Hygiene

Safe days for unprotected sexual intercourse after menstruation: how to calculate the period of the cycle, so as not to get pregnant?

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Safe days, when a woman can not protect herself, are considered several days before and after menstruation. There are several methods for determining these days. Many women calculate safe days, and thus protect themselves from unwanted pregnancy. But not everyone can recommend this method of protection, because the menstrual cycle for each woman is individual, and, moreover, even for one woman, one cycle may not be similar to another. Therefore, it is impossible to calculate safe days with a 100% guarantee, and today you will find out why.

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Calendar method for calculating safe days

This method can be used by women with a stable menstrual cycle, that is, when the same number of days passes from the first day of menstruation to the beginning of the next. But even with a regular monthly cycle, there are discrepancies of 3-4 days. To calculate the beginning of ovulation - the period favorable for conceiving a child, you need to subtract 11 from the longest monthly cycle, and 18 from the shortest one. For example, the longest cycle is 30 days and the shortest is 27. By simple calculations we get: 30 11 = 19, 27-18 = 9. The figures obtained mean that from 9 to 19 days of the cycle ovulation occurs, on other days the woman can not be protected.

The calendar method of contraception is suitable for women between the ages of 25 and 35, who regularly schedule their menstrual cycle, and after unprotected intercourse they use spermicides (even during a safe period).

How to calculate safe days using basal temperature

The method of measuring basal temperature helps to determine the period of ovulation. Temperature is measured in the rectum, immediately after waking up, without getting out of bed. With a normal menstrual cycle, the temperature in the first phase is on average 36.5-36.7. On the first day of ovulation, a sharp rise in temperature above 37 degrees is noted, and this temperature is maintained throughout the second phase. The ovulation period ends when the temperature drops below 37 degrees. Therefore, a safe period is coming.

Reliability of safe days before the month causes a lot of doubts. The effectiveness of this method is not more than 70%. Why the period before the month can not be considered safe? No woman can say with certainty when her next periods will begin.

The instability of the cycle depends on the disease, stress, climate change, travel. A difference of 2-3 days is essential. Ovulation does not always occur exactly on schedule, from 11 to 18 days, it can move closer to the monthly, as a result of which the risk of getting pregnant on the eve of menstruation or during it increases. By the way, the viability of sperm sometimes reaches nine days, so if an unprotected sexual intercourse took place a day before the onset of menstruation, it is quite possible that fertilization will occur in the next cycle, immediately after menstruation.

Phases of a woman's menstrual cycle

The average duration of the menstrual cycle is 28-35 days. It is conventionally divided into 3 phases:

  • Menstrual or follicular. As a rule, menstruation in women lasts 3-7 days. The menstrual phase is accompanied by bloody discharge, in some cases, unpleasant painful sensations in the lower abdomen or lower back. The onset of menstruation means that fertilization has not occurred. Period of menstruation is considered safe for intimate communication. From the first day of menstruation, new follicles begin to mature in the ovaries under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone. On average, the ripening period lasts 14 days, but this figure is individual for each woman. The phase ends with the full maturation of the dominant follicle and the onset of a sharp release of luteinizing hormone (LH), which stimulates the breakdown of the follicle wall. The end of the follicular phase can be called a safe time for conception, since spermatozoa can remain viable for several days, so a woman still needs to be protected in order not to get pregnant.
  • Ovulatory The ovulation period is considered the most unsafe for sex without the use of contraceptives. At this time, the increased production of progesterone occurs in the female body, which contributes to the conception and successful implantation of the ovum. Ovulation lasts no more than 2 days. A woman who does not want to become a mother in the near future should be counted on these days in advance to prevent unwanted pregnancy during sexual intercourse.
  • Lutein or secretory. It starts immediately after ovulation and lasts until the beginning of the menstrual phase - on average, up to 14 days. In place of a bursting follicle, a yellow body forms. After fertilization, it produces progesterone until the formation of the placenta. If conception does not occur, the concentration of the hormone begins to gradually decrease. The phase is considered safe for unwanted pregnancy during unprotected sex.

The principle of calculation for the calendar method

Many couples calculate favorable and unfavorable days for conception using the calendar method. The safest period for sexual intercourse is the beginning and end of the cycle. Ovulation - the most favorable period for couples who dream of getting pregnant. The days of ovulation depend on the duration and regularity of the cycle; therefore, when calculating a pair, these criteria must be taken into account.

With a long cycle (35 days)

If a woman’s cycle is regular, it’s easy to determine safe days for unprotected sex. It should be remembered that the duration also affects the determination of the day of ovulation. The luteal phase with a long cycle lasts 11-16 days, on average - 13 days. In order to calculate the days of ovulation, a woman needs 35 to subtract 13. The result is 22, which means that the ovulatory phase will begin 22 days after the start of menstruation.

Given the viability of male germ cells, the following conclusions can be made. A safe period for sexual intercourse without contraception is the period of critical days, the week after menstruation, and also 26-35 days.

With an average cycle (28 days)

Most women cycle time is 28 days. With a 28-day cycle, the follicle breaks through 7-9 days after menstruation, that is, on the 14th day after the onset of menstruation. Since conception can occur in the next two days, the most dangerous period for sexual intercourse without using contraception is 14-16 days.

With a short cycle (21 days)

The luteal phase with a short cycle lasts an average of 10-11 days, so the release of the egg occurs on the 9th day. Considering the viability of sperm and the duration of ovulation, the safest days for unprotected sex are 12-21 days. With regard to the menstrual and follicular phases, during this period it is better for a woman to refrain from unprotected sexual intercourse, since spermatozoa can live up to 3-4 days.

What factors can affect the duration of the cycle?

In order to calculate safe days, a woman needs to know 3 basic indicators - the first day of the last critical days, the average duration of menstruation and the cycle. Cycle time is the most unstable indicator. Many women turn to a gynecologist with an irregular cycle problem.

Experts say that the cycle is regular only if, over the past 6 months, its duration has changed only by 1-2 days. Given this, you can use the calendar method only with a regular cycle.

What factors can influence the cycle? Experts identify the following reasons:

  • nutritional change (including a fast weight loss diet),
  • avitaminosis,
  • hormonal imbalance on the background of nervous overstrain,
  • diseases of the reproductive organs,
  • excessive exercise.

The effectiveness of the technique

In order to calculate which days are dangerous for unprotected sex, a woman should know the exact parameters mentioned above. If at least one mistake is made (for example, in the duration of the cycle), the pregnancy calendar will be ineffective.

In addition, women can not rely on the calendar from the very first month of its keeping. To increase the effectiveness of the results, it is recommended to fill in the table for several months. First, regular maintenance of the table will help clarify the duration of the cycle, secondly, based on it, a woman will learn to recognize changes in her condition during the ovulation period, as well as before critical days.

Pros and cons of the calendar method

Maintaining a calendar of pregnancy has undoubted advantages. These include:

  • Calculation of safe days for sexual intercourse. Thanks to the calendar method, a woman will learn to calculate the days when she can become pregnant.
  • Control of women's health. The table records the duration of the cycle. Any failures that last for 2-3 months or more are a reason to visit the gynecologist.
  • This method of contraception, unlike pills and other means of protection, can not cause any complications.

However, the calendar method has disadvantages:

  • inaccuracy
  • exposure to STDs (unlike some other methods of contraception),
  • the need for additional remedies on dangerous days.

Women's cycle and ovulation

The risk of becoming pregnant as a result of unprotected sexual intercourse occurs at almost any moment of the menstrual period. Just a certain part of the cycle is more favorable for conception, and the other less. The greatest chance of becoming pregnant exists in the middle of the cycle when ovulation occurs — the female germ cell matures and leaves the follicle. The menstrual cycle begins on the first day of menstruation. If the female frequency is 28 days, then 11-16 days are favorable for fertilization. If the cycle is 30 calendar days, you can easily get pregnant from 13 to 18 days. If the period is too short, then it is possible to conceive a child immediately after menstruation or at their final stage.

To calculate your harmless days, you need to divide the female cycle into 2, and then take 2 days from the middle and add 2 days. If the period duration is 26 days, then 1-11 days and 15-26 days are not dangerous. But this is the case if ovulation occurs on time, without delays and advances. There is nothing ideal, therefore, it is not worthwhile to completely trust the calculation of safe periods of the menstrual cycle. It is more suitable for planning pregnancy than for its prevention. The fact is that even during menstruation there is some chance to give life to the baby. The ovum can come out very early or very late, and spermatozoa can live actively in the woman’s body for several days.

The ability to become pregnant decreases in the initial and final days of the cycle. Many women consider that the last 10 days are safe days before their monthly periods. But this is confirmed only if ovulation has already passed. In addition, there is a possibility that in one month not 1, but 2 eggs at once will be released. With the maturation and fertilization of 2 eggs, twins are born in phase 1. If unprotected sexual intercourse occurred before menstruation, and menstruation did not come, this indicates conception.

Relatively safe from conception can be considered the first 10 days of the cycle. Fertilization did not occur, the epithelial lining of the uterus was completely refreshed and left with menstrual blood, and the new egg has not yet matured. But even these days are not fully relied upon. To calculate the favorable and unfavorable moments for pregnancy, you need to be confident in the constancy of its cycle.

Usually it differs enviable regularity in women aged 25 to 35 years. In this period of time, the girl has hormonal background, the most favorable for conceiving and carrying a child. In the period from the first menstruation to 25 years, as well as at the age of 35 years and older, the cycle may change. Therefore, in too young or rather adult age, it is impossible to be protected only by harmless periods of time, because there will be little sense in them.

Woman's health and pregnancy

On the regularity of the menstrual cycle affects the health of women. It is not only about long and severe diseases. The body is also very exhausting physical and emotional stress, stress, lack of sleep, adverse weather conditions. There are cases when during hot summer periods the cycle in women increases. Sharp climate change during vacation or business trip can also provoke the body to restructure the female cycle.

The implementation of ovulation does not always depend on the presence of bleeding. The opportunity to acquire a baby exists in the first months after birth. During this period, the first red discharge after birth has not yet appeared, and ovulation may already occur. Thanks to this, it is possible to conceive a child after giving birth before the start of a new menstrual cycle. Breast feeding does not affect the ability to conceive.

After an abortion, there is also a high probability of getting pregnant. In such a case, ovulation may be ahead of the onset of bleeding, and it will be difficult to calculate safe days. Therefore, in the case of abortion or childbirth, when the cycle was broken, you should not rely on innocuous days. In this situation, to prevent unwanted conception, it is better to use reliable methods of contraception.

The unreliability of the natural method

Using a woman's monthly frequency to prevent unwanted pregnancy is a natural method of contraception. It does not cause such harm to health, as the use of hormonal and chemical drugs. But it is not completely harmless or effective. It is possible to calculate favorable days for conception with accuracy and to make a schedule of safe unprotected sex only in 80% of cases, and in 20% an unexpected conception occurs.

To plan a pregnancy or to prevent it, every woman needs to keep a personal calendar in which to mark the start of menstruation. Such actions are usually performed when planning a pregnancy to calculate the middle of the cycle and the onset of ovulation. In the circumstances of the prevention of fertilization, one must proceed from the opposite. But the success of conception depends not only on the physiology of women.

Sperm cells can live in the body of the fair sex for several days and actively move through the female genital tract. Therefore, to calculate the innocuous days at the beginning of the female cycle, before ovulation, it is necessary to take into account the fact of survivability of the male germ cells. In such a case, the duration of the safe period after menstruation is reduced by 2-3 days. If the onset of ovulation is expected on the 11th day of the cycle, and unprotected sex was on the 9th day, then the spermatozoa can survive 2 days in the body of the woman, wait for the formation of the egg cell and fertilize it.

The greatest danger of using days unfavorable for conceiving a child is a high probability of contracting various diseases. Unprotected sexual contact is a prerequisite for the transfer of pathogens from one partner to another. Safe from conception periods can be used with a permanent and reliable partner who monitors their health and regularly undergoes a medical examination. But unprotected sex on safe days cannot be used with different, non-regular partners. In such a situation, there is a risk not only to get pregnant, but also to acquire various serious illnesses.

Features of the calendar method

Of course, an important positive side of this method of contraception is the absence of side effects. Moreover, the partner's sperm, which freely gets into the vagina of a woman, has a positive effect on the female body. In addition, this method does not require any financial costs. Another point: for very religious people - this is the only possible way to protect against unwanted pregnancy.

It should be noted that today women from the third world countries mostly use the physiological method, since they are simply unable to provide themselves with more reliable contraceptives. Such women often use necklaces specially designed for such purposes, whose multi-colored beads indicate fertile and non-fertile days.

However, if we consider how rapidly the population of economically unstable countries is growing, it becomes clear: it is difficult to call this method effective. But this does not mean that there are no “safe days”: a woman’s menstrual cycle includes about 20 such days. Правда, немалая часть дам ошибается при их подсчёте, что и провоцирует появление нежелательной беременности и в дальнейшем ведёт к аборту.

Расчёт «безопасных дней»

Перед тем как пытаться выявить безопасный период в цикле необходимо учесть следующие: метод будет работать, только если соблюдены определённые условия. Namely:

  • у дамы стабильный цикл как минимум последние полгода,
  • она не переходила в это время на новую систему питания,
  • there was no abrupt change of climatic conditions
  • did not introduce new sports loads
  • age from 25 to 35 years
  • no stresses.

You need to understand that the physiological method of contraception is based on the fact that ovulation occurs in the middle of the cycle. Based on this, it is determined that fertilization is likely in the period 4 days before ovulation and another 4 days after. To accurately calculate the time when you can safely have sex, you need to determine the duration of the longest and shortest cycle in the last half year. Then, from the number of days of the short cycle, 18 are subtracted (for example: 21 - 18 = 3), and from the digital indicator of the longest cycle - 11 (33 - 11 = 22).

With the help of these calculations, it turns out the most dangerous period for unprotected intimate intimacy is from 13 days to 22. Based on these calculations, it becomes clear that the main safe days are before monthly periods (approximately 7 days). It is also considered safe time while menstruation lasts. In addition, experts say that 1 week after menstruation is also quite safe, because the follicle takes time to mature. Nevertheless, this is so only if a lady has only one follicle per cycle.

Temperature method

In order to protect herself, a woman can apply a method of controlling basal temperature fluctuations in addition to the calendar method. Its main task is to identify the day of ovulation. Such temperature measurements are carried out in the morning, at certain hours, without getting out of bed. It is very important that the measurements were carried out with a single thermometer.

As a rule, in the first phase of the cycle the basal temperature is less than 36˚. A few days before ovulation, it is in the range of 36.8–36.9˚. A few hours before ovulation, it drops to 36.6˚, but right after it, the indicator exceeds 37˚. It is important to note that the temperature method is very accurate and it is effective in 90–97% of cases. But it should be remembered that the basal temperature should be measured for at least half a year in order to establish a relatively accurate day of ovulation.

Exceptions to the rules

A serious problem when using the calendar method of contraception may be the presence of a woman's early ovulation. Experts still do not have a clear answer to the question why this is happening, and most gynecologists point out the random nature of this failure. This is exactly the common factor that causes an unexpected pregnancy.

If you observe the cycle of a healthy woman throughout the year, then in the onset of ovulation, certain fluctuations can be noted, then in one direction or the other. It happens that in one cycle the release of the egg occurs a little earlier, and in the other - a little later. In addition, the anovulatory cycle often happens. Such moments are variants of the norm, except for the regular release of the egg, a week before the due date.

This feature of the female body is not terrible, but it becomes an obstacle for those who want to conceive a baby or are protected by the calendar method. To protect yourself from such an unpleasant surprise, you should carefully consider the signals of your own body, because early ovulation is not asymptomatic.

The most common signs of this event are:

  • swelling and sensitivity of the mammary glands,
  • lower abdominal pain and flatulence,
  • emotional instability ladies,
  • changes in consistency of secretions
  • libido enhancement.

These signs, along with indicators of basal temperature will not allow the lady to be trapped. If, for any reason, unprotected sexual intercourse took place and the woman is not sure about the safety of the day, then you can try to prematurely cause monthly. To cause pre-menstruation monthly, both medical and folk remedies are used. In the first case, in order to induce menstruation, hormonal pills are used, for example, the emergency contraceptive device “Postinor” or drugs that reduce the level of progesterone (“Duphaston”, “Norkolut”).

You can also call monthly using proven popular methods. So, it can help prolonged stay in hot water with subsequent intimacy (provokes a rush of blood to the genital organs and tones the uterus) or the use of natural acidic foods (lemon, parsley). The latter act on the arrival of menstruation like an accelerator. Nevertheless, it is important to remember that it is not as difficult to cause monthly as it is to balance your own menstrual cycle. Therefore, you need to think twice before resorting to such measures.

Phases of the menstrual cycle and the possibility of pregnancy

In order to roughly calculate safe days with a low probability of conception, it is necessary to consider all the stages of the menstrual cycle. This process consists of several phases, of which the follicular phase is the longest, which lasts for 10–15 days. During this period, the dominant follicle, which contains an ovum ready for fertilization, matures.

Next is the ovulation phase. At this time, the endometrium is ready to attach a fertilized egg. And the egg itself is waiting for the appearance of sperm. The phase of ovulation varies from 12 to 17 days. The calculation is, of course, approximate, but it is during this period that the probability of conception reaches its highest level.

If fertilization has not occurred, the direct rejection of endometrial tissue and egg cells from the body of the uterus begins, that is, monthly discharge occurs. Consequently, it is impossible to get pregnant during this period. The hormonal background at such a time is very aggressive and in every way impedes conception, adversely affecting the spermatozoa.

Important! Each organism is individual, and, therefore, there are no rules without exceptions. In medical practice, there are many cases when a woman becomes pregnant after having sex during menstrual flow.

Chance to get pregnant during menstruation

If a woman has no irregularities in the menstrual cycle, and monthly discharge occurs every 28 days, then it is very easy to calculate a safe calendar for sex. That just happens rarely. Deviations from the norm always exist, and quite often the menstruation cycle shifts by 5–7 days each month. Because of this, conception can occur during menstruation or immediately after them.

Possible causes of pregnancy during menstruation:

  • Maturation in the body of a woman is not one, but several eggs at once - a phenomenon quite rare and may result from a sudden failure in the hormonal background.
  • Hereditary predisposition - the constant maturation of 2 eggs with a small interval. Conception in this case may occur due to the irregularity of sexual contacts, which leads to disruptions in the reproductive system.
  • Irregular cycle of menstruation, in which ovulation may occur earlier than usual.

Note! Pregnancy may occur as a result of sexual intercourse during menstruation, even if the woman is incorrectly taking contraceptive drugs. This happens during the interruption of the use of drugs, after which menstruation immediately occurs, during which sex can end with the conception of a child.

Safe days and how to calculate them correctly

Pregnancy occurs on certain days of the menstrual cycle. But, as mentioned earlier, for all this happens individually. For example, in the first days of the selection is very abundant. Their concentration kills spermatozoa or significantly reduces the activity of such bodies. This suggests that the probability of getting pregnant falls at the end of menstruation and lasts about 5 days, since the spermatozoa remain active for just such a period of time.

Most women use the menstrual calendar to calculate safe days. Unfortunately, he does not have one hundred percent probability, and in many cases has let down his own results. If a woman wants to determine safe days in a cycle, it is better to use the method of measuring basal temperature.

This method is more accurate. It consists in measuring the temperature by the rectal method (in the anus), which must be performed on a daily basis for several menstrual cycles. The procedure is recommended to do in the morning, lying in bed. Keep the thermometer for at least 5 minutes.

The highest temperature readings indicate that ovulation has occurred, the egg cell has matured and is ready for fertilization. This means that the most dangerous days are 6 days before and 5–6 days after the maturation of the egg. At other times, the temperature will be normal, therefore, there is a chance of safe sex, which will not end with conception.

If a woman prefers to use a safe calendar, she should be prepared for the fact that he can misfire. More or less accurate to calculate the schedule of safe days is possible if a woman has a normal menstrual cycle and monthly periods every 28 days. If deviations are present, it is almost impossible to calculate the exact schedule for safe sex.

An example of calculating safe days, based on a normal menstrual cycle of 28 days: you need to subtract 28 from 28 and even minus 8 - it turns out 9. That is, the 9th day is the most favorable for conception and dangerous for sex without contraception. If we add another 8 to the first dangerous day (9), then it turns out that day 17 is the last time to be protected.

Highlights of scheduling safe days for different cycles:

  • determination of the duration of the shortest and longest menstrual cycle,
  • subtraction from a short cycle of 18 days - the result means the moment when the probability of becoming pregnant is the highest,
  • the number of days in the longest cycle minus 11 days is the last day when you need to protect yourself.

It should be noted that this is an approximate scheme for determining safe days and does not carry much reliability. Consequently, the method of measuring rectal temperature will be more effective, but not all women are comfortable with it.

Interesting! Using the calendar of safe days, you can calculate the time of conception. In this graph is more useful than in determining the period of safe sex.

It is important to remember that neither the schedule, nor the calendar, nor even the measurement of temperature by the rectal method can give a greater likelihood that conception will not occur. At the same time it is necessary to understand - interrupted sexual intercourse is also not a guarantee of safe sex, the same applies to anal sex. Spermatozoa are so mobile that they can penetrate into the vagina before the eruption of seminal fluid (interrupted act), or after (anal sex), flowing out of the anus.

The female body is individual. Any disruption in the hormonal background, even the smallest, can lead to disruptions in the cycle. This state will bring all the calculations down the drain. The chance of conception remains even with sexual intercourse during the discharge itself, so it is best to use protection in the form of medical contraceptives.

Safe days in the period of menstruation - a loose concept for each woman individually. Need to understand. What is impossible to accurately calculate the time when sex without remedies does not lead to conception. If a woman and her partner are not ready for pregnancy, it is better not to rely on different schedules, calendars and measurement of rectal temperature. Only contraceptives, which also need to be taken correctly to avoid unwanted pregnancy, will help to avoid conception.

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