Aging is an inevitable stage in the life of everyone. Organs gradually reduce their functionality, body parts are physically degraded, the process of organism wilting begins.
One of the signs of aging in women are menopause and menopause. During this period, the release of gonadotropic hormones into the blood is significantly reduced, which is the main cause of the natural cessation of menstruation.
Menopause: Definition and Types
Menopause is the result of very complex processes that occur in a woman’s body. This stage is accompanied by the complete or partial fading of ovarian function, which indicates the termination of the reproductive capacity of the woman.
Depending on what causes this process, distinguish between pathological, physiological and artificial menopause.
Premature or abnormal menopause can be a consequence of diseases of the female genital organs. For example, tumor formations can cause pathological changes, symptomatically resembling menopausal syndrome. Age, however, is not perceived as an important characteristic, since the illness can also be trapped in twenty years.
Artificial menopause usually occurs when exposed to the body from the outside: surgery in the urogenital system, chemical and radiotherapy, pronounced stress or traumatic effects. The most common cause of the onset of artificial menopause is the removal of the organs of the reproductive system (ovaries or uterus).
Physiological menopause, unlike other forms, is a normal process that encompasses a childbearing period.
The female hormone estradiol, necessary for menstruation and pregnancy, during the reproductive activity of the body is produced mainly by the ovaries. Over time, the reproductive system loses the ability to produce hormones, and this function is partly assumed by the adrenal cortex. Since the level of estradiol production is unstable, the menstrual cycles fluctuate for a while, and with a critical decrease in the hormone and completely disappear, menopausal syndrome occurs. Age in this case plays an important but not decisive role. For most women, natural aging occurs between 45 and 55 years. But this unpleasant moment can be delayed, adhering to several important rules:
- lead a healthy lifestyle, - minimize the intake of fatty foods and alcohol, - exercise, - spend at least two hours a day in the fresh air, - avoid stress.
Menopause and menopause characterize the transition of the female body from the reproductive period to the time of complete cessation of menstrual bleeding. This is a kind of stage (this is how “climax” is translated from Latin), to which each woman steps at a certain moment. Contrary to popular belief, female menopause does not occur at all at the same time. The age range can vary and depends on lifestyle, environmental factors, hereditary predisposition. Statistics say that menopause normally occurs in the period of 45-55 years. This age is the starting point for the extinction of female sexual functions. The appearance of menopause before the age of forty five is considered early and requiring attention to the state of health of the woman.
It is known that the main causes of menopause are age-related changes in the female body, but in the modern world, menopause can occur much earlier than the due time. This pathology may be due to a single negative factor or their combination.
For example, in non-smoking and non-alcoholic women, the reproductive age is on average 2 years higher. Food that a woman consumes is also important. To preserve youth, a special diet is needed, including vegetables and fruits and excluding fatty, overly salty and smoked food.
Psychological factors also play a significant role. Many women who have suffered a strong emotional shock, faced with manifestations of menopause at a fairly early age. The first signs of menopause at age 40 are not a scary myth. Because of the constant emotional stress that lurks at every turn, for a modern woman such situations are not uncommon.
Undoubtedly, the gynecologist can determine the onset of menopause in a woman by conducting a series of diagnostic studies. However, in reality, many women of the active age of 40-50 years is difficult to find time to visit a doctor. Fortunately, an alternative method has recently emerged to reliably determine the onset of menopause.
To help the woman comes home FRAUTEST diagnostic test for the determination of menopause. It is not at all difficult to carry out the test: you need to collect a portion of urine in a small container, immerse the test strip in it up to the mark and evaluate the result within the time specified in the instruction. Testing is carried out twice with a break of one week. The reliability of the test is 99%, which is comparable to the accuracy of laboratory blood tests for FSH. A test (in which two strips for double testing) can be purchased at pharmacies in your city.
Stages of menopause
Doctors call menopause a certain chain of physiological events that stretch over time.
Hormonal restructuring of the body is divided into three main periods:
1) Premenopause is the process immediately preceding menopause. It begins at 40-45 years and lasts from three to five years.
The symptomatology of the period is characterized by hormonal alteration of the body: the follicle-forming function of the ovaries is gradually depleted, which leads to disruption of the production of sex hormones. During premenopause and during menopause, the discharge is scanty, and the interval between cycles is twice or three times higher than the allowable one. The ovulation stage with the release of the egg is first reduced in time, and then completely disappears from the cycle, excluding the possibility of becoming pregnant. Despite changes in the functionality of the ovaries, the structure of the uterus does not undergo key changes, and its endometrium retains its inherent properties.
2) Perimenopause is the period of cessation of menstrual flow. It lasts up to 12 months from the last menstrual period. When this occurs, the restructuring of the whole organism.
3) Postmenopause is the final stage of the hormonal restructuring of the female body, which originates from the 13th month after the cessation of menstruation and speaks of the complete loss of the ability to bear children.
During this period, the body is most susceptible to the formation of atypical cells in the tissues, which is the main cause of cancer. In addition, due to age-related changes, the development of diseases that have not been observed previously is possible. In this regard, we need constant monitoring of hormone production and the overall health of women. The survey is recommended to make at least 2 times a year.
The onset of age-related changes in the female reproductive system is indicated by the main signs of menopause. At the age of 40, symptomatic manifestations practically do not differ from the symptoms in case of timely menopause.
The main symptoms of menopause:
1) Violation of the menstrual cycle or lack of menstruation. Due to a decrease in the level of sex hormones, the ability of the ovaries to reproduce the ovulation process is significantly reduced. This leads to the loss of reproductive functions.
2) Hot flashes - a sudden burning sensation in the chest that spreads to the whole body. Hot flushes are often accompanied by excessive sweating and tremors, and subsequently cold chills. The frequency of tides - 1 every 1-2 hours, duration from 3 to 10 minutes.
3) Irritability, insomnia and depression are a consequence of hormonal changes in the body.
4) Dryness in the vagina. Due to the lack of the hormone estrogen, less secretion lubricant is secreted, and as a result the vaginal mucosa dries out.
5) Loss of sexual desire and interest to the partner. Dryness in the vagina causes discomfort during intercourse, the woman does not get pleasure, therefore, begins to associate sex with torture. She ceases to show sexual activity and with irritation reacts to the initiative of the man.
6) Urinary incontinence occurs due to a sharp decrease in the muscle tone of the urogenital system. Especially often such processes occur during coughing, sneezing, laughter and other sudden stresses, which causes moral discomfort in women.
7) Lack or increase of appetite. Due to the unstable level of hormones, taste preferences and the required dosage of food can fluctuate. Sometimes a woman has an overwhelming feeling of hunger, and sometimes there is no appetite at all.
8) Significant change in body weight.
9) The feeling of chronic fatigue is characteristic of almost all women who go through this stage - menopausal syndrome. Age is not of paramount importance.
10) Blood pressure fluctuations.
The presence of the above symptoms may unmistakably indicate one thing - the menopausal syndrome has come. Age in this case has no clear boundaries, and can vary from 40 to 55 years.
It is noticed that in half of the cases, the menopausal syndrome begins to appear long before the onset of the first signs of menopause: there are problems with conception and then carrying the child, there is a frequent violation of the menstrual cycle, sexual desire is dulled.
Complications of menopause: bleeding and associated diseases
It is difficult to overestimate the importance of the hormone estrogen for the female body. He is not only responsible for the reproductive function of women, but also affects the work of all systems of life activity.
Menopause, reviews of the symptomatic manifestations of which overwhelm the Internet, is a test period during which the body adapts to new conditions.
Estrogen deficiency during this period causes not only pathological changes in tissues and organs, but also leads to psychological disorders due to vegetative-neurotic disorders. This can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, stroke, coronary disease and hypertension.
During menopause, there is a decrease in the immune defense of the woman’s body. This can cause the development of autoimmune and infectious diseases.
Bleeding in menopause is not normal, but about 40 percent of women have at least once encountered this pathological manifestation.
Climacteric bleeding is inherent in mainly women with early menopause. They are caused by sharp fluctuations in hormone production and impaired ovulation. The endometrium of the uterus is subject to pathological changes, as a result of which bleeding of various degrees of intensity may occur.
During this period, a thorough examination and constant medical observation is necessary, since bleeding can indicate the development of malignant neoplasms in the uterus.
In severe form of menopazal bleeding, inpatient treatment is performed using hormone therapy.
Symptomatic manifestation of menopause is held for each woman individually, depending on the characteristics of the organism.
Among the external signs, it is worth noting menstrual disorders, the appearance of headaches, hot flashes, excessive irritability, mood swings and a decrease in sexual activity.
Laboratory signs of menopause - reduced estrogen production and increased follicle-stimulating hormone.
To confirm the beginning of the period, it is necessary to contact a gynecologist, as well as an endocrinologist, and conduct a laboratory study.
The simplest method of laboratory determination of menopause is a test for menopause. In appearance and method of application, it resembles a pregnancy test.
To conduct it, you must use the first morning urine, as it contains the highest level of hormones. The presence in the urine of follicle-stimulating hormone will indicate the beginning of menopause.
The test should be carried out at the first external signs of menopause. If the cycle is regular, it is necessary to do a test in the first days of the cycle and repeat the procedure in a week. With an irregular cycle, the test period is not important. If a positive result of 2-3 tests is necessary, you should consult a doctor who will conduct additional diagnostics and make appropriate appointments.
Menopausal syndrome: therapy
Symptoms of menopause can be expressed by varying degrees of severity, therefore, medications for menopause vary in their composition and effects on the body.
Even if the process of hormonal alteration proceeds according to a normal schedule and pathologies do not manifest, additional body support is required. In this case, it is necessary to take vitamin-mineral complexes, which normalize metabolic processes in the body.
Vitamin complexes such as Menopause and Menopace have proven themselves well. They include multivitamins with micro and macro elements, which are sources of energy for the body, strengthen bones and nervous system, prolong the life of the ovaries.
During menopause, it is also necessary to take symptomatic medications that alleviate external symptoms (sedative, hypnotics, lower blood pressure).
Drugs for menopause in women can be homeopathic. They are designed to restore hormones, increase the activity of the ovaries and resume the production of the hormone estrogen. The most effective drugs: Estrovel, Isoflavone, Klimaksan and Klimaktoplan.
If the drug is positively perceived by the body, the menopause will be postponed, and all the symptoms associated with menopause will be temporarily eliminated.
For severe complications during the menopazal period (obesity, exacerbation of cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis), hormone replacement therapy is prescribed, including the administration of estrogen preparations. These are: Hormplex, Proginova, Premarin and Estrofem.
In addition, there are tools used for combination therapy, which are designed to eliminate the discomfort at the initial stage of menopause and stabilize the menstrual cycle. Among such funds can be distinguished drugs "Klimonorm", "Klymen", "Femoston" and "Divitren".
When a woman has menopause, pills and other types of drugs are recommended to be taken only after consultation with the doctor. Self-medication can aggravate the symptoms and cause irreversible changes in the body.
Folk remedies that restore sexual function during menopause
Hormone therapy is undoubtedly effective, but it has a number of contraindications and is not available to everyone. In this case, herbal medicine comes to the rescue. In the piggy bank of traditional medicine, you can find recipes for tinctures and decoctions that can significantly alleviate the symptoms of menopause. The components are easy to find at any pharmacy, and their cost is significantly lower than that of traditional medicine.
The most popular folk remedy for menopause, relieving hot flashes, is based on only three components: sage leaves, valerian roots and horsetail grass. To prepare the broth, you need to take 2 tsp. each component, pour 3 tbsp. boiling water and infuse for two hours. Take 1/3 cup three times a day.
Another folk remedy for menopause, helping to minimize its pathological symptoms - this is a tincture of mountain ash. For its preparation it is necessary to grind 200 g of fresh berries, then pour them with 1 liter of brandy. The period of infusion - 2 weeks. Take the tool must be 1 tsp. 3-4 times a day. Since mountain ash is a natural energetic and a storehouse of useful substances, taking tincture will positively affect the work of the whole organism.
An excellent means of leveling hormones during menopause, is the tincture of the root of the red brush. To prepare the medicine, you need to take 50 g of rhizomes and pour 1 l of vodka. After a week of insisting take 1 tbsp. l 3 times a day.
Diet and lifestyle during menopause
In the modern world, many women await the menopausal syndrome quite early. The manifestations of the first signs depend on the rhythm of life, nutrition, physical and emotional stress.
Quite common causes of menopause are bad habits, such as smoking and drinking, eating habits, eating hard, and also having a sedentary lifestyle.
В период менопаузы в организме происходит ряд изменений, и для поддержания его тонуса необходимо соблюдение определенной диеты и изменения образа жизни.
В первую очередь следует нормализовать питание. It is especially important to reduce fat intake, since during this period a woman can quickly gain excess weight. It is necessary to exclude from the diet such foods that contain "hidden fats." You should also abandon the fast food. Food is preferable to use stewed or boiled, ideally - steamed.
By reducing estrogen in a woman's body, the amount of calcium decreases, leading to osteoporosis. Therefore, a woman during this period should eat fish, eggs, low-fat dairy products.
With menopause and menopause, a woman may experience irritability and insomnia caused by a lack of magnesium. Therefore, a woman should eat buckwheat, barley, sea kale, hazelnuts, pistachios, peanuts, cashews, walnuts and pine nuts, as well as almonds.
Vitamins during menopause are an integral part of the diet of women. They increase the body's resistance and immune defense. The priority place in the diet should be allocated to fruits, vegetables, cereals and nuts. It is in these products contains the largest number of nutrients needed by a woman during menopause.
In addition to eating, you need to reconsider the lifestyle: spend more time outdoors, sleep at least 7 hours a day, if possible avoid stressful situations.
Pregnancy after menopause
The main role in the life of a woman is procreation, that is, carrying and bearing a child. The most favorable period for this is in the range from 20 to 35 years. It is at this age that a woman is fully formed physically and morally, all her organs are working at full capacity, the body is ready to provide the unborn child with all the necessary elements for normal development.
Pregnancy at a later age may carry the risk of pathological development of the fetus. Despite this, many women decide to have a baby even in menopause.
Since the hormones estrogen and progesterone are responsible for the processes of conception and development of the fetus, with the reduction of their production the probability of conception decreases. But this does not mean a complete loss of childbearing function. Modern drugs for menopause in women can conceive and carry the child within two years after the onset of menopause. But is this risk justified?
With the onset of menopause, a number of changes occur in the female body, which adversely affect the development of the fetus: chronic diseases are exacerbated, the emotional state is unstable, the body’s internal reserves are running out. In this case, pregnancy and childbirth will be a serious challenge for both women and children.
What is climax?
The menopausal period is nothing but the gradual completion of the reproductive mission. Under the influence of biological mechanisms in the body, the production of female sex hormones is gradually reduced. This provokes a decrease in the intensity of the ovaries. On the background of the fact that follicles cease to mature in them, ovulation does not occur, the menstrual bleeding gradually disappears. And then you can say that menopause has come, and the ability to bear children is completely lost. However, this process is quite long, its progression involves the passage of several stages, characterized by their distinctive features and timeframes.
For many women, menopause is difficult, accompanied by many unpleasant symptoms, but this is not always the case. About 30% of women overcome this segment of life with minimal discomfort. One way or another, but the beginning of menostasis is inevitable, therefore it is highly desirable to arm yourself with comprehensive information about possible “pitfalls” of this stage of development.
About the age at which menopause begins, and what features marked its beginning, let's talk in more detail.
When is menopause?
As mentioned above, menopause does not come overnight. This is a fairly lengthy process, which includes several important steps.
- The first stage is premenopause. This period is characterized by the onset of hormonal changes, during which the woman notes not immediately. The amount of progesterone and estrogen in the blood decreases. Under the influence of hormonal changes, the first symptoms of menostasis gradually appear: the menstrual cycle loses its regularity, and the discharge itself becomes either excessively abundant or scarce, PMS manifests itself more clearly, the emotional state becomes unstable. Premenopause can begin after approximately 45 years, but this figure is rather arbitrary and depends on a number of factors. Read how to prevent early menopause following the link. The duration of this stage is also individual. Her performance ranges from 2 to 6 years. Read what are the symptoms of menopause in women 40 years of age.
- Menopause is the climax of climacteric changes, when the transformation of the reproductive system is most active. Ovulation processes gradually stop completely, which is explained by the achievement of the minimum hormone levels. This stage is characterized by the complete cessation of menstruation and the most pronounced symptomatology of the pathological syndrome. Menopause continues for another year after the last menstrual periods were recorded. The average age of occurrence of this period varies in the range from 50 to 55 years, but may deviate somewhat from these indicators in a greater or lesser direction.
- Postmenopause is the last stage of the menopause, which begins a year after the last menstruation has passed and continues until the end of a woman’s life. As a rule, postmenopausal proceeds more calmly, because the main reforms of the reproductive system are considered to be completed. In some cases, the symptoms of pathological menopause persist for several years after the completion of menopause.
Types and causes of menopause
Considering the question of how many years menopause begins in terms of average indicators, it would be wrong to ignore possible deviations from the norm, because its arrival is not always due to natural biological causes. Depending on these very causes, climax can be:
Surgical menopause, starting from the removal of the uterus and ovaries. If one ovary is removed, or only the uterus, it comes earlier than usual, which is easily explained, because the reproductive system is no longer functioning properly. Complete removal of the reproductive organs leads to a sharp onset of menopause,
Drug, occurring while taking drugs whose action is aimed at inhibiting ovarian function. This method of therapy is indispensable in the fight against endometriosis, infertility, cancer processes of the organs of the female reproductive system. Medicinal menopause is reversible, after the cessation of the reception of these funds, the reproductive function can be restored.
Symptoms of the onset of the menopausal period
Only a third of the weaker sexes has a relatively asymptomatic menopausal period. As a rule, a woman still experiences a certain discomfort that accompanies the arrival of menopause. Under the influence of the constant decrease in the blood level of hormones, the body has to constantly adapt to the new state. At this point, already existing diseases often become aggravated, and those who still behaved "quietly" make themselves felt.
The main signs of menopause can be conditionally divided into several groups, depending on what sphere changes affect.
- the main sign - attacks of tides,
- excessive sweating, impaired thermoregulation,
- lack of air,
- trembling in limbs
Symptoms of the cardiovascular system:
- bouts of pain in the heart that are difficult to identify from attacks of angina or heart attack,
- pulse imbalance
- ventricular extrasystole.
From the genitourinary system:
- menstruation irregularity, changes in the nature of discharge,
- thinning of the mucous, causing a feeling of dryness and discomfort,
- decrease in the secretory function of the genital organs, accompanied by pain during sexual intercourse,
- reduced sexual desire
- increased recurrence of thrush (candidiasis) and other inflammatory processes caused by conditionally pathogenic microorganisms,
- decreased muscle tone of the urinary system, expressed in the urethral syndrome.
Signs of trouble from the nervous system:
- frequent mood swings,
- outbursts of uncontrollable anger,
- increased touchiness
- memory and concentration problems
- aggravation of PMS,
- apathy and depression developing on its background.
Changes in skin and soft tissues:
Signs from the musculoskeletal system:
- soreness of the joints, which is often disturbed at night,
- muscle aches and cramps
- exacerbation of existing diseases of the joints and spinal column under the influence of degenerative processes.
To determine the onset of menopause, do a simple test for the content of follicle-stimulating hormone in the urine.
Early and late menopause - norm or pathology?
Sometimes the time when menopause begins in women is greatly shifted to an increase or decrease.
The diagnosis of early menopause is made in cases where menopause occurs before the age of 45 years. Many factors can provoke it: hereditary predisposition, hormonal disruptions, endocrine disorders, alcoholism and smoking.
Early menopause is always stressful for a woman, because most often it is not the termination of childbearing that most fears, but the consequences that accompany this process.
If menopause occurs before reaching the age of 40, then it sometimes violates all plans for the rest of the life, because in this age of women’s emancipation, the decision to become a mother is often postponed for later periods.
If menstruation persists until the age of 55, then we can safely say that a woman has a late menopause. He, as a medal, has two sides: on the one, this phenomenon brings a number of advantages, because all pathological changes will occur later, which means that the quality of life will remain at the same level longer.
But on the other hand, this is true only in cases where late menopause is not provoked by pathological disorders in the reproductive system. However, it is often the cause of late menopause.
In any case, the reasons for which may begin an untimely menopause, should be given to understand an experienced specialist.
Is it possible to affect the time of onset of menopause?
At what age a woman’s menopause will begin, and how severe her symptoms will be, depends largely on how her reproductive age has passed, so you should be careful about your body when you are young so that you don’t have to reap the fruits of your indifference.
What conditions help to delay the age of menopause? In this important role played by:
- giving birth and breastfeeding 2 or more children
- lack of abortion and sexually transmitted diseases,
- having a regular intimate life,
- the absence of pathologies in the activity of the endocrine, sexual, cardiovascular system,
- balanced diet,
- lack of addiction,
- having regular physical activity,
- the ability to avoid stress and to adapt to them in optimal time,
- regular visits to the doctor in order to timely adjust menopausal changes and prevent the occurrence of associated diseases.
It is important to realize that menopause is a natural biological process, it is programmed by nature itself, therefore its safe passage is not an exception, but the norm. Climax is not a disease. Another question is that by the time when menopause begins in women, sometimes there are already many sets of disorders in the work of organs and systems that exacerbate the symptoms. Therefore, it is extremely important from the young age to regularly visit the attending physician, who will help to overcome this important period with the least loss.
Menopause and its varieties
The onset of menopause in women is a consequence of the most complex processes occurring in the body throughout life. The menopausal period is characterized by full or partial extinction of the functionality of the ovaries. This is the reason for the extinction of the reproductive capabilities of a woman.
There are different types of menopause, which, depending on the preceding reasons, may be in the following form of flow:
Menopause in women pathological form The course may be a consequence of the development of pathological changes in the genital system of organs. For example, the appearance of a tumor neoplasm can cause the manifestation of symptoms similar to the symptoms of menopausal syndrome. Moreover, the timing of the onset of such menopause may be different, since the pathological neoplasm can occur in 25 years and 50 years.
Offensive artificial form Menopause is a consequence of external factors on the female body, which may include surgery on the organs of the urogenital system: hysterectomy, oophorectomy, chemical and radiation therapy used to treat cancer, severe stress, as well as the consequences of injury. But in most cases, menopause, caused by artificial means, is the result of surgical removal of the uterus or ovaries.
And finally, the beginning physiological form menopause, or menopause, is a natural process of aging of the female body with the gradual extinction of childbearing functionality.
Why does menopause come?
Female sex hormones - estrogens, necessary to ensure the menstrual function of the reproductive system of organs, as well as the onset and subsequent normal development of pregnancy, are actively synthesized in the ovaries throughout the fertile period. But with age, the female reproductive organs begin to gradually lose their ability to produce these hormones. As a result, this responsibility is partially transferred to the adrenal cortex, but the level of hormones produced by it is noticeably lower than the ovaries produced in the fertile period. Therefore, the production of estradiol becomes not constant, which leads to fluctuations in the menstrual cycle, a change in the nature of its flow over a certain amount of time. If the level of hormone production is reduced to a critical point, then menstruation may disappear altogether with the subsequent appearance of menstrual syndrome. In such a situation, a lot depends on the physiological age of a woman, but not all.
The timing of menopause depends on many factors that are present in a woman’s life, but on average, menopausal changes occur in the female body at the age of 42–50 years.
There are certain rules that you can slightly delay the time of menopause:
- active and healthy lifestyle,
- exclusion from the diet of fatty foods and alcohol-containing products,
- moderate exercise
- daily pastime in the open air at least 120 minutes a day.
Among other things, it is recommended to exclude stressful situations whenever possible.
Climax and the onset of menopause are clear characteristic processes characteristic of the transitional period of the female body from the stage of reproductive functionality to the end of the menstrual cycle.
Climax in translation from Latin means “degree”, on which every woman should enter her own life activity at a certain time. It has been established that the period of menopause in all women falls on a different age period. And this is not surprising, because menopause begins depending on the impact of various factors:
- Environmental conditions, especially climatic.
- Features of genetic predisposition, which are inherited.
The statistics asserts that the onset of menopause should normally occur at the age of 45-47 years. It is from this period that experts consider the beginning of the extinction of the functionality of the reproductive system of the female body.
But the period of menopause can come up to 45 years, accompanied by specific symptoms and a rapid change in the menstrual function of the ovaries. This course of menopause is called early, requiring a special approach to the state of the body and the general well-being of a woman in a given period of life.
It is established that the age-related change of the organism is the main cause of the menopausal period. But also the modern life of the majority of the fair sex is oversaturated with negative factors, bad habits and a wrong lifestyle, which influences the onset of the menopausal period before the due date. Это может стать следствием воздействия как одного патогенного воздействия, так и их общей совокупности.As the following statistics prove: non-smoking women and non-drinking alcohol-containing beverages begin to experience the first manifestations of menopause, which occurs several years later than women who do not refuse these bad habits.
Moreover, the diet of a woman also plays a huge role. In order to preserve the complexion, firmness and elasticity of the skin as long as possible, it is necessary to exclude from the daily diet all fried, fatty, spicy, salty and smoked dishes. But, moreover, to fully enrich their menu with fresh vegetables and fruits.
In the climacteric period, especially at the age of its occurrence, the psycho-emotional state of the woman plays a significant role. If a woman in the recent past faced a powerful shock on an emotional background, then the pre-menopausal period in this case can begin much earlier than the natural onset of menopause. The flow of menopause in women at the age of forty is becoming more frequent due to the regular emotional turmoil that happens at every step in the modern world.
The stages of menopause
Specialists characterize the entire duration of menopause as a chain of interrelated processes of change in the female reproductive system, differing from each other in specific manifestations and a time interval. Hormonal changes in the female body are divided into three stages of menopause: premenopause, menopause and postmenopause. Premenopause and postmenopause are the longest phases of menopause. Consider each of them.
- Premenopausal period, or premenopause - This is the time period of life. It precedes the menopause itself. It begins, approximately, after 40 years and lasts for 3-4 years. Over the course of premenopause, changes in the menstrual cycle are observed with increasing periods of the onset of menstruation and gradual extinction of the functioning of the ovaries, which leads to a decrease in the likelihood of conception followed by procreation. But do not forget that the pre-menopausal period does not entail a complete extinction of the reproductive function. The ovaries still retain their functioning a little more, therefore, the release of a mature egg from the follicle, fertilization and the onset of a sudden pregnancy are possible. Therefore, with the onset of menopause, it is not recommended to refuse contraceptives.
- Menopause, or as it is also called perimenopause, which runs for 12 months from the day of the last menstrual cycle. During menopause, the body begins the basic preparation for the transition to the senile period. Moreover, during the period of menopause, there is a full-fledged completion of the menstrual functionality, provided that during the year there will be no monthly wards.
- Postmenopause - This is the final stage in the climacteric period, characterized by the complete extinction of the reproductive abilities of the female body, starting immediately after menopause. The postmenopausal period in a woman lasts until the end of her life. Throughout postmenopause, the likelihood of developing cells of atypical origin increases. This may cause the formation of a cancer in the genital system of the female body.
A characteristic feature of the menopausal period in postmenopausal women is the likelihood of associated pathological changes that have never been observed before.
Therefore, in postmenopausal women need not wait for the moment when there is aggravation of incomprehensible symptoms in its manifestation: the formation of bleeding or whitish discharge - and immediately sought medical help in order to undergo all the necessary diagnostic methods. Regular examination and a visit to the gynecologist (at least 2 times in half a year) will help prevent the development of the oncological process, which is observed in 70% of all cases in women over 55 years old.
Peculiarities of menopause, manifested in a 40-year-old woman, are virtually indistinguishable from the symptoms of the natural onset of menopause.
Some women tolerate menopause, not noticing particular changes, but in most cases, the following changes are noted among the symptomatic manifestations of menopause:
- The level of estrogen, which affects the menstrual functionality of the female reproductive system, begins to decline. This entails a change in the nature of the menstrual period: there are delays with different amplitudes of the flow.
- There are bouts of hot flashes, accompanied by a feeling of sudden heat in the face, neck and chest, not rarely replaced by chills.
- Disturbances of psycho-emotional state, characterized by increased irritation, tearfulness and nervousness.
- There is dryness in the vagina, which causes discomfort during intercourse.
- Decreased libido and sexual activity.
- Disturbances in the urogenital system, manifested by urinary incontinence during extreme physical exertion: laughter, coughing, or sneezing.
- An active set of extra pounds.
- The appearance of chronic fatigue.
- The spasmodic nature of blood pressure, significantly affecting overall well-being.
In the presence of the above symptomatic manifestations can be judged on the beginning of the menopausal syndrome. But in order to exclude the development of possible pathologies, it is recommended to check the condition of your body in the context of clinical research.
Proven indicators of the state of the female body are the basis for making an accurate diagnosis - the presence of pathology or the beginning of the menopausal period.
Climacteric symptoms may manifest themselves in varying degrees, and therefore therapeutic treatment must be chosen individually in each case, taking into account all the features of the state of the female body.
Even in the case when menopause proceeds without any special changes, qualified specialists recommend supporting the immune system of protection with the intake of vitamin-mineral complexes that help strengthen and protect all systems of internal organs from the effects of hormonal adjustment.
Among the most popular and effective vitamin complexes are noted such as "Menopace"And"Menopause". The composition of these drugs include all the necessary components that contribute to the strengthening of bones, the nervous system and the extension of the functionality of the ovaries over time.
And also can be prescribed drugs symptomatic spectrum of exposure, which include:
- drugs sleeping pills,
- medications to reduce blood pressure.
- In the acute form of the manifestation of menopausal symptoms, experts recommend drugs from the group hormone replacement therapy. Among which are marked such as: Proginova, Estrofem and Premarin.
- As combined approach to therapeutic treatment to eliminate unpleasant symptoms in the initial stages of menopause, drugs such as Klymen, Femoston and Clemonorm.
- In the presence of contraindications to the use of hormone-containing drugs, alternatives are drugs developed on a plant-based basis, including phytoestrogens. The most popular phytopreparation "Estrovel, Developed to eliminate the symptoms of menopause and prevent the development of osteoporosis.
With the onset of menopause with pestering symptoms, it is necessary to initially consult with a specialist, to go through all the necessary diagnostic methods for identifying comorbidities. And only after consulting a doctor can you use the prescribed medications to normalize your general well-being. Self-treatment for menopause is not recommended to be engaged, as there is a likelihood of irreversible effects.
Useful video on this topic:
What is the menopause?
Menopause is a step that leads to the complete extinction of the childbearing function. A few decades ago, it was believed that menopause is a forerunner of old age, and the lady who entered this phase can no longer be young, fit and beautiful. Today, the average life expectancy in Russia is 80 years, and menostasis begins at about 50 years, which means that more than a third of their life modern ladies spend in menopause. This fact clearly indicates that menostasis is not old age and, with an adequate attitude towards herself, her age and health, can be a wonderful time when a lady can finally live for herself.
Menopause is a life stage that makes it impossible to conceive and give birth. Nature herself took care of that women in old age could no longer have children, because pregnancy and childbirth is a great stress for the body, and in old age it is no longer necessary for women to have such stress. Moreover, carrying a child after the age of 50 can result in the development of various gene mutations in a baby, which means that nature has worried not only about the beautiful half of humanity, but also about healthy offspring.
Important! Menopause should not be confused with menopausal syndrome. In the first case it is a natural process that does not require treatment, in the second it is a pathology.
Age of menopausal period
Despite the fact that the topic of menopause often occurs in various women's forums, many women still have a lot of questions that bother them. So almost all the fair sex are interested in how menopause begins, in how many years the climacteric period begins, what are its first symptoms and whether this condition should be treated. Consider these questions in more detail and try to give full answers to them:
How old is menopause?
This question is asked by girls who have just turned 30 years old. They are already beginning to worry about the fact that menopause will soon come, and they begin to write off any discomfort at the beginning of hormonal adjustment. Doctors say that at the age of 30 it is still too early to experience menopause. The average age of onset of hormonal adjustment 45-50 years. This means that 85% of women experience the first symptoms of menopause in this particular age range. There are, of course, exceptions, when menopause comes sooner or later, but most often such deviations are laid genetically and if the patient did not have these phenomena in the family, it is unlikely that she will face them, provided that there are no other provoking factors.
Today, to determine the timeliness of the menopausal period, doctors use the following table:
- 35-40 years old - premature.
- 40-45 years old - early.
- 45-55 years old - timely.
- From 55 years old - late.
According to statistics, women who enter the menopausal period in a timely manner, rarely face severe manifestations of menopause. After the age of 45 years, menopause flows smoothly, the body is ready for it, and treatment of such women is often not required. Another thing is when menostasis is premature or early. It is these women who often experience strong flushes, their quality of life is significantly reduced, and this condition often requires hormonal treatment.
Factors affecting the body during menopause
During menostasis, many people experience various ailments and worsening of general well-being. This is due to the emerging hormonal imbalance, when the production of sex hormones is significantly reduced and gonadotropic substances begin to predominate in the body. During this period, the following factors affect a woman's body:
- Natural age-related changes affect the receptor and mediator functions of the body. During this period, many nerve cells die, motor activity decreases, cognitive impairments appear and depressive states become more acute.
- Chronic diseases. During life, many women accumulate various diseases that are almost asymptomatic in their childbearing years, and in the climacteric period their rapid exacerbation begins. After 45 years, many patients are diagnosed with atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, diseases of the bones and cartilage and abnormalities in the psyche.
- Nervous system disorders. Deviations in the central and peripheral nervous system are the most frequent deviations in menopause. Most often, these deviations are manifested by tides and pathologies of the genitourinary system, which causes serious discomfort to patients.
- Psychosocial position. The status of the ladies menostasis is also affected by its social status, the presence of a sexual partner and professional employment. It has been proven that menopause is easier experienced by women who continue to work, have an active sex life and live in a family. Such women do not perceive their condition as the onset of old age, and therefore are less likely to be depressed.
Interesting! Severe symptoms of hormonal adjustment are most often encountered by childless ladies who are dissatisfied with their marital status and social status.
Symptoms of menopause
Doctors identify several of the most common menopausal manifestations (more here), the frequency and intensity of which can be judged on the severity of menopause. Consider the main signs of premenopause:
- Emotional disorders. Apathy and depression, hysteria and anxiety, mood swings, tearfulness and scandalousness are the main satellites of the menopausal period. Of course, these deviations may appear outside of menostasis, but it is precisely in menopause that they become pronounced, and if a woman has had psychological problems before that, they will rapidly worsen in the menopausal period.
- Sleep disturbance. More than 60% of women in menopause are experiencing this symptom. Despite seeming harmlessness, sleep disturbance is a very dangerous symptom. Lack of rest destroys the nervous system and contributes to the severe course of menopause. In case of sleep disorders, patients complain of a long sleep, frequent awakenings and poor sleep quality. Moreover, most of them begin to develop such phenomena as snoring, breathing failures, restless legs syndrome. After awakening, they feel tired, often in the morning there are headaches and increased blood pressure. Also at night, hot flushes, onions of the limbs, and rapid heartbeat interfere with sleep. All these manifestations tire a woman, and after a bad sleep she cannot fully engage in herself and household chores during the day.
- Vegetative disturbances. Many abnormalities in the autonomic nervous system are directly related to psycho-emotional abnormalities. Patients complain of pain in the heart, rapid heartbeat, pressure jumps, lack of air, hot flashes, and a feeling of fear. These symptoms are aggravated by emotional distress and stress. Also, women begin to notice a violation of the digestive tract, in particular, many develop irritable bowel syndrome. All these deviations can be corrected by taking special medications and changing lifestyle.
- Decreased performance. About 70% of patients after 55 years of age experience performance problems. This deviation is expressed in constant fatigue, decreased concentration, attention and memory. Also at this age, problems with vision and hearing begin to develop, which undoubtedly affects working capacity, making the woman more sluggish and distracted.
- Disruption of metabolic processes. This deviation causes a sharp weight gain and the development of endocrine abnormalities. Disruption of lipid metabolism is reflected in the figure, even against a background of reduced appetite. At the same time to deal with obesity is extremely difficult. Also one of the symptoms of menopause is a violation of calcium metabolism. As a result, bone density decreases, joint pathology and osteoporosis develop.
- Violations of the genitourinary system. In the first place, these disorders are reflected in sexual desire. Woman ceases to attract sex, thoughts of intimacy can even cause disgust. Further, vaginal dryness appears, and urinary incontinence appears in the late menopausal period. These disorders invariably lead to a deterioration of the psycho-emotional state, but with adequate treatment these problems can be easily avoided.
Important! All these symptoms do not necessarily appear in menostasis, only one or a few deviations can be disturbing, it all depends on the individual characteristics of the organism.
Phases of menopause
Menopause is divided into three main phases, each of which is distinguished by its symptoms and risks of developing various complications. Consider them in more detail:
- Preclimax. Premenopausal period in women is the most difficult. Many patients are interested in how long the premenopause continues. There is no unequivocal answer to this question. On average, premenopause lasts from 2 to 5 years, but there are cases when this stage is delayed for 10 years. It is in this phase that the patients experience unpleasant menopause symptoms, such as hot flashes, blood pressure jumps, migraines, sweating, etc.
- Climax. Это период, в котором уже более 1 года нет менструации. Диагноз ставится задним числом.At this stage, the patient should no longer have intense symptoms of menopause, but this increases the risk of developing various pathologies.
- Postclimax. This period follows menopause and continues for the rest of your life. In this period, the risks of developing cardiovascular diseases, osteoparosis and oncology sharply increase, so patients in post-climax must undergo annual prophylactic screenings.
What is menopause?
The menopausal period is the physiological changes in a woman’s body that are genetically programmed. During this period, the ovarian functions, that is, their hormonal and ovulatory work, are fading. In simple words, menopause can be called a transition from the reproductive phase to the non-reproductive phase, when a woman loses the ability to conceive and give birth to a child.
There is a natural menopause and pathological, caused by diseases or disruptions of hormonal function. Fading occurs gradually and can last for quite a long time, for years. This stage in medicine is called the climacteric period. The changes occurring in several stages, or as they are called, phases:
- The first phase, premenopause, begins with the appearance of symptoms characteristic of ovarian dysfunction, and lasts until the last menstrual period.
- Climax (menopause) - the last menstruation. State the state in the event that menstruation was absent for 12 months.
- Postmenopause - the phase begins immediately after menopause and continues until the end of life. It is during this period that the work of the ovaries fades away, and the menstrual periods cease completely.
At this time, many important changes occur in the body: the production of sex hormones stops, the menstrual cycle is stopped, the woman loses her reproductive functions. The body reacts individually to these changes. The condition of a woman depends on many factors, some patients easily tolerate menopause, others are forced to constantly drink medicines and consult a doctor for help.
The ovaries produce sex hormones that trigger cyclical changes in the whole body. Estrogen is responsible for the development of the endometrium and the maturation of the follicle, where the egg cell is located. Progesterone is needed to support pregnancy, if it does not occur, the level of the hormone drops sharply and menstruation begins. At the age of 30-36 years, the stock of follicles is depleted, and the production of estrogen decreases.
Due to all changes by 50 years, physicians observe a decrease and density of the ovaries. It has been scientifically proven that the onset of menopause is closely related to the state of the nervous and endocrine systems. In premenopause, the level of estrogen is stable, since this hormone is also produced by other organs. If the progesterone level falls, there is nothing to compensate for it, therefore hormonal imbalance develops over time. Against this background, changes occur in the uterus and other organs.
After a time, the body begins to respond to a lack of estrogen. Hormone receptors are located throughout the body, which provokes the unpleasant symptoms of menopause. Due to the irreversible aging of the body, menopause begins, the reasons for its development are obvious, but it happens that the menopause occurs earlier than it should be. This is due to many internal and external adverse factors, below we consider them.
Factors affecting the timing of occurrence
Climax is a multifactorial process when several changes occur simultaneously in the body, leading to the cessation of menstruation. So, what factors affect the duration of menopause:
- Genetics - heredity necessarily affects the age when menopause comes. If the mother and grandmother are in menopause at the age of 45, the daughter will most likely begin to notice symptoms at the same age, plus or minus a couple of years,
- Operations - early menopause often occurs after any surgical manipulation of the reproductive organs,
- Lifestyle - if a woman eats properly, regularly has sex, looks after a figure and visits the gym, the climacteric period comes later,
- Place of residence - a large number of sunny days postpones menopause,
- Childbearing - abortion and the number of children born affect the age of menopause. If there are 3-4 children in the family, it is necessary to wait for changes later
- Psycho-emotional state - constant stress, emotional shake-ups and nervous overstrain causes a delayed cessation of menstruation,
- Chronic diseases - diabetes, pathologies of the kidneys, liver, cardiovascular system and genital organs, as well as cancers lead to climax. According to statistics, premature menopause most often occurs in women with chronic diseases,
- Hard physical work - if a woman works in light work and does not overwork, the menopause can be “postponed” to a later date.
A happy and giving birth woman faces menopause much later. But, sometimes at the age of 55, the patient did not stop her period. Late menopause may indicate health problems, in particular breast or ovarian cancer. Therefore, it is very important to consult a doctor in time if the menopause does not occur before the age of 52-55.
Mechanism of occurrence
Menopause proceeds gradually, the body changes the work of many systems and organs, which soon leads to the disappearance of menstruation. This happens in several stages:
- The number of follicles decreases - in the majority it is connected with hormonal changes that provoked a decrease in the maturation of the follicle, and as a result, of the ovaries.
- The sensitivity of follicles to sex hormones, which are produced by the pituitary gland, decreases - sometimes this problem is genetic, but there are cases when sensitivity decreases due to the presence of gynecological diseases or hormonal disruptions.
- Estrogen secretion decreases - when the follicles mature inactive, the estrogen level decreases. The follicle in its fluid contains a lot of this hormone, but if it matures improperly or slowly, the ovaries stop producing the right amount of estrogen.
- The production of pituitary hormones is impaired - most of this process is explained by genetic factors. In addition, the activity of the ovaries affects the activity of the pituitary gland, namely, the level of estrogen and progesterone in the blood decreases.
The mechanism of menopause development is complex and individual. The processes occurring in the female body, is to stop the production of the right amount of hormones.
Menopause can occur at any age, and it depends on many factors. Early absence of menstruation or their long presence is a reason to visit a gynecologist.
Age of onset
The age of menopause in all women is different, the rate is about 50 years. Definitely say how old menopause period begins. According to statistics, most women have menopause in the period 47-52 years. Early cessation of menstruation is diagnosed before 40 years, and later after 60 years.
The above statistics refer only to natural menopause, which is caused by natural factors. In medicine, there is such a thing as a pathological menopause, when it comes, it is impossible to say for sure. Usually the cause is the removal of the ovaries or uterus, hormonal imbalance, therapy of oncological diseases.
When the menopause comes, even a doctor will not tell a woman. To determine the approximate time, you can use the average:
- 45-50 years old - premenopause,
- 50-51 year - menopause,
- 51-53 - early postmenopause,
- After 53 years - the usual postmenopause, which lasts until the end of life.
Any deviations from these numbers indicate violations that cannot be ignored.
Symptoms and signs
The onset of menopause is accompanied by specific symptoms, such as hot flashes, cycle disturbances, excessive sweating, etc. Discomfort is caused by hormonal alteration, triggered by a violation of the imbalance of sex hormones produced by the pituitary gland and the ovaries. The first symptoms of menopause can last for several years, usually until the menstrual period stops completely. Almost 80% of women face so-called heat attacks. Sudden autonomic syndrome is accompanied by heat waves, which are concentrated in the area of the face and upper body.
There are harbingers of menopause at any time of the day, but at night the sensations are stronger. To determine the beginning of menopause can be by chills, sweating, uneven facial flushing and the appearance of a vascular red pattern on the skin. If coffee and various spices are abused, the vegetative symptoms of menopause increase. Alcohol and smoking increase the number of waves, they become more pronounced.
Night sweats and hot flashes provoke a sleep disturbance, which is why a woman wakes up tired, irritable and absent-minded. About the coming menopause indicate mood swings, high blood pressure, tearfulness, worsening of concentration, cessation of menstruation. Manifestations of menopause can be weak and strong, sometimes a woman is not able to tolerate menopausal syndrome and seeks help from a doctor.
The worst thing is that menopause symptoms often mask more serious problems. During this period, women develop cardiovascular and neurological diseases, which are similar.
The main manifestations of menopause:
- Attacks of heat in the whole body.
- Increased sweating.
- Tingling and numbness of the limbs.
- Slight dizziness.
- Feeling short of air.
- Chilliness of the feet.
These symptoms are vegetative, usually they are not dangerous if there are no associated pathologies. It is important to monitor your condition and go to the clinic in case of any violations.
How to diagnose
Diagnosis of menopause is not difficult, it is to determine the symptoms and the results of laboratory tests. The main signs of menopause in blood include the following indicators:
- Low amount of estradiol,
- Increased FSH - follicle stimulating hormone
- The ratio of estrone and estradiol,
- Low level of inhibin.
- Enhance male hormones
- The ratio of hormones and FSH and luteinizing hormones.
Sometimes the doctor prescribes the patient instrumental diagnosis:
- Osteodensitometry - X-ray bone density.
- Ultrasound - revealing the level of follicles.
- Smear - necessary to identify the structure of mucosal cells.
After receiving the results, the gynecologist determines the menopause or refutes it.
What effect does it have on organs and systems?
Vegetative symptoms are not dangerous, but changes in the internal organs often lead to complications. Estrogen-deprived tissues atrophy, metabolism deteriorates, and neuroendocrine disorders develop. At the beginning of menopause, the endometrium begins to grow strongly, the uterus is soft and enlarged. Soon atrophic processes in the vagina, uterus and urethra begin.
Often there is chest pain, the ovaries shrink, and the endometrium becomes thin. The vaginal walls lose their elasticity, the amount of mucus decreases, colpitis, dryness and itching develop. During sex, the mucous membrane is injured, the inflammatory process and bleeding begins. Sometimes there is urinary incontinence, cystitis, and over time, diseases of the cardiovascular system are possible - heart attacks, strokes, etc. All these problems indicate the aging of the body. Stop the process is very difficult.
The concept and causes of menopause
The first thing to say about this state is that it is completely natural. Upon reaching the appropriate age, every female representative on our planet experiences it.
The main feature of the period after menopause is hormonal adjustment. The ovaries gradually stop producing the estrogen hormones. But this does not happen immediately - for about 2 years after the last menstruation, they still retain this function . However, then, in the absence of estrogen, many body systems begin to experience a lack of a hormone, which is why they become vulnerable to pathological changes.
Often, women in menopause, fear of menopausal syndrome. The latter is a consequence of hormonal adjustment. The severity of the syndrome depends on heredity, external conditions (lifestyle), as well as structural features of the body. On average, 26–48%  face this condition, and according to some data, up to 75%  women. Therefore, it is important to know when it is necessary to be ready for its attack.
Menopausal transition (premenopause)
Menstruation cycles become irregular, in the early stages of deviation can be up to 7 days, and in the late period the delay sometimes reaches 60 days . Often the menopausal transition occurs at the age of 40–45 years .
As we noted above, despite common beliefs, by this term doctors denote not a period, but a specific event - the last menstruation. The date is determined “in hindsight”, one year after the cessation of bleeding.
This term refers to the period that lasts throughout the life of a woman after the onset of menopause. It is associated with the end of hormonal fluctuations, stabilization of estrogen levels (low rates), and in many cases, the disappearance of unpleasant menopausal symptoms.
Sometimes menopause may come unexpectedly for a woman, although she planned to prepare for this period. In order to prevent such situations, you should learn more about the "forerunners" of menopause.
First signs of menopause
It is important for any woman to understand what is happening with her body - it helps to avoid unnecessary stress and anxiety, which only aggravate the situation. That is why you need to know about the very first signs and symptoms of menopause.
If the severity of other symptoms may be weak and can be left without attention, then one of them most clearly indicates a gradual extinction of ovarian function. And this - menstruation. At the very beginning of premenopause, the "monthly" can give a lot of surprises. In some cases, the cycle is lost in the direction of increasing the period, in others - reducing the intervals between menstruation. Although it should be noted that in 5–10% of women  the regular cycle persists until menopause.
Sometimes other symptoms make themselves felt, at first rarely and weakly, and over time more and more often. Let us consider in more detail the effect of menopause on the body systems of a woman.
As already mentioned, the climacteric period in a woman is associated with the almost complete cessation of the production of the hormone estrogen. Receptors that are sensitive to this hormone are located in many organs (bladder, heart and arteries, brain, bones, skin, etc.), which means that the work of each of them is subject to restructuring. Let's take a look at which systems are undergoing the greatest changes.
The first 1-2 years after menopause:
- Blood vessels. Associated with their work is the most associated symptom with menopause - hot flashes. These are sudden sensations of fever lasting 1–2 minutes, which are often accompanied by profuse sweating, sometimes chills, and dizziness. Quite often occur at night, which contributes to poor sleep . Also from the side of blood vessels, painful spasmodic syndromes in the region of the heart are noted .
- Nervous system. At first, postmenopausal depressions are common, frequent mood swings, sleep disorders, irritability, and concentration disorders. This is due to the effect of hormonal imbalance on the hypothalamus .
2-5 years after menopause:
- Genitourinary system. Common symptoms include dryness and discomfort in the vagina (itching, burning), frequent urination. Reducing the amount of estrogen causes disruption of the microflora of the vagina - the number of lactobacilli decreases, the pH of the medium increases . Due to insufficient blood supply, the muscle tone of the urethra gradually decreases.
- Leather also has a certain sensitivity to loss of estrogen balance. In many cases, it becomes drier, wrinkles appear. All skin appendages also suffer - hair and nails become brittle, lose their attractive appearance. This is due to a decrease in the formation of collagen with estrogen deficiency .
5-8 years after menopause:
- Bone system. One of the most dangerous risks of menopause in women is the development of osteoporosis, which is caused by the regular “leaching” of calcium from the bones, as a result, they become much more fragile. About 20–40% of women in developed countries face this problem, and in about 30%  of cases it leads to fractures. It is all about the deficiency of calcium and vitamin D on the background of hormonal changes - in order to maintain a normal level of a substance in the blood, the body independently “takes” calcium from the bones. In the postmenopausal period, a woman can lose up to 2% of bone tissue each year .
- The cardiovascular system. After menopause increases the risk of atherosclerotic events - angina, heart attacks, strokes.The protective role of estrogen in relation to the cardiovascular system practically ceases, and imbalances in the balance of calcium and vitamin D also play their role .
One of the important problems of modern medicine is to maintain the normal level of life of women after menopause. This applies both to physiological manifestations, symptoms of estrogen reduction, psychological state, and to countering the risks of developing dangerous diseases - osteoporosis and disturbances in the work of the cardiovascular system. Properly selected therapy for the manifestations of the postmenopausal syndrome allows you to avoid many of the complications that may arise during this period.
How can you reduce the severity of symptoms of menopause?
At present, the onset of menopause often coincides with the achievement of a certain level of life by a woman - the current family situation, career success, and high self-esteem. And hormonal changes violate the usual course of things, affecting well-being and attitude. Before modern medical products appeared on the shelves of pharmacies, many preferred to endure with all the symptoms of extinction of the reproductive function. Others - resorted to the help of folk remedies, often ineffective and even dangerous. But now there is no need for such extremes, because the reduction to a minimum of discomfort after menopause is possible with the help of modern medicines.
Both synthetic hormonal preparations and natural ones based on phytoestrogens are used for these purposes. These are plant compounds that have an estrogenic effect on the body — among them is genistein, an organic substance that is similar in structure to these hormones . In addition, older women are recommended to take calcium and vitamin D3 preparations - for strengthening bones, teeth and the cardiovascular system. They also stimulate the production of collagen, which can positively affect the condition of the skin and hair. There are drugs that combine these two components - genistein as a substitute for estrogen, as well as vitamin supplements. Therefore, when choosing a drug, be sure to pay attention to its composition.
What complications may occur
When menopause develops such complications:
- Exhaustion on the background of severe symptoms,
- The appearance of mastopathy and cancer,
- Uterine bleeding due to hormonal changes,
- Development of fibroma causing bleeding
- Early menopause.
In the climacteric period, the entire body is rebuilt, it is not always possible to endure this stage calmly. To identify complications you need to regularly visit your gynecologist.
Duration of menopause
How long the menopausal period lasts is a difficult question. Normally, menopause lasts 1-3 years. The numbers may differ, because the body of each woman is individual. You need to rely on the time when menstruation stops completely. If this happened, then the period of postmenopause began. It continues until the end of a woman’s life.
What treatment is prescribed and does it need
Mild menopause in women does not require treatment. If the patient is worried about frequent flushes, neuroendocrine disorders and colpitis are noticeable, the ovaries are removed, and then menopausal therapy is prescribed. To eliminate vaginal dryness candles are used that contain phytoestrogens.
If a woman is bothered by vegetative disorders, use herbal preparations or homeopathic remedies. Vitamins D, E, A, C and calcium are prescribed by the attending physician to support the production of estrogen. During menopause, it is important to normalize the hormones, for this appropriate therapy is selected.
Hormone replacement therapy
Possible bleeding, severe symptoms and early menopause - a reason to turn to hormone therapy (hormone therapy). A woman needs to take oral contraceptives. Most often pills are prescribed, but sometimes patches, spirals, etc. It is necessary to accept various preparations only after consultation with the doctor. Usually for this purpose the following medicines are used:
Hormone therapy is essential, in addition, antidepressants, vitamins, minerals, as well as remedies are given. The choice of the drug is carried out only by a doctor, depending on what hormone is not enough.
To alleviate the symptoms, you can take a non-hormonal drug based on herbal ingredients. It improves well-being, reduces the frequency of hot flashes, and normalizes sleep. The doctor may prescribe mood monitors, antihypertensives and anticonvulsants, as well as antidepressants. In addition, physiotherapy is used. These methods will not stop menopause, but help avoid complications and alleviate symptoms.
According to studies, women at risk of early menopause, who often undergo abortions, take alcohol, incorrectly determine the work-rest mode, overwork and have an irregular sex life. During menopause, women should have the right lifestyle. You can not drink, smoke, work hard, often nervous and not treat gynecological diseases. To prevent early menopause, it is enough to live a regular sex life, play sports, eat a balanced diet and give up all bad habits.
In our family, almost all women have early menopause. Personally, I started at the age of 44, and my mother started at the age of 42. She was saved by Remens, who was prescribed by a familiar gynecologist. I also tried, herbal components gently eliminate psychological disorders, it is now much easier. Like the fact that Remens helps to avoid many female diseases, this is a huge plus.
Ekaterina, 51 years old
I started reading about menopause a couple of years ago, the reviews of women seemed so scary to me, as much as a panic appeared. As soon as she felt the first signs, she immediately ran to the doctor. Prescribed Klimonorm, I drink courses, while everything is fine. Women, do not be afraid of doctors, today there are thousands of drugs that can help with any symptoms. No need to endure the tides and other discomfort, this will only get worse.
Svetlana, 50 years old
And I drink Qi-Klim, it suits me. The main thing is that at night the tides do not bother, but it was like sweaty at the resort. It was the heat that made me turn to a gynecologist, until it appeared that she endured all the symptoms. It is advisable to pay attention to the signs of menopause. Sometimes serious diseases of the heart and blood vessels lurk beneath them. I constantly go to the reception, while health is normal. I really hope that in the near future these torments will end.
And now my symptoms are mild, there is no particular discomfort. I understand that this is only the beginning, but I do not want to drink any pills. If we grab it too much, we drink different weeds.
The causes of the offensive
Female hormones produced in the ovaries cause cyclical changes in the uterus and the whole body. Estrogen acting in the first phase of the ovarian-menstrual cycle is necessary for the growth of the endometrium and the maturation of the follicle. It is this hormone that determines the development of secondary sexual characteristics, affects the condition of the skin and its appendages. Progesterone is needed primarily to maintain the pregnancy, a sharp drop in its level at the end of the cycle provokes the onset of menstruation.
From about 30-35 years old, a woman begins to deplete the stock of follicles. At the same time, more and more anovulatory cycles appear, and the production of estrogen begins to gradually decline. This is associated with a decrease in the sensitivity of the ovarian tissues to the regulatory hormones of the pituitary gland and slowly progressive sclerosis of the gonadal parenchyma.
At first, connective tissue appears only in the area of ovulated follicles, then the whole ovary is involved in the process. The rate of these changes increases with the appearance of age-related and atherosclerotic changes in the walls feeding the organ of the vessels. As a result, by the age of 50, the ovaries often look diminished, dense, shriveled.
Currently, it is considered that the reactivity of the nervous and endocrine systems is of great importance in reducing the functioning of the ovaries, especially the level of production of adrenocorticotropic hormone of the pituitary gland. Studies have been conducted with the transfer of practically non-functioning ovaries from aging animals to young ones. At the same time, the transplanted organ again began to produce sex hormones, the maturation of the remaining follicles was resumed in it. And in old animals, the implantation of ovaries from young individuals did not prevent menopause, but only slightly delayed its onset. These results confirm the effect of general neuroendocrine status on the development of menopause.
Initially, the overall level of estrogen in the body is still sufficient, because this hormone is produced not only in the ovaries. It is synthesized in small quantities from androgens by peripheral tissues, mainly subcutaneous fatty tissue. But there is nothing to compensate for the growing shortage of progesterone. As a result, an imbalance of sex hormones occurs, which affects the regularity of menstruation and can lead to undesirable changes in the uterus and other internal organs.
Subsequently, estrogen deficiency comes first in the pathogenesis of menopause. Receptors for this hormone are not only in the uterus. They are found in the hypothalamus, the walls of blood vessels, the skin and in many other organs. This is due to the multiplicity of symptoms that accompany the menopausal period.
Is menopause possible after medical interventions?
Sometimes cessation of menstruation and menopausal changes in the body are iatrogenic. After surgical removal of the ovaries (or most of them), chemotherapy or radiation on the pelvic organs, artificial menopause occurs. It is also called post-constructional or postovariectomy syndrome.
Removal of the ovaries or suppression of their function is carried out in the following diseases:
- malignant neoplasms of the ovaries themselves,
- endometrial, body or cervical cancer,
- extensive purulent damage to the ovaries and other pelvic organs,
- colorectal cancer with germination in neighboring organs and involvement of the uterus,
- advanced progressive endometriosis (in the absence of the effect of conservative therapy),
- malignant neoplasm in the bladder with radiotherapy,
- breast cancer, if the effect of estrogen levels on the growth rate of the tumor is confirmed,
- chemotherapy in hematology.
An acute estrogen deficiency leads to the rapid and rapid development of a whole complex of disorders to which the body does not have time to adapt. Therefore, the symptoms of menopause after removal of the ovaries (or abrupt cessation of their functioning) are usually strongly pronounced.
A condition similar to artificial menopause can also develop with organ-preserving operative gynecological interventions. For example, with uncomplicated amputation or hysterectomy, the ovaries try not to be removed. But disruption of their blood supply during ligation of the uterine arteries can lead to cessation of estrogen production with the advent of neuroendocrine and metabolic signs of menopausal syndrome. It is important to understand that cessation of menstruation after removal of the uterus while maintaining active ovarian function is not a true menopause.
What is premenopause?
Natural age-related menopause does not develop suddenly. Over the course of several years, characteristic violations appear and grow. And they affect not only the menstrual cycle. Vegetative and neuroendocrine disorders are noted, the state of the mucous membrane of the genital organs, skin and subcutaneous tissue changes. This period is called premenopause, with it begins menopause. Closer to the onset of menopause, in addition to external symptoms, there are also irreversible and progressive changes in many internal organs.
In this case, the cycle becomes irregular, possible frequent unsystematic bleeding or prolonged periods of menstruation. Such violations may appear at the age of 45 years. Gradually, menstruation is becoming increasingly rare and scarce, and after a while, finally stop. In their absence for more than 12 months, talk about the onset of menopause. At the same time, external manifestations of estrogen deficiency persist for some time, the body gradually adapts to a new state.
Can I get pregnant during this period? Many women begin to neglect contraception with the onset of premenopause. In fact, the risk of the onset and maintenance of pregnancy is still preserved, due to the presence of rare ovulatory cycles and the inconstancy of the level of sex hormones. Sometimes the cessation of menstruation due to pregnancy is taken as a sign of menopause, and the detection of a developing fetus with a planned ultrasound is a surprise.
Manifestations of the menopausal period
Usually the first worrying symptom is hot flashes — sudden vegetative bouts of heat waves felt in the face and upper body. At the same time, the skin reddens unevenly, it shows a vascular marble pattern. The heat is replaced by chills and sweating, especially strongly pronounced at night. During the day, the tides occur many times and for no apparent reason. They may persist for several years, when periods during menopause have finally stopped.
Tides are noted in almost 80% of menopausal women. The severity and frequency of these vasomotor disorders can increase with the use of coffee and spices, food with sulfites and nitrates, they are also often provoked by alcohol and tobacco smoking. It is believed that the hypothalamus plays a major role in the development of tides. This is the part of the brain in which the highest centers of the autonomic nervous system are located. The lack of estrogen disinhibits the neurosecretory function of the hypothalamus and leads to an increased activity of the sympathicadrenal system.
Due to pronounced tides in the evening-night time sleep can be disturbed. The change in its depth and duration leads to the absence of a feeling of rest in the morning, irritability and distraction of attention during the day. Concomitant complaints of memory impairment are not directly related to menopause, they are due to changes in the walls of cerebral vessels in atherosclerosis and hypertensive illness. But a decrease in concentration due to hot flashes and insomnia leads to aggravation of problems with short-term memory. Emotional lability is also often noted with tearfulness and sudden mood swings.
During the premenopausal period, there may also be complaints of numbness and tingling in the fingers, chilliness of the legs, palpitations, a feeling of lack of air, transient non-systemic unstable dizziness. All this is usually a manifestation of vegetative lability and a sharp change in the tone of peripheral vessels during menopause. But do not write off all the symptoms of hormonal imbalance, there is a risk of developing concomitant neurological and cardiovascular diseases. And the symptoms of menopause in women in this case may mask the first signs of a serious pathology.
Blood pressure instability often appears, which predisposes to the development of hypertension. Moreover, a woman can for a long time not associate dizziness, heartbeat and some other symptoms that appear with this pathology, remaining without the necessary treatment.
Impact on systems and organs
Vegetative disorders in menopause - an unpleasant, but transient phenomenon. But the changes in the internal organs can cause various complications in the post-penopopause period. They are associated with atrophy and changes in the structure of tissues devoid of estrogen influence, as well as with secondary developing metabolic and neuroendocrine disorders.
The first are changes in the genitals. In the initial stages of premenopause, progesterone deficiency prevails, which causes excessive proliferation (growth) of the endometrium. In this case, the uterus can be slightly enlarged and soft, giving the impression of juicy, filled. Subsequently, the growing failure of estrogen causes atrophic processes in the walls of the vagina, uterus and urethra. The mammary glands lose most of the fat layer, the alveolar lobules in them are sclerosed and reduced. Because of the concomitant mastopathy often hurts chest.
During menopause, the uterus and ovaries decrease by almost a third in size, the endometrium becomes thinner and more uniform. The vagina is shortened and straightened, its walls lose their elasticity and elasticity. It reduces the production of mucus, which performs a protective function and is a breeding ground for beneficial lactic acid bacteria. This leads to the development of atrophic colpitis, which is accompanied by a feeling of dryness, irritation and itching. Половой акт становится болезненным, а сопутствующие микротравмы слизистой оболочки влагалища могут стать причиной кровянистых выделений и поддерживают воспалительный процесс.
Так как начинается атрофия мышц со снижением тонуса тазового дна и уретры, может появиться недержание мочи. Поначалу оно проявляется лишь при сильном натуживании, кашле, чихании и смехе. Subsequently, the degree of dysuria increases, and due to the open mouth of the urethra, the development of an ascending infection of the excretory system is possible. Cystitis is often diagnosed.
Estrogen has a preventive effect on the cardiovascular system, increasing the elasticity of the artery walls and increasing the degree of adaptation of the body to stress. Due to the lack of this hormone in menopause, the vessels become more dense, the ability to compensate for differences in blood pressure decreases. This increases the risk of vascular accidents - myocardial infarction and stroke.
In the musculoskeletal system there is a redistribution of mineral substances and proteins, the content of collagen decreases. As a result, the bones become more fragile, and the intervertebral discs and articular cartilage become thinner and withstand dynamic loads worse. The skin and subcutaneous tissue lose their elasticity, the state of hair follicles and nails changes. Characteristic is the deposition of fat in the area of 7 cervical vertebra, which leads to the formation of a tight-elastic hump. It is called climacteric or widowed.
Complicated during the menopausal period
The complications that develop during menopause include:
- severe climacteric syndrome, when existing autonomic disorders deplete a woman,
- pathological vertebral and femoral neck fractures due to developing osteoporosis,
- breakthrough uterine bleeding associated with hormonal changes,
- endometrial hyperplasia in menopause, which increases the risk of uterine cancer,
- the appearance in the body of the uterus fibroids, which can be reborn or cause bleeding due to poor reduction of the walls of the body,
- the appearance of mastopathy and tumor-like formations in the mammary glands that threaten the development of breast cancer,
- early menopause, which may be due to a hereditary factor, existing diseases or rapid depletion of the ovaries after stimulations and irrational use of hormonal drugs.
Menopause is a period of restructuring of the whole organism, and this process is not always smooth. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly consult a gynecologist and undergo planned oncological surveys, which will make it possible to promptly identify dangerous complications.
Menopause tests include smears for oncocytology and vaginal microflora, pelvic ultrasound, and mammography. If necessary, conduct radiographic examination of the spine and bones of the hand to determine the severity of osteoporosis. This is complemented by a blood test with an assessment of mineral metabolism.
Is therapy needed?
The mild course of the menopausal period does not require medical intervention, the woman's body itself adapts to the new state. Menopause treatment is carried out with frequent flushes, pronounced neuroendocrine disorders, obvious atrophic vaginitis. Therapy is also required immediately after the removal of the ovaries. Yes, and premature menopause requires correction of the resulting violations.
For the treatment of atrophic colpitis use candles with a low content of estrogen or phytoestrogens, which allows to improve the condition of the vaginal mucosa. When expressed vegetative disorders and frequent tides are used combined herbal preparations, they are available in the form of drops or tablets. You can also use the fees of medicinal plants or individual herbs. Often appointed and homeopathic remedies.
Menopause vitamins help support the production of estrogen outside the ovaries, improve metabolism and cardiovascular system. In addition to a diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber, vitamins A, C, E, D are prescribed in isolated form or as part of a multivitamin complex. It is also desirable to saturate the body with calcium.
Hormone replacement therapy
The rapid course of menopause, the tendency to uterine bleeding, early onset of menopause, and post-castration syndrome are indications for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in the form of low-dose oral contraceptives. The most commonly used pills, but may use patches or other dosage forms. Drugs for hormone therapy are prescribed by a doctor. At the same time, regular monitoring of the state of target organs (uterus, ovaries, breasts), liver and venous system is necessary.
Non-hormonal drugs for menopause
Intake of non-hormonal drugs helps to improve well-being and reduce the number of hot flashes. According to indications, antidepressants and mood stabilizers, anticonvulsants and antihypertensives can be used. They can be supplemented with physiotherapy.
All these measures will not prevent menopause, but will avoid complications and soften the course of menopausal syndrome.
How to delay menopause?
To prevent early cessation of the ovaries, you need to get rid of bad habits, if possible, cure existing chronic diseases and lead an active lifestyle with sufficient physical activity. You should not arbitrarily use a variety of drugs that affect the state of the endocrine system and the functioning of the ovaries. It is also important to adjust your menu by adding sea fish, fresh vegetables and fruits, natural vegetable oils. It is undesirable to eat heavy food and a lot of animal fat.
For self-confirmation of characteristic hormonal changes, you can use the test for menopause, which is designed to determine the amount of follicle-stimulating hormone in the urine. When identifying a long-term increase in its concentration, it is advisable to consult a doctor to develop tactics for further behavior and selection of treatment.
Menopause is a natural period in a woman’s life. It cannot be avoided, but discomfort and the risk of complications can be significantly reduced.
Menopause is the last menstruation in a woman’s life, after which the extinction of the reproductive function begins. All organs, one way or another, wear out, and with age there is a decrease in the functionality of the ovaries, namely, their intrasecretory activity decreases, the eggs cease to mature. Insufficient production of estrogen has an effect on the body of a woman as a whole. Different groups of organs become more vulnerable to pathologies. The follicles in the ovaries are gradually replaced by connective tissue and cease to perform the functions necessary for childbirth. This leads to the impossibility of further monthly bleeding and, as a consequence, the onset of menopause.
Depending on the age of the woman, in which she had the last menstruation, menopause is distinguished:
- premature (up to 40 years),
- early (40-45),
- timely (46-54),
- later (from 55).
In the classification of this period of life there are three phases:
For the occurrence of each of them there are certain limits, characteristic of most women, although there are exceptions. Most often, the age of onset of hormonal adjustment is determined by heredity, if there are no more significant factors that influenced the patient's health..
It is characterized by the onset of irregular menstruation. This condition covers the period before the last menstrual period and may last for several years. At the beginning of premenopausal women note a delay of bleeding for 6-7 days, and before menopause there may be no discharge for up to two months. A similar period usually begins at the age of 40-45, but there are frequent cases of development at the age of 45-50.
The fact of menopause can be established after a year after the end of the last menstruation in a woman’s life. The term of its occurrence usually falls on the age of 45 to 55. According to statistics, most often menopause occurs in 51 years. However, in the case of an early process, doctors faced an end to the reproductive period in women aged 37-39.
Symptoms of menopause
The main signs of this phenomenon are associated with insufficient production of the hormone estrogen. Its lack provokes insomnia, sweating (especially at night), hot flashes - a sudden fever over the face or the whole body, followed by a transition to a feeling of cold and shivering. Such phenomena can last from 1 to 5 minutes and occur more than 20 times during the day. Too frequent tides in combination with other unpleasant symptoms significantly reduce the working capacity of women in this period.
The lack of estrogen leads to an increased leaching of calcium from bones, teeth and a decrease in the body's ability to absorb this element. This phenomenon causes osteoporosis and tooth decay. The risk of bone fractures with bruises and their healing period increases.
This period in a woman’s life may be accompanied by other manifestations:
- increased fatigue,
- emotional instability
- decreased libido,
- dry vagina
- frequent urge to urinate,
- fading of the skin,
- decrease in the size of the mammary glands,
- allergic reactions
- violation of posture, etc.
These types of symptoms significantly reduce a woman’s quality of life. For a milder climacteric, she may need medical attention.
Many women do not always associate unpleasant symptoms with the onset of menopause and complain to doctors of various profiles. To make a correct diagnosis, the doctor assesses the general condition of the patient. Premenopause is often accompanied by a characteristic appearance of the skin, the development of subcutaneous fat, and seals in the mammary glands. For a more accurate diagnosis, the doctor refers the patient to a blood test for hormones, which is performed on certain days of the menstrual cycle.
Treatment for menopause
Menopause itself is not a disease, but it is often accompanied by various unpleasant sensations that can and must be fought. To mitigate the manifestations of a similar state in modern medicine, synthesized hormonal preparations and herbal remedies based on phytoestrogens are used. These medicines are available in various dosage forms. Depending on the type of symptoms manifested, the doctor may prescribe pills, shots or vaginal suppositories.
Acceptance of effective synthesized hormones has a number of significant contraindications, one of which is a predisposition to cancer. In such cases, it is advisable to use safe phytoestrogens, which are quite effective in the early stages of menopause. To reduce the frequency and intensity of hot flashes, women may be prescribed antidepressants. To relieve not too strong emotional stress, doctors recommend taking various sedative herbal preparations.
During this period, women need to pay attention to their health. If necessary, you should change the usual way of life. Doctors recommend to quit smoking and alcohol, balance physical exertion, eat right and take walks in the fresh air. If it is impossible to include in the diet enough foods rich in nutrients, you should take vitamin complexes in the form of tablets. B vitamins have a positive effect on the nervous system, tocopherol helps to maintain the elasticity of the skin. To improve the condition of bones, teeth and skin, women need to take a complex of vitamin D3 and calcium.
Many women prefer to deal with the tides of alternative medicine without resorting to medical assistance. Such self-medication is rarely effective, because to relieve symptoms it is necessary to constantly maintain the desired level of hormones in the body. To determine the exact number of phytoestrogens in any herbal collection is not possible. Reception of harmless infusions can cause a number of side effects and provoke deterioration of a woman’s condition..
In some cases, folk remedies bring relief. Doctors associate this fact with the power of auto-suggestion. If a woman is sure that medicinal herbs will relieve her of ailments, taking the decoction can have a placebo effect. However, in cases of intense hot flashes, homeopathic therapy often becomes impotent.
As a medicinal herb to relieve seizures most often used oregano, hawthorn, lemon balm, dill and red clover. Controlled reception of decoctions of these plants has a tonic effect on the body. The most useful folk remedies are freshly squeezed vegetable juices. Their use ensures the supply of sufficient amounts of vitamins necessary for menopause.
How to delay the onset of menopause
From birth, a woman has a limited ovarian reserve. That is why it is not possible to postpone the development program set by nature for a long time. If a woman has a poor reserve, the gynecologist may prescribe her oral contraceptives, which slow down the maturation of the eggs and thereby prolong the reproductive period. Postpone menopause, you can use a set of measures, which are based on maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
Many of the unpleasant symptoms during various stages of menopause do not pose a danger to women's health. However, the lady should be monitored regularly by a gynecologist for the timely detection of serious diseases. It should be borne in mind that this period is characterized by an increased risk of developing pathologies, including poor bone tissue regeneration. A mature woman should strive to lead a healthy lifespan, thanks to which the negative manifestations of menopause are significantly reduced, and the rest of her life will not turn into an endless visit to the doctors' offices.