Hormones produced in the body are responsible for the most important processes occurring in it. Estradiol in women is a hormone that affects the functioning of the reproductive system. The emotional state and a sexual inclination in many respects depends on it. In addition, estradiol is indispensable for proper nutrition of bone tissue, improving blood clotting, and controlling cholesterol. The level of female hormones can be normal, increase or decrease under certain conditions.
General data and the norm of the hormone in women
Estradiol - what is this hormone responsible for? The importance of maintaining it within the normal range is due to the fact that it:
- responsible for reproductive health. Under the influence of the hormone in the ovary, the follicle matures, the epithelial layer of the uterus thickens, which ensures the readiness of the body to embryo. Estradiol contributes to the expansion of uterine vessels and its growth - both during puberty and during pregnancy,
- affects the formation of secondary sexual characteristics,
- improves skin condition
- improves the work of the cardiovascular system
- stimulates metabolic processes in the body,
- maintains an emotional state
- contributes to the change of voice in puberty.
In a woman, estradiol synthesis occurs in the cells of the ovaries. Its production is associated with the periodicity of the menstrual cycle - each phase is characterized by a certain indicator of the content of this hormone. In addition, the concentration of estradiol depends on the time of day: its highest rate is fixed in the period from 3 to 6 o'clock in the afternoon, the minimum - from 12 to 2 in the morning.
Estradiol is measured in picograms per 1 ml of plasma.
The table reflects the normal levels of estradiol in the blood of women, depending on the period of the menstrual cycle.
The level of this hormone also varies in women by age, and also depending on the hormonal status:
- in newborn girls, estradiol is close to zero,
- between the ages of 4 and 6 years old, the hormone level in normal conditions does not exceed 22 pg / ml,
- during puberty, the hormone estradiol is contained in an amount of 25-30 pg / ml,
- when carrying a fetus hormone indicator can be significantly increased. Its rate during pregnancy varies from 210-22 850 pg / ml. Approximately 5 days after birth, the estradiol level in the woman's mother begins to decrease,
- during menopause, estradiol levels range from 19 to 82 pg / ml.
The hormone level will differ depending on age, on top of that, its amount decreases with age.
Important!The hormonal background of the woman, as well as the value of the estradiol index, are influenced by such three important factors as climate change, adverse environmental conditions, and weight changes.
The level of estradiol in women decreases with age, which affects the condition of the skin and hair, sexual capabilities, mood.
If at certain periods of life a woman has to deal with the problem of raising or lowering the level of the hormone, in most cases this is due to abnormalities in the functioning of the internal organs.
Causes and symptoms of estradiol reduction
Low estradiol in women is manifested in specific symptoms and indicates the presence of certain pathologies.
The female body is a very gentle “mechanism”, whose work can be disturbed by a lot of factors, therefore, if any strange things, symptoms or signs appear, you should immediately consult a doctor
The reasons for reducing the hormone are as follows:
- a sharp decrease in body weight, which is usually associated with adherence to strict diets. Weight loss affects the state of all organs, including the functioning of the brain, pituitary and ovaries. These adverse factors, reducing the content of estradiol, contribute to the cessation of menstruation and the general deterioration of health. This happens with a sharp loss of 5-18% of body weight,
- severe stress, causing hormonal disruptions. In such conditions, the ovaries stop producing estrogens, menstrual disorders occur and, as a result, the ability to conceive decreases,
- genetic disorders in which the chromosomes that determine the structure of the female genital organs are grouped incorrectly, causing the development of dangerous syndromes,
- dysfunction of the pituitary gland under the influence of infectious diseases, with the development of tumors. In such conditions, the production of all hormones is reduced, not only estradiol,
- dysfunction of the ovaries, provoked by birth defects or autoimmune diseases,
- taking estradiol-containing contraceptives. Such drugs inhibit the production of a natural hormone in the body,
- inflammatory diseases of the reproductive organs,
- alcohol abuse, smoking,
- rejection of meat.
Low estradiol is expressed in specific symptoms:
- lack of menstruation for a long time. If menstruation is present, there is marked pain,
- weight loss,
- inability to get pregnant,
- change in skin condition, appearance of rash, irritation,
- increased sweating
- pronounced acne on the skin of the face,
- feeling of dryness and itching in the vagina,
- regular headaches
- blood pressure drops,
- decreased libido.
Note!If estradiol is reduced, the specialist recommends that the woman take medications that contain this hormone in order to compensate for the deficit.
Increased estradiol: what it says and how it manifests itself
Elevated estradiol in women is due to several factors, including:
- obesity. In the presence of a significant fat layer, in which the normal process of the transformation of male sex hormones into female ones takes place under normal conditions, changes occur. If estrogen levels rise, it can lead to tumor changes in the ovaries, uterus, mammary glands,
- high content of androgens in the blood of a woman - male sex hormones, which is associated with impaired functioning of the thyroid gland, high levels of insulin in the blood. If estradiol is elevated for this reason, a woman can develop infertility, and the figure can change in a male manner,
- ovarian tumors that actively produce female sex hormones, as a result of which they diagnose high estradiol,
- liver damage,
- medication - hormones containing estrogens, anabolic steroids and some others.
Elevated estradiol levels are expressed in the following symptoms:
- unstable menstruation,
- pain in the mammary glands,
- swelling of tissues
- weight gain
- irritability, severe fatigue,
- dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract.
To learn more about estradiol, what it is and how dangerous fluctuations in its level, you should contact a specialist. He will also tell you how to reduce the level of this hormone and bring it back to normal.
Analysis of estradiol prescribed in the following cases:
- with frequent failures of the menstrual cycle,
- uterine bleeding,
- with pronounced symptoms of premenstrual syndrome,
- in the presence of a tumor of the ovaries or adrenal glands,
- in preparation for the IVF procedure.
In general, it is recommended to take tests for estradiol in women regularly. This also applies to other hormones, especially if pregnancy is planned.
Important!Experts recommend an analysis on the 3rd or 5th day of the menstrual cycle. If necessary, the doctor may prescribe a study for a different date. To determine reliably whether estradiol is normal in women, the analysis is repeated again after a certain number of days, approximately 20-21 days of the cycle.
In order to get the most accurate result, it is recommended to refrain from physical exertion, drinking alcohol and smoking a day before the analysis. Also on the eve of the need to refrain from sexual intercourse.
For 10-14 hours you should refuse meals.
Often, women are interested in when to pass this analysis. Blood sampling is carried out in the morning, from 8 to 11 hours. The results are obtained the next day.
Tactics of treatment depends on whether there is an increase in estradiol or a decrease in its level.
Note!To find out how to increase estradiol, you need to contact a specialist. He usually prescribes hormonal drugs. In addition, the patient should adhere to a healthy diet, refusing to exhausting diets and at the same time not abusing harmful products. The norm of estradiol in women will be observed if they consume more food rich in protein. It is important to give up bad habits.
Responding to a question about how to reduce estradiol, it should be noted the role of a balanced diet. It is recommended to include products with a high content of sulfur in the diet. This - onions, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, lemons. It is also recommended to eat pomegranates and grapes - sources of antioxidants.
To take estradiol is necessary for every woman who cares about her health and plans to make a healthy child. The reproductive ability largely depends on the level of this hormone. To monitor its performance, it is important to promptly consult a doctor when changes in the functioning of internal organs are detected.
Why do we need estradiol?
The substance directly affects such internal organs as the fallopian tubes, vagina, ovaries, mammary glands, external genitals and others. Secretion occurs in the ovaries and a little in the adrenal glands. Its concentration is affected by the phase of the cycle and pregnancy. During pregnancy, its level rises, before birth, the concentration of the hormone rises to the maximum. After embryo transfer to normal, only drug treatment can bring the level of the hormone. During pregnancy, the hormone preserves the fetus, improves blood circulation, and clotting in the fallopian tubes, which prevents bleeding during the physiological process of the birth of the baby.
In non-pregnant women, the substance is controlled by follicle-stimulating and luteinizing (FSH and LH) hormones, the level is examined by cycle days. So, from the 1st to the 14th day of the cycle, the hormone content reaches its maximum. From the 16th to the 24th day (luteal phase), estradiol decreases.
In addition to the above functions, it controls the membranes on the uterus and the readiness of the mucous membranes for the cell attachment process. The distribution of fat cells in the body and sexual attraction also depends on this substance. Outside, the effect of the hormone is manifested in the timbre of the voice, smoothness or rigidity of the skin and other indicators. In addition, it affects the condition of the bones, the metabolic process and cholesterol in the blood, the mood of a person and retains fluid.
How to determine the level of hormone in the blood
Biologists have found that in the afternoon, the level of all hormones in the blood increases. Therefore, to get accurate test results, you need to donate blood in the first half of the day.
The reasons for the study of the hormone are due to such pathologies:
- disturbed menstrual cycle and hormones,
- probable interruption of pregnancy
- internal bleeding
- pituitary tumor - prolactinoma,
- in the study of the status of internal genital organs and fetal development,
- menopause syndrome (occurs after 40 years).
The norm of the hormone estradiol in women in the table: by age, with menopause, during pregnancy
Estradiol (E2) is a hormone produced by the ovaries and adrenal cortex, as well as a fetal place during pregnancy.
The main role of estradiol is to maintain the stability of menstrual and sexual functions.
Since the norm of estradiol in women is a variable value, in this topic we would like to tell in detail what kind of level this hormone is considered normal and what affects it.
Estradiol: the main tasks in the female body
Estradiol is extremely necessary for women for normal operation of both the reproductive system and the whole body. For example, estradiol helps to activate the contractile function of the myocardium, strengthen the vascular walls and reduce the level of cholesterol in the blood.
Also, this hormone increases the tone of the smooth muscle fibers of the intestinal wall and bladder, which improves the work of these organs.
In addition to smooth muscles, estradiol has a positive effect on the activity of skeletal muscles, contributing to their regular contraction and relaxation. Thus, endurance and resistance to stresses of a human body increases, and the body becomes elastic.
Estradiol is rightly called the hormone of good mood, because thanks to it we have positive emotions. Persons with estradiol below normal are often depressed.
In addition to a good mood, estradiol helps women to be beautiful and sexy. This is due to the fact that this hormone allows for the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics, such as a rounded chest, steep thighs, thin waist, smooth skin, soft voice, etc.
Also significant is the importance of estradiol in the formation of libido.
In the process of numerous medical studies, estradiol has been proven to help maintain a taut body shape and body weight. For example, in women of menopausal age, as a result of a decrease in the level of estradiol in the blood, there is often a problem of overweight and bone fragility.
The important role of estradiol plays a role in creating favorable conditions for fertilization, loosening the endometrium so that the successful implantation of the zygote occurs.
Estradiol and the menstrual cycle: the relationship
Estradiol is synthesized and released into the blood throughout the entire monthly cycle, only in different quantities. Its synthesis occurs in the ovaries, the cortical substance of the adrenal glands and adipose tissue, during pregnancy - in the fetal place.
During the follicular phase of the monthly cycle, estradiol is produced in a minimal amount, under the influence of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones. Before the ovulatory phase, the amount of the hormone increases threefold, after which it decreases, reaching a minimum level before the monthly ones.
Estradiol during the monthly cycle can turn into estrone and estriol.
Also, the level of estradiol in women varies with each hour of the day. The greatest amount of hormone is synthesized between 15 and 18 hours of the day, and the smallest - between 24 and 2 hours of the night.
Factors affecting the level of estradiol in the body
Once again I want to say that the norms of the hormone estradiol in women can change when exposed to various factors, namely:
- phase of the menstrual cycle
- climate change,
- weight fluctuation
- harmful environmental factors
- psycho-emotional shock
- bad habits (alcohol abuse, smoking),
Each of these facts, as a rule, causes fluctuations in the level of estradiol in the blood within the permissible limits.
Blood test for estradiol
In the analysis of blood, the level of this hormone is usually displayed in picogrammes per milliliter (pc / ml), but this indicator can also be expressed in picomoles per liter (pmol / l).
A blood test for estradiol is prescribed by specialists in such cases as:
- hormonal failure in the body, resulting in a broken monthly cycle,
- lack of ovulation
- disruption of the gonads,
- recurrent uterine bleeding not related to the menstrual cycle,
- pronounced manifestations of premenstrual syndrome,
- failure of the pituitary gland,
- polycystic ovaries,
- bone fragility,
- ovarian neoplasms,
- adrenal neoplasms,
- preparation for in vitro fertilization.
Blood for research on estradiol is taken strictly in the period from 4 to 6 day of the menstrual cycle. Control analysis is carried out in the period from 20 to 21 day of the cycle.
In order for the result of a blood test for estradiol to be the most objective, in preparing for the study, it is necessary to adhere to the following recommendations:
- 2-3 days before the study is not recommended to pass,
- 24 hours before blood sampling, limit physical and mental stress,
- 24 hours exclude sex
- 24 hours before blood sampling it is forbidden to smoke and drink alcohol,
- If you are taking any medications, warn the doctor who prescribed the study. In this case, the issue of temporary discontinuation of drugs may be considered, since they may distort the results of the estradiol study,
- The last meal should be no later than 12 hours before blood collection. The analysis is carried out strictly on an empty stomach.
The optimal time for blood sampling is 8-11 am. Blood is taken from the cubital vein in the amount of 5-10 ml.
Waiting for the result of a blood test for estradiol can take from three to seven days. In case of emergency, the result may be ready five hours after blood collection.
Norma estradiol in women
The level of estradiol, like other sex hormones, can fluctuate, it will depend on the time of day and month. In the period from 15 to 18 hours the blood content of this hormone is highest, and from midnight to 2 nights it reaches a minimum.
The degree of content of this hormone is influenced by various factors:
- stage of the menstrual cycle
- individual characteristics,
- health status,
- having bad habits
- Moving to a different climate zone.
For different periods of development of the female body and at different stages of the monthly cycle, during pregnancy and during menopause, the rate of hormone content changes. Its quantity is calculated in picograms per 1 ml of plasma (pg / ml or pmol / l).
The level of estradiol in women in phases of the cycle
If a woman does not carry a child, the ovaries, adrenal cortex, and adipose tissue share the primary responsibility to produce estradiol. The hormone, and more specifically, its intensity of its production, during different phases of the cycle, controls various active substances.
With the start of menstruation, follicle-stimulating hormone begins to control the formation of estrogen. Under its influence, and ovulation occurs - the egg breaks through the walls of the follicle and goes into the genital tract.
The closer to ovulation, the higher the estradiol content. On the eve of the release of the egg from the follicle, its level rises almost threefold and ranges from 127 to 476 pg / ml.
In the second (luteal) phase of the cycle, the estradiol level begins to decrease, and gradually it returns to the initial values - from 57 to 227 pg / ml. The luteinizing hormone acts on its level at this time.
As evidenced by increased estradiol in the blood of women
The fact that the rate of this estrogen is higher than usual may not bother a woman. This condition is typical for the period of pregnancy. It is due to the fact that the hormone is necessary for the normal development of the fetus and prevent the risk of miscarriage.
If a woman does not expect a child, his increased level of estradiol may indicate the development of pathology:
- ovarian cysts,
- benign / malignant neoplasms in the ovaries,
- thyroid disease,
- overweight problems
- cirrhosis of the liver,
- alcohol abuse
- breast tumors,
- use of steroids, hormonal OK, anticonvulsant, antifungal drugs.
Sometimes an increase in the amount of estrogen indicates an excess in the woman's body of male androgen hormones.
Pathologically high levels of estradiol are most often accompanied by such signs:
- painful periods,
- significant changes in the menstrual cycle
- the occurrence of acne,
- breast pain
- hair loss,
Increased concentration of estradiol can not only signal problems in the body, but also by itself lead to negative consequences.
What does low estradiol in women
Too low estradiol is also not a desirable condition for the female body. The following signs may indicate it:
- lack of ovulation
- very dry skin
- constant fatigue
- cold limbs
- failures of the menstrual cycle
- intestinal problems
- breast tenderness,
- inability to get pregnant,
- excess hair on the face and body,
- development of osteoporosis.
Often the indicator of this estrogen is below normal after taking oral contraceptives and chemotherapeutic drugs. Among the drugs that can affect the body in this way are Danazol, Pravastatin, Cimetidine, Dexamethasone, Nafarelin. For this reason, it is advisable to negotiate the intake of these drugs and diet issues with your gynecologist.
Such a violation of the hormonal background is often caused by a woman's fascination with various diets, for example, high-carbohydrate or fat-free, and especially vegetarianism. A sharp loss of 5% of body weight is able to put the body into a state of stress. By the way, the stress associated with emotional causes, can also harm the hormonal balance. This is a well-known, proven scientific fact.
Estradiol is inhibited by an excess of the hormone prolactin, often caused by the presence of a tumor in the pituitary gland.
In addition, various disruptions in the functioning of the ovaries, genetic pathologies and alcohol abuse are capable of reducing estradiol.
Estradiol is an important hormone for the female body. It is acceptable that he was higher than normal during pregnancy, and significantly lower during menopause. In other cases, the discovery of such a hormonal failure can be a sign of the development of pathological processes or a signal of the negative consequences of taking medicines. If symptoms occur, consult a gynecologist for help.
Estradiol - the concept (what it is), general characteristics, cyclical concentration fluctuations
Estradiol is a female sex hormone from the estrogen family. In addition to estradiol, estrogen hormones include two more bioorganic structures - this estrone and estriol . However, it is due to estradiol that the main physiological effects of estrogen hormones are realized. This hormone is typically female, because it is produced in the body of women in relatively large quantities and implements numerous physiological effects. However, in the body of men, estradiol is also produced, but in small quantities and performs rather auxiliary rather than basic functions. Estrone and estriol do not have such a pronounced value and effects on the woman’s body.
Estradiol is normally produced in the ovaries, or, more precisely, in the sheath of a ripening follicle (graaf bubble) within which the egg grows. It is the ovarian follicles that belong to the largest part of the estradiol produced in the woman’s body. Small amounts of estradiol are also synthesized in the adrenal glands and in adipose tissue. However, if a woman is overweight, then the amount of estradiol synthesized in adipocytes (adipose tissue cells) can be quite substantial. During pregnancy, estradiol synthesis is produced by the placenta. In men, estradiol is produced only by the adrenal glands, so its total amount is low.
Estradiol is synthesized from a cholesterol molecule under the influence of the aromatase enzyme by attaching radicals to certain positions. That is why a woman needs cholesterol to produce a normal amount of estradiol. In this regard, the danger of vegan vegetarianism, as well as of cholesterol-free diets, in which a woman’s body does not receive the required amount of cholesterol, becomes obvious, as a result of which a normal amount of estradiol is not synthesized, which, in turn, causes numerous disorders, such as violation of the menstrual cycle, lack of sexual desire, infertility, etc. In experiments conducted by Nazi scientists at concentration camp prisoners during the Second World War, it was proved that I have a lack of the human body cholesterol is much more dangerous than an excess. And since cholesterol is found only in products of animal origin (butter, fatty meat, lard, sour cream, etc.), you should not completely abandon their use. Eating a reasonable amount of fatty pork and butter is not only useful, but also necessary for the normal functioning of the sex hormone production system in the body of a woman and a man.
In short estradiol synthesis scheme It looks like this: the cholesterol molecule turns into testosterone, a part of which in turn combines with acetyl CoA, as a result of which progesterone is formed. Further, estradiol is formed from the available stocks of progesterone and testosterone in the sheath of a growing ovarian follicle. At the same time, during the first phase of the menstrual cycle, almost the entire progesterone is converted to estradiol, which ensures the growth and maturation of the egg. Then, after ovulation, the ovaries begin to produce a large amount of progesterone, which does not have time to turn into estradiol. It is because of the relatively low rate of conversion of progesterone to estradiol, in the second phase of the menstrual cycle in women, progesterone prevails over all other hormones, which causes the corresponding effects. Estradiol production is controlled by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin, and during chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) during pregnancy. In men, estradiol is formed from testosterone in the adrenal glands, testes, and adipose tissue.
After synthesis, estradiol enters the bloodstream, where it quickly binds to plasma proteins. A large part of estradiol (about 98%) circulates in the blood precisely in the form associated with proteins. The proteins with which estradiol interacts are called sex hormone globulins (SHBG).
The concentration of estradiol in the blood is not constant, it fluctuates. Moreover, the level of estradiol in women varies not only during the menstrual cycle, but also throughout the day. In men, there are only daily fluctuations in the concentration of estradiol in the blood. This is due to the fact that the release of tropic hormones (FSH and LH) by the pituitary gland occurs during strictly defined hours - this is between 15-00 and 18-00 in the daytime, and at night between 00-00 and 02-00. Accordingly, these tropic hormones (FSH and LH) also have their regulatory effects, including the launch and activation of estradiol synthesis, at certain hours - soon after they are released into the systemic circulation, that is, in the evening and in the morning. This is the reason for the requirement to be tested for estradiol in the morning, optimally from 7-00 to 8-00 and up to a maximum of 10-00.
In addition, in women there is a certain phasing in the secretion of LH and FSH, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. Thus, at the very beginning of the menstrual cycle (follicular phase), the level of estradiol in the blood is low, since the available one was consumed during menstruation. During this period, the pituitary gland secretes a large amount of FSH, which stimulates the growth and development of the follicle. Accordingly, estradiol begins to be produced in the follicle membrane, and released into the systemic circulation. Thus, the concentration of estradiol throughout the first phase of the menstrual cycle gradually increases. The maximum growth rate of estradiol concentration is noted 3–5 days before the onset of ovulation. At the same time, a peak in the concentration of estradiol in the blood of a woman is noted 1–1.5 (24–36 hours) days before the onset of ovulation (the ovule leaves their follicle). The peak amount of estradiol on the mechanism of negative feedback sends a signal to the pituitary gland - the structure of the brain, which switches to the production of LH, reducing the secretion of FSH. As soon as more LH appears in the blood than FSH in a woman begins to ovulate, the egg leaves the ovary, and the sheath of the follicle bursts.
During ovulation, the concentration of estradiol sharply decreases, since the sheath of the follicle, in which the hormone is produced, was broken, and the corpus luteum in its place has not yet formed. This low estradiol concentration is noted within 48 hours (2 days) after ovulation. Then, in place of the follicle, a yellow body is formed, which assumes the function of producing estradiol, as a result of which the concentration of this hormone begins to grow again in the blood. The concentration of estradiol increases until the 9th day after ovulation, that is, during most of the second half of the menstrual cycle. Then, starting from the 10th day after ovulation, and until the onset of menstruation, when atresia (dying) of the corpus luteum occurs, the concentration of estradiol in the blood of women begins to decline again. In the next menstrual cycle, everything repeats again.
The above-described fluctuations in the concentration of estradiol in the blood, depending on the menstrual cycle, are characteristic only for adult, sexually mature and healthy women. In girls before puberty, the amount of estradiol is low, the same as in boys, because they do not have a monthly egg maturation. In puberty, the level of estradiol in their body begins to increase, gradually reaching the level of adult women, and from that moment on, girls start menstruating.
During pregnancy, estradiol is continuously produced by the placenta, and no fluctuations in its concentration are observed. On the contrary, during pregnancy, the concentration of estradiol gradually and steadily increases, reaching a maximum a few days before delivery. After giving birth for four days, there is a marked decrease in the concentration of estradiol and its return to normal "non-pregnant" values.
As the menstrual function diminishes in women (menopause), there is a gradual decrease in the estradiol concentration. During menopause, estradiol concentration in women is exactly the same as in men.
Functions of estradiol - what is the hormone responsible for?
Estradiol is considered one of the main female sex hormones, since its physiological functions, as well as its effects are very extensive. Thus, the hormone can affect many organs and tissues of the body, which are called target organs. For estradiol, the target organs are the following:
- Vulva (vaginal entrance area),
- Mammary gland.
The hormone, acting on all genitals of women, stimulates their growth and development in childhood and adolescence. That is, estradiol affects all organs and tissues related to the reproductive sphere. Under the influence of the hormone, growth and cyclical changes occur in the tissues of the genital organs, as well as the formation of secondary sexual characteristics (for example, growth of the mammary glands in women, pubic hair and under the arms, etc.).
In adult women, estradiol stimulates the first phase of the menstrual cycle, and also causes the growth and proliferation of the endometrium, which is thus prepared for possible implantation of the ovum, that is, for the onset of pregnancy. It is a gradual increase in the concentration of estradiol in the first phase of the menstrual cycle leads to the switching of the pituitary to the synthesis of LH, which, in turn, causes ovulation. Thus, we can say that estradiol is very important for the normal onset of ovulation, and, consequently, for the conception of a child. Estradiol is also required for a normal menstrual cycle.
In addition, it is under the action of estradiol in women produces lubricant in the vagina, which is necessary for normal sexual intercourse. Therefore, the hormone is vital for the sexual life of women. With an estradiol deficiency in women, vaginal dryness and a pronounced decrease in sexual desire are noted, which makes sexual contact almost impossible.
In addition, estrogens promote bone growth, so after the onset of menstruation, girls very quickly grow in length, overtaking boys of the same age.
The following basic functions and effects of estradiol in the body of girls can be singled out:
- During puberty (puberty) between about 11 and 15 years of age, estradiol provides an increase in the size of the uterus and the transition of the organ to an adult state. Under the influence of the hormone in the cells of the uterus increases metabolism, it is actively growing, there is abundant sprouting of blood vessels (vascularization) and enrichment of tissues with water.
- During puberty between 11 and 15 years of age, estradiol provides an active increase in the number of vaginal cells, labia, clitoris and vulva, which become functionally complete organs of an adult woman. In the vagina, the cubic epithelium is replaced by a multi-layered epithelium, which is resistant to infections and is subject to stretching, which is necessary for the normal course of sexual intercourse and childbirth in the future.
- During puberty, estradiol starts the process of proliferation of the stroma and adipose tissue of the mammary glands, which leads to the growth and formation of the breast in girls. In the same period, milk ducts are formed.
- In the fallopian tubes, estradiol causes an increase in the number of ciliary epithelium cells, as well as their activity, which is necessary for the promotion of eggs into the uterus.
- Estradiol enhances the growth of bone tissue, which leads to a strong and rapid "stretching" of girls during puberty. Due to the active production of estradiol, girls in the puberty period are overtaken in the growth of boys.
- Low concentration of estradiol enhances the processes of bone unfolding, which causes a tendency to osteoporosis of women who are in menopause.
- Estrogens are responsible for the deposition of fat on the abdomen, thighs and buttocks, which leads to the formation of a characteristic female, rounded figure. In principle, it is estrogen that leads to the formation of a female figure.
- Estradiol causes the psycho-emotional characteristics of women.
- Estradiol causes retention of water and sodium in the tissues, which is the cause of the physiological edema of pregnant women.
In men and women, estradiol increases blood clotting and has an anti-atherosclerotic effect, reducing the concentration of cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). It is because of the relatively high concentration of estradiol in the blood of women of reproductive age that they rarely develop atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease.
У мужчин эстрадиол играет важную роль в формировании нормальной качественной спермы, то есть, гормон необходим для зачатия потомства. Однако для мужчин роль и функции эстрадиола не настолько важны, как для женщин.
Эстрадиол при беременности
The content of estradiol in the blood throughout pregnancy is steadily increasing, since this hormone is produced by the placenta all in large quantities. Estradiol in combination with progesterone is a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy, normal functioning of the placenta complex, as well as intensive metabolism in the tissues of the uterus and bone growth of the embryo. Estradiol provides for the growth and stretching of uterine tissues according to the needs of the fetus. Also, the hormone increases blood circulation in the uterine and placental vessels, which is also necessary to meet the needs of the fetus in nutrients and oxygen.
In combination with progesterone, estradiol provides the condition of the uterus and placenta most favorable for pregnancy. Estradiol increases metabolism in all tissues of the body, which provides increased needs during pregnancy. Since as the pregnancy progresses, the need for metabolic rate and blood flow in a woman only increases, the placenta produces more and more estradiol. This explains the constant increase in hormone concentrations as pregnancy progresses. Therefore, for a pregnant woman, a high content of this hormone in the blood is not dangerous, on the contrary, a low hormone level can cause fetoplacental insufficiency, delayed fetal development or miscarriage.
In addition, under the influence of estradiol, sodium and water retention in tissues occurs, which, in turn, causes a decrease in cholesterol content, and also increases blood clotting. It is the sodium and water retention that causes the physiological edemas of pregnant women, especially strongly noticeable in the last trimester. Increased blood clotting during pregnancy is necessary so that the woman during the gestation of the fetus is not exhausted from bleeding, and also did not lose too much blood during childbirth.
Estradiol after embryo transfer to the uterus during IVF
After embryo transfer into the uterus during IVF, there is no need to monitor the level of estradiol, since its concentration is subject to significant fluctuations and does not reflect any parameters of the objective state of the implanted fetal eggs in the uterine cavity. Therefore, fertility specialists in many clinics do not prescribe women to test for estradiol after embryo transfer into the uterine cavity.
It only makes sense to take an estradiol test on the transfer day to determine if any estrogenic drugs (for example, Proginova, Divigel, Climara, Menorerest, Octodiol, etc.) are needed for medical support for embryo implantation.
If a woman was prescribed estrogen preparations before embryo transfer to stimulate endometrial growth or as a medical support after replanting fetal eggs, the determination of estradiol is all the more not informative, since it will be high due to constant inflow from outside.
However, some fertility specialists prescribe estradiol tests for women for 1, 3, 5 or 7 days after embryo transfer. Usually, the level of hormones, doctors can conclude about the consistency, stability and level of functioning of the yellow body. And on the basis of the results of the analyzes, a decision is made on the need for drug support or on the correction of dosages of the drugs taken.
Since there are no universal prescriptions in the field of reproduction, women are recommended to follow all the prescriptions of the doctor performing the IVF procedure. Accordingly, if the doctor prescribes tests for estradiol, they should be taken, because their results are necessary for the doctor to make a decision.
According to international standards of IVF, it is recommended to take estradiol during ovarian stimulation. In this case, the estradiol level is considered normal at the rate of 280 pg / ml per one 15-mm follicle. That is, if a woman has 10 follicles, then at the time of administration of CG, the level of estradiol should not be below 280 * 10 = 2800 pg / ml. If, after seven days, this estradiol level drops sharply, it will become an indication for taking estrogen drugs from the day the follicles are punctured.
General rules for preparation for the analysis
On the day before the analysis, you should abandon any physical activity (for example, sports training, physical work, etc.). 1 - 2 days prior to taking the test, it is necessary not to drink any alcoholic beverages, it is also desirable to stop smoking. If you do not smoke for 1 - 2 days is impossible, then you must refrain from smoking for at least an hour before taking the test. It is also necessary to refrain from any nervous experiences and psychological stress on the day of the analysis. The analysis must be taken on an empty stomach, and blood must be taken in the morning, up to a maximum of 10-00 hours.
Estrogens should not be taken on the day of analysis (for example, any combined oral contraceptives, as well as HRT, such as Dermestril, Divigel, Klimara, Menorerest, Octodiol, Proginova, Estderm, Estrimax, Estrozhel, Estrofem, etc.) and or pituitary hormones. If treatment with these drugs can not be interrupted, then you should take a pill after taking the analysis and indicate this fact on the form of the referral to the laboratory.
Estradiol - on which day of the cycle to take?
Men can take the test on any given day because they do not have hormone fluctuations associated with the menstrual cycle. Women of reproductive age and adolescent girls who have already started their periods should take estradiol on the 6th - 7th day of the cycle. If the gynecologist has specified other terms for donating blood to estradiol, it means that they must be observed, because the doctor knows the purpose for which the analysis is scheduled. And if you pass it in other terms, then the interpretation, and, consequently, the treatment will be incorrect.
Women in the period of menopause, just as men can take estradiol on any given day. Premenopausal women should take estradiol on the 6th - 7th day of the cycle, but do it several times, because the hormone level is subject to very strong fluctuations and it is impossible to deduce the correct conclusion based on the result of one sample. In this case, the analysis must be taken in the same laboratory.
Estradiol - price analysis in various laboratories
Depending on which laboratory, with the help of which methods and reagents, and with what speed the analysis of estradiol concentration in the blood is performed, its cost may vary significantly. So, in the laboratories of public medical institutions the analysis of estradiol costs about 300 rubles. In this case, the result of the analysis will be known in no less than five days. Depending on the load of the laboratory, the result will be issued in 3-7 days.
In private medical laboratories, the cost of analysis for estradiol ranges from 400 to 500 rubles. And the result also depending on the load and the adopted management system will be issued after a minimum of 5 hours and a maximum of 5 days.
What influences the test result for estradiol?
The result of the estradiol analysis may be incorrect if a person follows a protein-free diet, suffers from vitamin B deficiency, takes antibiotics in high dosages, or has a liver destruction process.
In addition, the level of estradiol may increase or, conversely, decrease when taking certain medications, which must be considered in the process of interpreting the results.
So, increase estradiol levels in the blood The following drugs:
- Any anabolic steroids (for example, Amigluracil, Methandrostenolone, Nerobol, Dianabol, Retabolil, etc.),
- Cimetidine (when taken in doses of more than 2.4 mg per day for a month or longer),
- Clomiphene (in menopause in women),
- Valproic acid,
- Combined oral contraceptives.
Reduces the level of estradiol in the blood the following medications:
- Chemotherapy drugs for the treatment of malignant tumors (for example, Hydrey, Fluorouracil, etc.),
- Cimetidine (in doses of less than 2.4 mg per day for short periods of time — less than 30 days),
- Mini-pill (progestin oral contraceptives).
Estradiol - the norm
Normal concentrations of estradiol in men and women are different. In addition, in women in different phases of the menstrual cycle and the reproductive period, estradiol rates also differ.
Estradiol is the norm in women and adolescent girls in various phases of the menstrual cycle. In the first half of the menstrual cycle (follicular phase), the normal concentration of estradiol in the blood of women is from 12.5 to 350.0 pg / ml. During the ovulation period, the normal estradiol content is between 85.8 and 750.0 pg / ml, and in the second half of the menstrual cycle (luteal phase), between 30 and 450 pg / ml.
Norm in girls and boys under 11 years. The rate of estradiol in boys younger than 11 years is less than 20 pg / ml, and in girls it ranges from 6.7 to 27 pg / ml.
Norm in menopausal women is less than 54 pg / ml. Moreover, the level of estrogen less than 20 pg / ml is ideal, and concentrations up to 54 pg / ml are considered normal.
Norm estradiol in men any age after puberty (over 11 years) is from 10 to 50 pg / ml.
Estradiol in pregnancy - the norm for trimesters. In the first trimester of pregnancy (from the 1st to the 12th week of gestation, inclusive) the normal content of estradiol in the blood is 215 - 6300 pg / ml. In the second trimester of pregnancy (from the 13th to the 26th week of gestation, inclusive), the rate of estradiol in the blood is 800 - 18900 mg / ml, and in the third trimester (from the 27th to the 40th week of gestation) - 11810 - 37100 pg / ml.
Estradiol Norm by Week of Pregnancy next:
- 3 - 6 weeks - 0 - 3.5 nmol / l,
- 7–8 weeks — 3.5–12.5 nmol / l,
- 9-10 weeks - 12.5 - 27.0 nmol / l,
- 11 - 12 weeks - 27.0 - 39.5 nmol / l,
- 13 - 14 weeks - 39.5 - 43.5 nmol / l,
- 15 - 16 weeks - 43.5 - 63.5 nmol / l,
- 17 - 18 weeks - 63.5 - 92.0 nmol / l,
- 19 - 20 weeks - 92.0 - 95.0 nmol / l,
- 21 - 22 weeks - 96.0 - 115.0 nmol / l,
- 23-24 weeks - 115.0 - 121.0 nmol / l,
- 25 - 26 weeks - 121.0 - 171.0 nmol / l,
- 27 - 28 weeks - 171.0 - 225.0 nmol / l,
- 29-30 weeks - 225.5 - 235.5 nmol / l,
- 31 - 32 weeks - 235.5 - 246.5 nmol / l,
- 33 - 34 weeks - 246.5 - 253.0 nmol / l,
- 35 - 36 weeks - 253.0 - 287.0 nmol / l,
- 37 - 38 weeks - 287.0 - 320.0 nmol / l,
- 39 - 40 weeks - 300.0 - 305.0 nmol / l.
In each particular laboratory, depending on exactly which reagents and kits are used to determine the concentration of estradiol, its norms may differ from those indicated above. Therefore, to correctly interpret the results, always ask for the norms of the laboratory in which the analysis is submitted.
Units of measurement of estradiol concentration and conversion formula. All standards are given in pg / ml, but in addition to this unit of measurement, ng / l and pmol / l are used to denote the concentration of estradiol. Unit pg / ml is equal to ng / l. A conversion of ng / l to pmol / l and back is carried out according to the following formulas:
- pmol / l * 0.273 = ng / l,
- ng / l * 3.67 = pmol / l.
Reduced or elevated estradiol levels - treatment guidelines
Since a reduced or elevated level of estradiol is not an independent disease, but only reflects other pathologies, there is no need to treat the actual results of the analysis.
If a man or a woman has been diagnosed with an increased or decreased level of estradiol, then a comprehensive examination should be performed, aimed at identifying the causes of this deviation from the norm. Only after a disease has been identified that has caused a reduced or elevated estradiol level, can treatment be started. Moreover, treatment should be comprehensive, aimed primarily at the elimination of the underlying disease, which is the cause of deviations from the normal level of estradiol. Since the causes of abnormal levels of estradiol in the blood are very variable, the principles of therapy and approaches to treatment are no less diverse. In each case, it is necessary to develop an individual comprehensive treatment, which the patient will adhere to. You should not try to carry out the correction of hormone levels on your own, as this is fraught with worsening of the condition and worsening of the course of the disease.
Estradiol: the norm in women
Table of norms of estradiol in women by age.
In addition to age, phases of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy affect estradiol in the blood.
The norms of estradiol in the phases of the menstrual cycle are as follows.
- Follicular phase - from 68 to 1265 pmol / l.
- Ovulatory phase - from 130 to 1657 pmol / l.
- The phase of the corpus luteum is from 90 to 860 pmol / l.
When menopause, the amount of estradiol in the blood is lowered and averages 50 pc / ml.
The rate of estradiol in pregnancy depends on the trimester, namely:
- in the first - from 210 to 6300 pc / ml,
- in the second - from 800 to 19000 pc / ml,
- in the third - from 11,800 to 37,000 pc / ml.
Estradiol and testosterone: the ratio
When evaluating the results of a study on the sexual hormonal panel, experts evaluate not only the absolute values of the estradiol index, but also its relationship with other hormones (prolactin, progesterone, testosterone).
The most significant in assessing women's health is the ratio of estradiol and testosterone, which normally should be 10: 1, but also an acceptable ratio of 7: 1. That is, the result for hormones, in which the estradiol level is higher than testosterone by 7-10 times, testifies to the normal activity of the female body.
In cases where the estradiol level is higher than testosterone by only five times or less, then a similar condition in medicine is called hyperandrogenism.
Symptoms of hyperandrogenism can be the following:
- violation of the menstrual cycle,
- unreasonable weight gain,
- change in voice timbre from high to lower.
Also distinguish such a condition as hypoandrogenesis, when the level of estradiol is much higher than testosterone (12 times or more). The following signs are characteristic of a hypoadrogemia:
- manifestation of premenstrual syndrome,
- abundant periods,
- the appearance of bleeding in the middle of the cycle.
The most dangerous consequence of hyperandrogenemia is diabetes, and hypoandrogenemia - tumors of the ovaries and uterus.
Estradiol with menopause
Climax in women falls on the age of 45-55 years, although it happens before.
When menopause in women, there is a decline in reproductive function and a decrease in estrogen levels, in particular estradiol, which manifests itself in disorders of the sexual sphere and the functioning of all body systems.
Among the climacteric signs most often occur such as:
- violation of the menstrual cycle with subsequent termination of menstruation,
- urinary incontinence,
- decrease in sexual desire
- dry vaginal mucosa,
- emotional lability
- bone fragility.
Also, with menopause, the appearance of hypertension, atherosclerotic vascular lesions and other diseases of the cardiovascular system.
When evaluating the result of a blood test for estradiol in a woman who is in menopause, the specialist considers the following factors:
- how old is a woman
- what is the duration of menopause
- health complaints
- the presence of diseases of the cardiovascular, nervous, digestive, endocrine and other systems.
With menopause, all women have low estradiol levels in the blood.
Causes, Symptoms and Treatment of Low Estradiol
The most common reason for lowering estradiol levels is medication, including oral hormonal contraceptives and chemotherapy drugs. Most often, a similar adverse reaction is observed in the following drugs:
Also, a decrease in the amount of estradiol in the blood can be caused by a high-carb or low-fat diet, vegetarianism, alcohol abuse and menopause. Among the diseases that most often lead to a decrease in this indicator, it is necessary to distinguish polycystic ovarian disease and chronic inflammatory diseases of the reproductive organs.
The symptoms of low estradiol in the blood are as follows:
- acne on the face
- dry skin
- constant feeling of tiredness
- feeling cold in the upper and lower limbs,
- appearance of hair on the face, chest, abdomen and buttocks,
- failure of the menstrual cycle
- anovulatory cycle
- propensity for diarrhea,
- breast tenderness,
- insomnia or sleepiness
- decrease in sexual desire.
The diagnosis and treatment of estradiol deficiency in women is performed by a gynecologist together with an endocrinologist.
Treatment of low estradiol in the blood of women of childbearing age is hormone replacement therapy. Estrofem, Proginova, Estradiol and Estderm TTS 25 are highly effective in this case.
Self-treatment is strictly forbidden, because an inadequate dose or duration of treatment with drugs that contain estradiol threatens with irreversible consequences, such as a complete cessation of the synthesis of this hormone in the body.
In addition to drug therapy, experts recommend that you follow a diet with a predominance of protein foods and enhance their sex life.
Causes, symptoms and treatment of elevated estradiol
Estradiol is higher than normal during pregnancy. But also high rates of this hormone can be a consequence of various diseases, namely:
- benign and malignant neoplasms of the ovaries,
- polycystic ovaries,
- liver failure,
- chronic alcoholism,
- mammary gland neoplasms.
In addition, an increased level of estradiol is often observed as a side effect of some drugs, including hormonal oral contraceptives, anticonvulsants, and fungicides.
Suspected increased blood estradiol by the following features:
- too short or long periods,
- painful periods,
- breast tenderness and tenderness,
- sleep disturbance,
- hair loss,
- emotional lability
- violation of the bowel.
Treatment is primarily aimed at eliminating the cause, but if it is not normalized indicator of estradiol, then hormone preparations are prescribed. It is also important to normalize the regime of the day, enough to relax, protect yourself from stress and eat right.
Watch a video about estradiol.
Estradiol in the blood of women: the norm by age
The human body - a thin system, regulated by a huge number of substances with high biological activity, called hormones. If some of these substances are produced too little or, on the contrary, too much, then the woman can stop being sweet and refined, and the man can be courageous and strong.
One of the most important hormones in the female body is estradiol. What are the normal indicators of this substance in the body, why do we need it at all?
Why do you need a hormone
Estradiol, as established by recent studies - a hormone necessary to maintain the mental and physical health of a person. Contrary to popular belief, it is not only in the female body, but also in the male.
In women, the hormone is responsible for the health of the reproductive system and for maintaining an attractive appearance. The functions of this substance include:
- participation in the formation and normal development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics (under the action of estradiol, the uterus and ovaries are formed, the mammary glands, the shape acquires the outlines characteristic of the female sex),
- control over the menstrual cycle (not only participation in its launch, but also stabilization, allowing menstruation to begin at the same time every month),
- preparation of eggs for the process of fertilization, and the organism itself for a difficult period of carrying a baby,
- control over a number of vital internal processes, such as maintaining blood pressure, removing excess cholesterol, normalizing calcium in bones,
- the formation of attraction of the sexual type
- normalization and subsequent control of lipid and water-salt exchanges in menopause.
Interestingly, in boys and girls, the level of estradiol before puberty is at the same level. A significant difference appears only in the period of puberty, when the girl in the body estradiol begins to be produced more actively.
Features of the analysis
The level of estradiol in the blood of a woman is determined by a blood test. Since the level of a substance depends on the phase of the menstrual cycle and external influences, a woman should follow a number of recommendations in order to get the most reliable results.
The first thing to remember is that the analysis is 4-6 days from the beginning of the cycle. A control study of the parameters is carried out for 20-21 days to confirm that the first study was performed in compliance with all recommendations.
A day before a direct study, a woman is recommended to stop smoking, taking alcohol and exercise (including sex). If a woman takes any medications that may affect the results, then after consulting a doctor, you may need to temporarily stop taking these medicines before the analysis.
The indications for the study are the following states:
- menstruation irregularity
- inability to conceive a child
- lack of ovulation
- inoperative sex glands,
- pronounced premenstrual syndrome
- signs of osteoporosis at any age
- tumor pathologies or polycystic ovaries,
- failure of the pituitary system,
- preparation for the IVF procedure.
Blood sampling is performed in the morning (best between 8 and 11 o'clock). In this case, a woman is advised to completely give up food 12 hours before the study and try not to overeat for 2-3 days before the intended study.
If estradiol is low
Most often, the lack of estradiol in the female body is due to the intake of specific medications, such as oral contraceptives or drugs for chemotherapy. Reducing the level of this substance in the body is then regarded as a side effect of taking medications.
In some cases, the reason for reducing the level of estrogen is a way of life. For example, a lack of substance can be observed if a woman follows a protein-free diet or is a vegetarian. Also addicted to alcohol can have an effect on reducing estradiol levels.
From diseases to reduce estradiol can cause polycystic ovarian syndrome and various inflammatory diseases of the genital organs.
If estradiol is a lot
A large amount of estradiol in a woman’s blood is the same symptom of a pathology as a lack of this substance. An exception to the rule is pregnancy, during which the indicators can soar up to huge numbers, but are considered a variant of the norm, since estradiol ensures the safety of the fetus in the uterus.
If a woman is not in a state of pregnancy, then high estradiol rates are considered pathological and require treatment.
Various diseases can lead to a jump in the level of this biologically active substance, among which are tumor tumors of the ovaries, thyroid pathology with a jump in the level of its hormones, cirrhosis of the liver, chronic alcoholism, excessive body weight, etc.
It is important to remember that steroids, oral contraceptives and antimycotics (antifungals) and anticonvulsants also lead to an increase in estradiol levels. Before conducting the analysis, the physician should clarify whether the woman is taking any drug therapy on a regular basis.
Estradiol is a female hormone that performs a large number of functions in the body. Deviations of this indicator from the norm should cause concern among the fair sex. If estradiol is too much or too little according to the results of research, then it is necessary to determine the cause of the abnormalities and begin treatment.
Estradiol in women: what is it, the norm, how to increase
Estradiol in women is the most active female sex hormone. It is able to have a significant impact on the proper development of secondary sexual characteristics, the cyclical nature of menstruation, the ability of a woman to conceive and bear a child, the health of her cardiovascular and bone systems, etc.
Despite the fact that estradiol is the most important female hormone, in men it is also synthesized, although in much smaller quantities. Moreover, before the onset of puberty, both in girls and boys the level of estradiol in the blood is about the same. But puberty changes this equality.
The level of estradiol in girls increases significantly synchronously with the development of secondary sexual characteristics, but in boys it remains at the same level.
Estradiol is the main hormone of women's health and beauty. It maintains the elasticity and smoothness of the skin, contributes to the deposition of adipose tissue on the female type (chest and thighs), the growth of the mammary glands and the formation of a thin waist.
Estradiol in women is responsible for the development of sexual characteristics. It contributes to:
- normal development of the vagina, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, mammary glands,
- growth in the fallopian tubes of the ciliary epithelium and its further full activity required for the fertilized egg to enter the uterus,
- the formation of "milk" ducts in the mammary glands,
- replacement of the cubic type epithelium in the vagina with a mature multilayered epithelium,
- pigmentation of the nipples and external genital organs,
- proper distribution of adipose tissue and hair growth on the female type,
- the rapid growth of long tubular bones and the further closure of their epiphyses,
- the establishment of the menstrual cycle
- shaping the female voice timbre.
In adult women, estradiol is responsible for:
- condition of hair and skin (its elasticity, smoothness and elasticity),
- slowing the aging process
- maintaining bone health (preventing early development of osteoporosis) and cardiovascular system (due to estrogenic activity in women before menopause, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, etc.) are usually not found,
- recycling the "bad" cholesterol NP and ONP,
- an increase in the body's "good" cholesterol VP, responsible for maintaining the high elasticity of blood vessels and preventing the development of atherosclerotic plaques in the vessels,
- stimulation by the liver of the synthesis of plasma coagulation factors,
- inhibition of excessive antithrombin synthesis,
- suppression of the adhesive properties of platelets, preventing blood clots in the vessels,
- normalization of the protein synthesis of the liver and the synthesis of special carrier proteins necessary for the transport of thyroid hormones,
- the formation of sexual desire,
- emotional stability
- vaginal lubrication,
- normal menstruation cycle
- normal maturation of the egg, full ovulation and the onset of pregnancy.
Estradiol is reduced in women. Symptoms
The main symptoms of estrogen deficiency in women are:
- skin problems (acne, severe dryness, peeling, unhealthy complexion),
- constant drowsiness,
- depressive states
- emotional imbalance
- addiction to hysteria
- severe premenstrual syndrome
- the appearance of convulsions
- violation of microcirculation (constantly cold hands and feet),
- poor cold tolerance,
- the appearance of climacteric tides,
- abdominal pain and mammary glands.
Low estradiol also leads to:
- female masculinization (coarsening of the voice, breast reduction, hirsutism, etc.),
- violation of the menstrual cycle,
- lack of ovulation and the inability to get pregnant,
- decrease in sexual desire.
Lack of hormone also leads to constant vaginal dryness, frequent recurrences of vaginosis and thrush.
In girls, the lack of estrogen leads to a delay in puberty.
Important. A decrease in estrogen levels with age is inevitable, however, the appearance of menopause symptoms in young women is a reason for examination by a gynecologist and an endocrinologist.
Hypoestrogenism should also be suspected with the development of osteoporosis or cardiovascular diseases in women.
Symptoms of increased estradiol in women
- prolonged heavy menstruation
- the appearance of uterine bleeding in postmenopausal women,
- development of edema,
- profuse sweating,
- painful breast engorgement,
- the appearance of benign tumors in the mammary glands, uterus, ovaries.
Indications for estradiol hormone testing
Analysis of estradiol is carried out when a woman:
- impaired puberty (too early or late)
- symptoms of increased or decreased estradiol,
- menstrual disorders (too scanty or heavy menstruation, lengthening or abrupt shortening of the cycle, severe premenstrual syndrome, the appearance of interblock bleeding),
- dyscirculatory uterine bleeding,
- often recurrent bacterial vaginosis,
- neoplasms (both benign and malignant) in the mammary glands, ovaries, uterus,
- vaginal dryness
- pain during intercourse, decreased sexual desire, frigidity,
- atrophy of the external genital organs,
- hirsutism (male-patterned hair): women start to grow mustache, hair appears on the chest and abdomen, body hair becomes tough and spiny, etc.,
- severe acne and rosacea,
- early osteoporosis, atherosclerosis of ischemic heart disease, heart attack, stroke,
- symptoms of hypogonadism.
Also, estradiol analysis is performed if necessary, the appointment of oral contraceptives, monitoring of hormonal therapy, evaluation of the functioning of the FPC (fetoplacental complex).
Causes of test abnormalities
- dominant follicle (persistence) in the ovary and hyperestrogenia,
- endometrial cysts or hormone-secreting ovarian tumors,
- cirrhosis of the liver,
- chorionepithelioma in the uterus (malignant estrogen-secreting neoplasm),
- of pregnancy.
Estrogen-containing contraceptives, anabolic steroids, treatment with nafarelin, carbamazepine, cimetidine, clomiphene, ketoconazole, mifepristone, phenytoin, tamoxifen, troleandomycin, valproic acid also leads to an increase in the level of the hormone.
Estradiol is reduced by:
- excessive physical exertion
- exhaustion, drastic weight loss, adherence to strict diets and fasting,
- vegetarian food
- long-term or chronic inflammation of OMT (pelvic organs),
- hypogonadism, pituitary ganosis or hyperprolactinemia,
- adrenogenital syndrome
- Shereshevsky-Turner syndrome,
- conditions after removal of the ovary (posthysterectomy syndrome),
- LF deficiency (luteal phase) of the menstruation cycle,
- the threat of spontaneous abortion in pregnant women.
Also, a decrease in the amount of estradiol can result from chemotherapy, treatment with megestrol, mochemite, nafarelin, mifepristone, nandrolone, pravastatin, cimetidine, cyproterone, danazol, dexamethasone, oral contraceptives.
How to increase estradiol in women
Attention! Self-prescription of any hormonal drugs on the advice of friends, the correction of prescribed dosages or abrupt cancellation of the medication taken is fraught with serious and serious health complications.
Common to all patients are recommendations for the correction of lifestyle:
- quitting smoking and drinking alcohol
- normalization of body weight
- full, healthy food,
- taking multivitamin complexes
- active lifestyle,
- regular sex life.
If necessary, and in the absence of contraindications, herbal preparations (phytoestrogens), herbal infusions and teas (oregano, mint, red brush, pine-wood uterus, licorice, valerian, etc.) can be recommended.
In case of pronounced hormonal disorders, oral hormonal contraceptives are prescribed (Clayra, Logest, Regulon, Jess, Novinet, etc.).
Patients after removal of the ovaries or postmenopausal women (severe menopause, osteoporosis, rapidly progressive atherosclerosis, etc.) are given hormone replacement therapy (Livial, Klimene, Femoston, etc.).
In the early postoperative period, estrogen-containing patches can be used (Estderm TTS50).
Very important! All therapy is prescribed individually, in accordance with the results of the hormonal profile. The treatment is carried out under strict control of tests. With any hormones you need to be very careful! The consequences can be unpredictable.
If necessary, symptomatic therapy is prescribed (taking sedatives, antidepressants, etc.).
What is the hormone responsible for?
Estradiol is one of the most active sex hormones of a woman. Substance refers to estrogen. Estradiol is formed in the ovaries in women or in the testes in men. In future mothers in the early stages of pregnancy it synthesizes the placenta.
In women, estradiol is responsible for reproductive health.
It is thanks to his norm (in the table) that at the appropriate age she has rounded shapes, beautiful skin and hair, a high and soft voice. Doctors have not thoroughly studied the role of estradiol for men, but agreed that its lack leads to diseases of the reproductive and skeletal systems.
The figure shows the scheme of estradiol.
Functions of estradiol in the body:
- The appearance of secondary sexual characteristics: pubic vegetation, chest, fat deposits on the thighs.
- Improving the condition of the skin and hair.
- Formation of female libido.
- Follicle formation during the menstrual cycle.
- Preparing a woman's body for carrying a child.
- Stimulation of blood circulation and growth of the uterus during pregnancy.
- Regulation of the nervous system.
- Removal from the body of "dangerous" cholesterol.
- Improving the state of bone tissue.
- Strengthening the vessels and walls of the myocardium.
- Maintain bladder tone.
- Improving blood clotting.
The role of the hormone during pregnancy
Сразу же после зачатия количество эстрадиола начинает расти, его уровень нормализуется только после того, как плацента полностью сформирована и может самостоятельно продуцировать гормоны.
The role of the hormone during pregnancy:
- Promotes the growth of the uterus during the development of the baby.
- Improves blood circulation in the genital area of the expectant mother.
- Strengthens bone tissue, prepares them for increased loads.
- Improves the stamina of a pregnant woman.
- Positive effect on the mood of the future mother.
- Improves blood clotting by reducing the amount of cholesterol.
Elevated estradiol is not a pathology during pregnancy. In some cases, it can provoke swelling. Low estradiol is a dangerous condition for pregnancy. If a woman initially lacks this hormone, the ability to conceive a child is almost minimal.
A low hormone level at the beginning of pregnancy leads to the following:
- due to insufficient development of the placenta, miscarriage occurs,
- poor circulation and, as a result, the oxygen starvation of the embryo,
- insufficient nutrition of the child.
The relationship with the menstrual cycle
The rate of estradiol in women varies throughout the cycle. This can be traced using tables by age. Therefore, tests for diagnosing various diseases and pathologies are prescribed on different days after menstruation.
After the period ends, the hormone level begins to grow rapidly, and a follicle forms in the ovaries. The maximum level of the hormone in the blood is observed with the onset of ovulation. This is due to the fact that the possibility of conception at this moment is maximum, and the hormone is necessary for the normal development of pregnancy in the early stages.
After the rupture of the follicle, the amount of estradiol begins to gradually decrease. With the opposite phenomenon, we can talk about the beginning of pregnancy. When estrodiol is lowered, the hormone breaks down into 2 other estrogens: estrone and estriol. The amount of a substance varies depending on the time of day: at night its level is lower than during the day.
Hormone during menopause
During menopause, estradiol decreases, the norm in women by age, the table reflects, depending on the development of menopause. Estradiol can "fall" down to zero. Gynecologists recommend at this time to regularly pass tests to exclude diseases associated with the endocrine system.
Symptoms of menopause, which are associated with a decrease in estrodiol levels:
- decreased libido
- lack of vaginal lubrication
- bone fragility
- violation or absence of menstruation.
Opinions on the level of this sex hormone differ from different doctors. Most consider it a normal amount to 54 pg / ml, but some refer to a healthy level - up to 82 pg / ml. If the levels of the hormone are higher, this can indicate a disease.
To eliminate the disease, you can use additional analysis on another female sex hormone - estriol.
It is produced only during the reproductive age of a woman, its presence in the blood suggests that menopause has not come and the level of estradiol can correspond to the level of a young woman.
Decreased hormone levels, causes
There are many reasons for decreasing estradiol. This can lead not only to the disease, but also to the peculiarities of a woman’s life.
- The use of hormonal drugs as a contraceptive (it can both reduce and increase the concentration of estradiol in the blood).
- Chemotherapy in the treatment of tumors.
- Diets For young women, it is not recommended to completely abandon animal products and engage in raw food eating.
- Abuse of alcoholic beverages.
- The threat of miscarriage or loss of a child.
- Work associated with heavy physical labor.
- Classes are heavy sports.
- Inflammatory processes in the genitals.
- Delay in sexual development.
- Testicular hypofunction in men.
- Large amounts of prolactin in the blood.
- Disorders of the pituitary gland, which is accompanied by dwarfism.
A low esterol can be observed during a cycle if the follicle is not torn and a cyst forms in its place. After rupture, as a rule, the level of the hormone increases dramatically. Therefore, doctors recommend doing repeated tests throughout the menstrual cycle.
Level increase, reasons
The following pathologies and diseases can increase the amount of estradiol in the body:
- Severe liver disease, including cirrhosis.
- Diseases and disorders of the thyroid gland.
- Inflammatory diseases of the ovaries, uterus, adrenal glands. In cases of infectious diseases of the female reproductive system, temporary hormone surges are possible.
- Malignant tumors.
- Tumors of the testicles (in men).
Disease does not always lead to elevated levels of the hormone. High estradiol is observed when using drugs for hormonal treatment, as well as with poor nutrition and abuse of traditional therapy.
Symptoms with low hormone concentrations
The following signs of low estradiol exist:
- a serious violation of reproductive health: infertility, frequent miscarriages in the early period,
- chronic fatigue syndrome
- anxiety during sleep,
- unstable emotional background,
- discomfort in the breast,
- the appearance of edema,
- hair loss,
- deterioration of the skin of the face and nails,
- weight loss,
- absence of menstruation more than six months.
Symptoms with elevated hormone concentrations
The following signs of high estradiol exist:
- a large number of acne, acne,
- overweight with diet
- frequent swelling,
- severe fatigue, emotional disturbances,
- menstruation disorders, bleeding, pain,
- the appearance of fat deposits on the buttocks and chest, hair loss on the face and pubis, decreased libido,
- breast pain,
- constant feeling of numbness and coldness in the fingers and toes,
- abdominal pain, digestive disorders,
- sleep disturbances
How to conduct a study: analyzes
Blood for estradiol is always given on an empty stomach. It is not allowed to use tea and coffee without sugar, any drinks and juices. If thirst is strong, you can quench it with a small amount of clean water.
Preparation and delivery of analysis for estradiol:
- For a few days you need to exclude smoking.
- On the eve of the analysis, it is recommended not to perform physical activities, to refuse to engage in any kind of sports.
- Usually, the analysis is performed one week after the onset of menstruation, but in some cases, the doctor may prescribe other terms.
- If necessary, the analysis is repeated after 20 days.
- If a woman uses oral contraceptives, they can not be used on the day of delivery of the analysis, and the name and type of drug to inform the technician.
- A few days before the analysis you need to observe sexual peace.
- It is recommended to take tests at the same time, preferably from 8 to 10 am.
With routine diagnostics, the analysis results are prepared from 3 to 5 days. In an emergency, most often with a threatened miscarriage, the analysis can be ready within 24 hours. Ways to increase estradiol: diet and traditional medicine Phytotreatment of low estradiol is a safe and useful way to stabilize hormones.
It is recommended to use the following means:
- Sage decoction. It is necessary to use the remedy from the first days of menstruation - at this time sage is most favorable for the female body. To prepare the broth, you need 1 tbsp. l dry herbs pour boiled hot water (1 cup) and insist for 20-25 minutes. The resulting liquid must be divided into 3 doses and consumed during the day.
- Broth red brush. In a large mug of hot water you need to pour a spoonful of red brushes. Broth tormented in a water bath for several minutes, preventing boiling. After that, the liquid should infuse for at least 1 hour.
- Infusion of rape. On the cup of hot water is added about 1-1.5 Art. l grass rape ordinary. The production and use of the infusion is similar to the recipe using sage.
During the preparation of infusions and decoctions can not use boiling water. After boiling it should be left for a few minutes until the temperature drops to 80 degrees.
It is possible and with the help of food to increase estradiol.
The norms for women by age (table) can be raised using the following products:
- olive oil,
- beans, including soybeans,
- brown rice,
- bitter chocolate.
How to boost with medication
Drug medications are used for a serious decrease in estrodiol levels. It is recommended to take them in combination with vitamin-mineral complexes.
The following drugs can be used to increase the hormone:
- Estradiol valerate (dipropionate). Synthetic analogue of the hormone. The drug is prescribed not only with a decrease in the level of natural estradiol, but also to improve well-being before menopause, as well as after removal of the ovaries.
- Premarin. The preparation includes hormones of the estrogen group. It is recommended to use it to reduce the symptoms of menopause and diseases associated with it. Also, the drug is used to correct hormonal background in diseases of the female reproductive system.
- Hemafemin. It is a dietary supplement, can be used to improve the well-being of women with hormonal disorders and heavy psycho-emotional stress. As a prophylactic, it can be prescribed with a reduced level of estrogen to prevent early aging of the woman’s body.
- Proginova. The drug is a source of synthetic estrodiol. It is recommended to use it for the prevention of bone thinning during menopause and after removal of the ovaries.
How to lower using medication
Reducing estrodiol is more difficult than raising it.
When an excess of female sex hormone is recommended to use the following medicines:
- Tamoxifen. The drug is used to treat cancer and precancerous conditions of the breast in women. Regular intake of the drug in a lower dose prescribed by a doctor leads to a decrease in estrogen levels.
- Orgametril. Contains synthetic hormone gestogen, antagonist of female sex hormones. Negatively affects ovulation, prevents conception. Used for contraception, postponement of menstruation, and for heavy bleeding from the uterus.
- Mastodinon. Herbal preparation that is used for the treatment and prevention of mastopathy. Homeopathic remedy is great for women whose hormone level is slightly elevated and leads to painful sensations in the chest and PMS.
- Indiol. It is used to stabilize the hormonal balance. It can be used in the initial stages of cancer treatment. The course of treatment of increased estrodiol - from 3 months to six months.
Hormones and a healthy lifestyle
Lifestyle is one of the indicators that directly affect the hormones of every woman. Smoking is one of the most negative factors for a woman’s endocrine health. With elevated and lowered estradiol it is forbidden to smoke even in small quantities.
An important component of hormonal health is sport. With an increased level of estradiol, it is recommended to engage in strength sports, weightlifting, to have a high physical load. This contributes to the release of male sex hormones, which are female antagonists and reduce its level.
With a reduced amount of hormone, it is better to give preference to various meditations and yoga.
The female endocrine system is highly dependent on nutrition. With a large amount of estrodiol, it is forbidden to use legumes, especially soy. Beer is a phyto-hormone, so women should not use it in large quantities. It is allowed to drink only dry red wine no more than one glass per day.
Knowledge of the estradiol level table in women by age helps to find out about the approaching menopause, change lifestyle and adjust certain medications.
Video about the hormone estradiol, its normal performance and methods of normalization
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