magnets). In this cycle on day 3, the result was 11.53. This has never happened before! Even before, ovulation just a few months ago, the result was 3.1. What does it mean? With what it can be connected? Ultrasound is also good.
Passed progesterone on day 22, a cycle of 25 days and a result of 26, 70. What does this mean? I plan the first pregnancy.
Results may be in different units. It all depends on the norms of your laboratory.
Handed out progesterone on day 7 after menstruation, the result is 0.26. I can not understand this is the norm or not. I am planning a third pregnancy and nothing at all.
Why take progesterone after menstruation? It is checked after ovulation.
Good day . The result came progesterone 0.2 ng.ml on the 20th day of the cycle. Can I get pregnant?
And did you have ovulation? Judging by the result, you did not have ovulation at the time of the analysis. The analysis should be taken after ovulation, tracking it on tests for ovulation or ultrasound (and in extreme cases, although the graphs of BT). And it is also important to remember that during long cycles ovulation occurs later and the analysis should be passed later.
On the 21st day of the cycle I passed progesterone. Result 91. What does this mean?
The sex hormone is produced by the ovaries, a small amount of the regulator is produced by the adrenal glands. Steroid hormone has low rates at the beginning of the cycle, the values increase by the ovulation period. After the release of a healthy egg, progesterone levels reach peak concentrations. With successful conception, the indicators gradually increase up to the period of childbirth, if there is no pregnancy, the level of the sex hormone drops again.
After menopause, the ovaries function less actively, the ovarian reserve is reduced, ovulation does not occur, the development of an important regulator stops with time. Against the background of progesterone deficiency, the activity of estrogens increases, which provokes the development of menopausal syndrome with characteristic signs. Women complain of hot flashes, increased sweating, obesity, nervousness, depression, mood swings, pain and swelling in the mammary glands. Even during menopause, the concentration of steroid hormone does not reach zero: a small amount of progesterone produces the adrenal cortex.
Significant deviations of progesterone levels lead to menstrual disorders, a sharp change in mood throughout the day, increased sweating, and weight gain. When the symptoms of hormonal failure, especially when a combination of several symptoms, a woman should visit an endocrinologist and a gynecologist. It is important to know: Persistent sex hormone deficiency often causes secondary infertility.
What and how to treat an ovarian cyst without surgery? See a selection of conservative treatment options.
What hormone does the adrenal gland produce and what are the functions of the paired endocrine gland? Read the answer to this address.
Without sufficient concentration of an important regulator, it is impossible to conceive and bear a child. It is not by chance that progesterone is often called the “most female hormone.”
After successful fertilization, it is important to ensure the implantation of the embryo, to prevent the contraction of the walls of the uterus, so that the new organism can easily develop. It is progesterone that relaxes the muscles, activates blood circulation, supports the correct functioning of the corpus luteum. The temporary endocrine gland provides food and oxygen to the embryo until the placenta is fully formed. A deficiency of progesterone at any stage of pregnancy (especially in the first trimester, while the fetus is only fixed) can provoke uterine hypertonus, involuntary muscle contractions and spontaneous abortion.
The hormone progesterone performs other important functions:
- together with estradiol regulates the menstrual cycle,
- reduces blood clotting,
- stimulates the growth and formation of the optimal structure of the mammary glands during pregnancy, prepares the breast for lactation,
- after conception prevents the onset of the next monthly bleeding,
- affects maternal instinct production,
- prevents the formation of cysts in the ovaries,
- affects the endometrial tissue to secure and optimal development of the embryo,
- participates in lipid metabolism,
- нормализует показатели сахара в крови.
Норма у женщин
Значения важного полового гормона отличаются в разные фазы цикла. Unlike many regulators, progesterone reaches a peak concentration in the second phase of the cycle, a week before the next menstruation. It is not by chance that physicians prescribe an analysis for progesterone for 21 days, if the standard cycle duration is 28 days.
The optimal hormone level in non-pregnant women:
- from 1 to 15 days - from 0.97 to 4.73 nmol / l,
- from 17 to 22 days - from 2.39 to 9.55 nmol / l,
- from 22 to 28 days - from 16.2 to 85.9 nmol / l.
During menopause, the values are lower: 0.32–2.51 nmol / l.
In the period of gestation, the optimal values are higher (measurement in nmol / l):
- 1 trimester - from 14.9 to 107.9,
- 2 trimester - from 61.7 to 159.0,
- 3 trimester - from 17.1 to 509.1,
- 2 days before giving birth - a decrease in values to 2.3 nmol / l (to stimulate contractions of the uterus).
Norm on day 21 of the cycle
It is during this period that a woman should take an analysis to clarify the values of an important sex hormone. With a regular cycle during this period, the level of progesterone is maximum. If the values are not lower than 2.30 nmol / l and not higher than 9.55 nmol / l, then there is no reason for concern: progesterone is normal. If a woman takes oral contraceptives, the permissible level of sex hormone will be different - from 1.52, but not higher than 5.45 nmol / l.
What day to take progesterone? When irregular onset of monthly bleeding should be counted a week before the estimated arrival of the next menstruation. With a 34-day cycle, blood is taken for analysis for hormones on day 27. If the period between menstruation is shorter, for example, 26 days, then a visit to the laboratory to clarify the values of progesterone is needed on day 19.
In each case, the gynecologist takes into account the duration of three to four consecutive cycles. So you can choose the best day for the analysis of progesterone, to clarify the concentration of the hormone in the dynamics.
Preparation for analysis
- on the recommendation of the doctor to cancel the use of hormonal drugs for 10-30 days before the study. For a particular patient, the period between the end of taking OK and blood sampling is determined by the gynecologist, taking into account the nature of the deviations and the type of drug,
- before testing for progesterone, it is important not to drink alcohol for two days before taking blood. In the same period you should not train in the gym, it’s hard to work, it’s undesirable to be nervous, to have intimate contacts,
- smoking is prohibited for five to six hours prior to analysis,
- food intake - 8–9 hours before the hormone test,
- in the morning you can not drink water and pills (antihypertensives, diuretics, heart drugs) to prevent distortion of the results. Vital medications can be drunk shortly after a visit to the lab,
- On the day of testing, you need to come to the clinic 15–20 minutes earlier, to rest, to visit the laboratory in a calm state.
Causes and symptoms of hormonal failure
There are internal and external factors that affect the production of sex hormones. If a negative impact lasts a long time, then a sharp decrease or increase in indicators affects the state of health, fertility, appearance, psychoemotional state, blood viscosity. It is important to know the negative factors and signs of hormonal failure for the timely correction of indicators.
Low hormone levels
Causes of low progesterone:
- adrenal pathology,
- lack of ovulation
- inflammation of the ovaries (chronic form)
- improper functioning of the temporary gland (yellow body of the ovary).
Symptoms of low progesterone:
- weight gain
- swelling of the face and lower limbs,
- excessive sweating,
- periodically convulsions occur.
- cystic formation in the corpus luteum,
- violation of the formation of the placenta,
- abnormal uterine bleeding.
What day to take estradiol and what are the reasons for the increased hormone levels? We have the answer!
For information on how to reduce prolactin in men with the help of medicines and folk remedies, read at this address.
On the page http://vse-o-gormonah.com/zabolevaniya/diabet/preddiabeticheskoe-sostoyanie.html learn how the pre-diabetic condition manifests and how to prevent the development of severe endocrine disease.
Signs of increased progesterone in women:
- swelling in the legs,
- feeling of squeezing in the chest,
- panic attacks,
- reduced concentration
- excessive fatigue
- anxiety and nervousness for no particular reason
- development of depressive states.
What to do if progesterone levels are violated
The main thing: do not self-medicate. With fluctuations in sex hormone indices, an endocrinologist and a gynecologist are needed. Depending on the level of deficiency or excess of an important regulator, doctors offer a set of measures to stabilize the hormonal background.
- normalize the duration of a night's sleep to 7–8 hours: overwork will have a negative effect on the reproductive system, the central nervous system. When lack of sleep decreases the concentration of the hormone melatonin, responsible for circadian rhythms and healthy sleep,
- reduce the strength and frequency of nerve overloads: constant stress is one of the main causes of hormonal disruptions,
- revise the diet, eat healthy food, monitor the receipt of the optimal amount of protein, vitamins, fats, trace elements. It is important to get slow carbohydrates (to limit or exclude the useless “fast” form),
- how to increase progesterone? It is recommended to drink a course of hormonal drugs at low rates. A good therapeutic effect is given by the names: Utrozhestan, Duphaston, Prozhestogel gel,
- daily use a teaspoon of ground flaxseed or oil: a useful product contains a high concentration of substances that activate the production of progesterone,
- give up bad habits. Overeating, addiction to alcohol and smoking, excessive consumption (more than 4–5 cups per day) of strong coffee, unwillingness to engage in physical culture make it difficult to maintain high level of health,
- Every day, drink 150 ml of tea made from mint leaves and lemon balm, successive herbs (herbal ingredients show a sedative effect). In case of pronounced anxiety, panic attacks, synthetic and herbal preparations are prescribed: Percen, Novopassit, Barboval, valerian tincture and motherwort. A good effect is given by the modern drug Bifren: it not only stabilizes the functions of the central nervous system, eliminates panic, irritability, but also stimulates mental activity, improves memory, has a positive effect on the heart and blood vessels,
- move more, practice yoga, fitness, pilates, swimming, race walking. It is important to choose non-injurious sports to reduce the risk of strikes to the chest and abdomen, to prevent excessive stress on the joints and blood vessels. Hypodynamy + slow metabolism = obesity + hormonal failure - you should always keep this nuance in mind.
What affects progesterone in the second phase of the cycle and what is the rate of hormone indicators? The answer will give an expert in the following video:
What is he responsible for?
Obstetricians and gynecologists call progesterone "the main hormone of pregnancy", but it is naive to assume that its functions are limited to this.
is he secreted by the adrenal glands, ovaries and corpus luteum, which is formed immediately after the rupture of the follicle.
Normal progesterone concentration necessary to stimulate and activate certain biological processes:
- Break Graaf bubble (follicle) and the onset of ovulation.
- Formation and subsequent resizing of the corpus luteum.
- Strengthening the endometrium, which is necessary to prepare the body for pregnancy.
- Protection of the cervix by secreting viscous mucus in the cervical canal.
- Enlarged uterus by inhibiting its contractile function.
- Suppression of menstruation / lactation during gestation
- Transformation of the mammary gland, alveoli for the subsequent period of lactation, as evidenced by a sharp decrease in progesterone after childbirth.
- Inhibition of the mother's immune reactions for the implantation of the fetus without rejection.
- Feeding the embryo up to 2 trimester of pregnancy (placenta formation).
- Stabilization of the nervous system in the period of carrying a child.
Turns out that without normal concentration is impossible neither fertilization nor the further development of the embryo. Its role in the body is invaluable and has not yet been fully studied, as scientists put forward new hypotheses about its influence on the body and even everyday behavior.
Dependence on the cycle
Concentration is never stable or the same. The numbers depend on many factors:
- day of the menstrual cycle
- hormonal contraceptive use.
In addition to the above nuances there are others that indirectly affect on the fact of increasing / decreasing the hormone. This is a stress, exhausting diet, gynecological diseases, intense physical exertion, medication. The first depends on the phase and day of the menstrual period.
First phase (follicular)
It is characterized by the active development of follicles, among which a dominant, containing a mature egg cell should be formed. The duration of folliculogenesis ranges from 11 to 17 days depending on the total period of the menstrual cycle.
Progesterone in phase 1 is fixed in the range from 0.92 to 4.7 nmol / l. It should be borne in mind that these are only average values, since each laboratory has its own reference standards.
The hormone during this period should not increase or fluctuate strongly, because its biological time is ovulation and some period after it. In the same time wrong to assumethat progesterone in phase 1 of the cycle is in a state of complete rest.
During active folliculogenesis, he gradually prepares the endometrium for implantation of the ovum and indirectly contributes to the process of maturation of the “graaf bubble”.
Second phase (luteal)
The second phase of the cycle begins after the break of the “graaf bubble” and is called luteal. One day before ovulation in a woman fixed sharp rise progesterone, which is a normal state because the dominant follicle should burst and form a yellow body.
Without enough hormone, this process takes place with pathologies or is completely absent. Concentration before ovulation is from 0.5 to 4.8 nmol / l, and after its occurrence, the hormone rapidly increases and reaches its peak at 5-7 days after rupture.
Phase makes itself felt immediately after completion of ovulation. This is the time when progesterone is particularly active, since a corpus luteum is formed, producing a hormone. Him numbers can increase tenfold.
If laboratory standards are considered as a sample, then the hormone concentration in the luteal phase fluctuates from 7 to 57 nmol / lbut reference values allow a value of up to 86 nmol / l, if it is 18-22 days of the cycle.
After the rupture of the dominant follicle, the mature egg is released and sent to the fallopian tubes. From the clot of cells formed the corpus luteum, which in the enhanced mode produces progesterone.
Postovulatory phase characterizes himself by his highest performance. Some laboratories consider slightly elevated figures as the norm, because the final figures are directly dependent on the size of the corpus luteum and the general hormonal status.
It is worth remembering that 6 days before endometrial rejection progesterone decreases sharply and reaches its minimum before menstruation.
On day 21
Marks itself maximum peak, as the corpus luteum reaches impressive sizes in diameter (18-24 mm). It is logical to assume that the formed clot begins to produce even more, but then as it decreases, the concentration decreases.
At the same time, the numbers directly depend on the total period of the menstrual cycle. If it is more than 30 days, then on day 21 of the cycle, progesterone will only increase. The opposite situation is observed when the total cycle time is less than 28 days.
The indicators will be slightly below average values, but these nuances are not so significant. In any case, the data should fit in the range from 7 to 86 nmol / l.
Before, day and after embryo transfer
The term “embryo transfer” is inextricably linked with the IVF procedure (in vitro fertilization). Him the essence is quite simple: A woman with a catheter is injected into the uterus of the embryo, which was fertilized 48-120 hours ago.
In order for fetal implantation to occur, it is necessary to stabilize the hormonal status, and especially progesterone. Woman's body should be ready for pregnancy.
Prior to transfer, doctors perform hormone therapy to adjust the level to the desired rate.
Procedure spend on the day that appointed reproductologist. Up to this point, the doctor identifies successful factors for the operation (endometrial thickness, progesterone level, estradiol). Prior to replanting, the figures must comply with the rate of the follicular phase of the cycle (from 0.6 to 2.3 nmol / l).
After embryo transfer (5-6 days), progesterone gradually increases and must be at least 9 nmol / l. If a sharp decline is recorded, it is advisable to start hormonal stimulation, as there is a risk of embryo rejection.
With successful implantation of the fetus, progesterone rises rapidly. In a pregnant woman, the hormone in the first 13-14 weeks is fixed in the range from 15 to 108 nmol / l.
On the first weeks of gestation, its performance is 18 nmol / l. The decrease indicates a high risk of miscarriage, therefore, the expectant mother is stimulated during the whole 1 trimester of gestation.
The dosage of progesterone is selected individually and includes the following drugs:
- hormone therapy (Duphaston tablets, shots),
- vaginal suppositories
- vaginal tablets ("Lutein"),
- progesterone cream, ointment ("Kraynon").
Table by day for non-pregnant
Indicators are constantly changing depending on the day of the cycle, age, fact of pregnancy, taking contraceptives, etc.
The table shows the norms for non-pregnant women. Should remember that Each laboratory has its own diagnostic standards., conversion rates, so the range of reference values varies slightly.