Many wonder if weight gain before menstruation is normal.
The onset of menstruation, many women recognize the changes in the general condition of the body and other manifestations. Some girls feel heaviness in the lower abdomen, nausea, dizziness, others show swelling of the chest, limbs, and constipation. The body of different women reacts differently to the approach of menstruation. But some ladies say weight gain before menstruation.
Is it normal?
As a rule, this situation is normal, and it can be explained by physiological processes that occur in the female body during the period before menstruation. However, there are cases when weight gain can be considered as a manifestation of a certain pathological condition. Accordingly, a differential diagnosis will help answer the question about the reason for weight gain.
Almost all women are sensitive to their own figure. A serious increase in extra pounds can cause real grief.
What are the reasons for weight gain before menstruation?
The reason for weight gain immediately before menstruation and during it should be sought primarily in physiological processes. It is known that every month a woman's body undergoes changes aimed at the implementation of pregnancy.
Why is weight gain before menstruation?
Such changes are due to shifts in the hormonal background, while the change in body weight may depend on the impact of the following factors:
- Errors in nutrition.
- Premenstrual syndrome.
The question of hereditary predisposition is raised in many states, and in this situation is of immediate importance. It is impossible to deny the inaccuracies of women in the diet, which can occur in any period and worsen before menstruation.
According to reviews, weight gain before menstruation is often worried.
Disruptions in the endocrine system
In addition, it is important to take into account the factors that cause a pathological weight gain in the period under consideration. They should also be remembered during a clinical examination, since excluding physiological causes will require the search for other answers. For example, weight gain can cause disturbances in the functioning of the endocrine system against the background of the following conditions:
- Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction.
- Polycystic ovary.
- Pathological changes in the adrenal glands.
These diseases, of course, are not associated with menstruation, and they can occur at any time. However, only a doctor after an examination can completely eliminate such conditions. Find out the exact cause of weight gain before menstruation is possible only through a comprehensive survey.
It is known that the menstrual cycle is controlled by hormones. At different periods, the concentration of the main regulatory substances - progesterone and estrogen - changes. They affect a variety of metabolic processes, functions of internal organs. During the period before menstruation, progesterone levels rise significantly. The biological role of this hormone is to ensure the onset of pregnancy and its normal course. However, other progesterone properties do not go unnoticed. For example, it provokes fluid retention in the body, the volume of which can reach a liter.
What else provokes weight gain before menstruation? How many kilograms are normal to gain?
High nutrient requirements
It is also important to take into account that the body needs more nutrients before menstruation, as there is still the possibility of pregnancy. This encourages a woman to take more food, which undoubtedly affects weight. In addition, against the background of hormonal changes, constipation may occur, due to a decrease in intestinal motility. Reduced emptying rates also affect weight gain. All factors in total can cause a set up to 3 kg.
How does the weight gain occur before menstruation?
A set of a few extra pounds is not the most pleasant sign for any woman. However, this should not be considered critical, since the weight after the end of the menstruation will return to its original value. In the case when this does not happen, you need to pay attention to your own body and try to determine the cause of the incident. If it is not possible to independently identify the causes, it is important to seek help from a doctor.
He will tell you how many days weight gain before menstruation occurs. Also during the clinical examination, the specialist will focus on the symptoms that bother the patient. If there are no other complaints besides weight gain, the doctor will have to identify and confirm them. Quite often, similar situations are considered as manifestations of premenstrual syndrome that develops in most women.
In addition to changes in weight, the following manifestations may occur:
- Sleep disturbance
- Mood changes.
- Feeling in the face of heat.
- Rapid heartbeat.
- Dizziness, headache.
- Swelling of the face, limbs.
- Thirst, increased appetite.
- Soreness in abdomen.
- Breast sensitivity.
The presence of all of these signs is not mandatory, but most often a combination of several of them appears. In some women, the symptoms are strongly pronounced and cause significant discomfort, while in others they are almost invisible. It all depends on the sensitivity of the female body to changes in the hormonal background, which is accompanied by the period of menstruation.
It even happens weight gain before menstruation during a diet.
In cases where a woman gains weight regardless of the menstrual cycle, attention should be paid to other reasons besides physiological ones. It is possible that there are disorders affecting the endocrine system in the body. In these cases, it is shown the use of additional diagnostic tools, which include such methods of instrumental and laboratory confirmation, such as:
- CT scan.
- The study of the ovaries, adrenal glands, thyroid gland using ultrasound.
- Biochemical studies of blood samples for electrolytes, hormonal spectrum.
- Test for tolerance to carbohydrates.
- Examination of blood samples for glucose levels.
Examination by a gynecologist will need to be supplemented by a visit to an endocrinologist. The results of complex diagnostics will make it possible to draw final conclusions about the reason for the appearance of excessive weight during the menstruation period.
If the examination reveals a pathology, the woman is prescribed a specific therapy, the essence of which is reduced to the normalization of metabolic and endocrine processes in the body.
Preventive and therapeutic measures
In order to prevent a strong weight gain during menstruation, it is important to listen to the recommendations of specialists. Many activities, in addition to therapeutic, are prophylactic. When these problems occur, a woman should pay attention to her body, taking into account the menstrual cycle.
To minimize unwanted changes that occur in the female body during menstruation, you can by following simple general recommendations. A woman will only need organization and desire to fulfill them, while the effect will be noticeable almost immediately. First of all it is important to observe the following rules of nutrition in the premenstrual period:
- It is important not to overeat, but the diet should be complete.
- It is necessary to refrain from the consumption of excess sweets, flour products, fatty foods.
- Saturate the diet with greens, fruits, vegetables.
- Reduce consumption of hard cheeses, chocolate, coffee.
- Take food more often - up to 6 times per day.
- Exercise regular weight control.
- Refrain from smoking, alcohol.
In addition to diet, you should pay attention to their physical activity. Sleep should be at least 8 hours a day, it is also recommended to swim, more often walk in the fresh air, perform morning exercises. In case of insomnia, it is recommended to take a bath with warm water and resort to other relaxation methods, for example, breathing exercises, aromatherapy, relaxing music.
Compliance with such simple recommendations will eliminate many of the manifestations of PMS, improve the overall condition during menstruation.
The reasons for weight gain before menstruation per week have been described above.
In case of serious concerns about their own health and the occurrence of significant discomfort from a pronounced syndrome before menstruation, a woman may resort to the use of medicines. A qualified doctor will be able to advise certain medications that eliminate unpleasant symptoms. Among them:
- Trace elements (iron, calcium, magnesium), vitamins C, B6.
- Hormonal drugs.
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Sedative preparations.
Take any medication is important in strict accordance with the appointments of a specialist. Independently choose drugs and begin their use is prohibited, as this can provoke many undesirable effects.
To improve the general condition and reduce the likelihood of weight gain before menstruation per week, in addition, you can use other therapeutic agents. Physiotherapeutic procedures, for example, balneotherapy, reflexotherapy, electrorelaxation, retain their relevance. In addition, methods of psychotherapeutic influence are widely popular.
You can also resort to folk methods, involving the use of a variety of tinctures:
- It is necessary to take lemon balm and calendula flowers in the amount of three tablespoons, mix them, pour boiling water (half liter). After that, cover the container and insist 10 hours. Take the infusion prepared in this way should be half a glass for a week in the second half of the menstrual cycle.
- It is necessary to take equal parts of valerian flowers, chamomile, and cornflower. 100 grams of the mixture should be poured half a liter of vodka and insist for 12 days. Take alcohol infusion should be three times a day for 3 tablespoons. The course takes 7 days. This infusion helps to get rid of stress, reduces the severity of PMS, thereby reducing the craving for sweets. In addition, the infusion has a moderate diuretic effect, which reduces the likelihood of swelling, delay in the body fluid.
- It is necessary to take 1 part of calamus and 20 parts of alcohol. The components are mixed and insisted for 20 days. Take the resulting tincture should be before taking a meal one tablespoon. Tincture helps to improve metabolism, the formation of a smaller amount of adipose tissue. It is important to bear in mind that calamus root contributes to an increase in appetite, and therefore it is recommended to use tincture before eating. It is necessary to eat slowly, chew food thoroughly. This approach will allow you to get enough of a smaller amount of food.
It is possible to use folk recipes in the period of menstruation and before it only with the permission of the doctor and only in cases where there are no contraindications to this. During therapy, it is important to limit nutrition and exercise.
Reviews on weight gain before menstruation
Many women indicate that they are gaining extra pounds during menstruation. As a rule, this is due to physiological processes. Women report that they manage to eliminate a similar problem by restricting their own diet and performing a set of physical exercises. Often there are reports of the effectiveness of yoga and meditation practices that allow you to eliminate the psychological factor and reduce the craving for food. Some women are helped only by medicines prescribed by a doctor and reducing the severity of PMS.
It was considered whether weight gain before menstruation is the norm.
Factors of weight gain before the onset of menses
There are many reasons that provoke weight gain before the arrival of menstruation. Knowing about them, every woman can prevent the problem of overweight.
On the background of hormonal activity in the tissues is observed excess water. Estrogens prevent sodium from leaving the body, respectively, and fluids, too. In most cases, puffiness occurs in the area:
Vasopressin before the onset of menstruation is added. Its main task is to have an antidiuretic effect. The result is reduced urinationas well as slowing the withdrawal of fluid. For this reason, weight is added, and heaviness appears in the legs. This condition provides the female body with protection against dehydration and bleeding.
However, water retention depends not only on hormonal adjustment. Often contribute to this state taste preferences women. The presence of certain foods in the diet also contributes to the accumulation of excess fluid. It can be:
- bakery products,
- salty and sweet dishes,
- pickles and preservation.
The above products can attract water and prevent it from leaving the body in a natural way, which provokes a gradual increase in weight.
PMS is classified into several types, each of which has its own clinical manifestations. In 45% of cases, premenstrual edema syndrome is observed. In this condition, a woman can be bothered:
- itching of the skin,
- breast tenderness
- weight gain
This form of premenstrual syndrome is diagnosed more often in young girls.
Weight gain in a woman occurs not only as a result of the accumulation of excess fluid in the tissues. The expectation that the premenstrual period and the periods themselves will be quite painful often scares. This affects mood, contributes to the development of hysteria and irritability. In order to calm herself, a woman begins to use sweets and flour products, as a result of which weight is quickly gained.
The duration of this state depends on the individual characteristics of the woman. As soon as the concentration of hormones returns to normal, the craving for sweets decreases.
In young people, material exchange occurs much faster, resulting in more rapid fat loss. As the woman matures, the concentration of estrogen decreases, which requires a greater amount of fat mass.
The progression of the subcompensated form of ICP has been noticeable over the years. The representatives of the fair sex in later reproductive age are most often diagnosed with an edematous form of premenstrual syndrome, which is characterized by accumulation of excess fluid in the body. As a result, before menstruation, a woman gains weight by about a couple of kilograms. Regulation of water-salt balance is observed by the end of menstruation, excess fluid comes out, and body weight returns to normal.
The increase in clinical signs in the decompensated stage occurs with age. In addition, some symptoms persist after the end of critical days. But also swelling becomes more persistent, which sometimes requires medication. After the onset of menopause, all signs of PMS disappear.
Since in some cases menstruation is accompanied by severe pain, women are forced to spend most of their time in bed, because they experience discomfort, regardless of the intensity of physical exertion. Such conditions often lead to irritability and increased appetite.
The accumulated calories are transformed into fatty tissue, thereby increasing body weight. Get rid of extra pounds will help active lifestyle.
How to prevent weight gain
To prevent unwanted centimeters before the onset of critical days, experts recommend eliminate from the diet The following products:
- smoked products,
- energy and carbonated drinks.
They prevent the release of excess fluid from the body and provoke swelling of the body.
When water-salt balance is disturbed, the digestive system also fails, which is often accompanied by constipation and flatulence. To normalize intestinal peristalsis, it is recommended to eat fresh vegetables and fruits every day.In order to charge the body with energy, it is necessary in the morning to eat cereals, for the preparation of which whole-grain cereals are used. They contain a large amount of plant fiber.
In order not to gain additional kilograms, either before the menstruation or during it, it is not recommended to exclude physical activity. In case of cycle irregularities, as well as severe pain during critical days, it is necessary to replace sports with walks or a visit to the pool. As a relaxing therapy well help. meditation and yoga.
When irritability is recommended taking sedative drugs, as well as the use of tea with the addition of chamomile, lemon balm or valerian. Normalize the work of the intestine will help herbal infusions.
If weight gain occurs due to hormonal imbalance, then the woman should contact a specialist who will schedule the necessary tests, and based on the results obtained, she will be able to determine the exact cause of poor health. The prescription of the drug, as well as the dosage, is done exclusively by the doctor individually in each case.
If a woman's body weight increases by 1-2 kilograms before the onset of menstruation, there is nothing to worry about. The reasons for weight gain can be fluid retention, increased appetite, and low physical exertion. To prevent the appearance of extra centimeters in volume and to maintain their usual forms, it is necessary even to exercise during the critical days.
Does weight increase during menstruation?
The unique creation of nature - a harmonious mechanism called the "female body" - is designed so that every month it is influenced by special female hormones cyclical changes associated with the function of the extension of the genus. Moreover, these periodic metamorphosis affect the work of absolutely all systems. Such changes become more noticeable several days before the appearance of menstrual discharge — this is the premenstrual syndrome that is familiar to most women.
The unpleasant symptoms of PMS are not only in the appearance of physical and emotional discomfort, but before the start of critical days a few extra pounds are immediately gained. During menstruation, weight increases always, no matter what diet you follow and how actively you train to lose weight. You can also gain one or two kilograms during ovulation.
How much weight increases during menstruation
Weight gain during menstruation is primarily due to a genetic predisposition. In the body of every woman since birth laid an individual program for the passage of the monthly menstrual cycle and all the accompanying ailments. One kilogram or three whole you gain during women's days - depends solely on the characteristics of your body.
However, it is wrong to assume that genetics is the only cause of weight gain before a CD - weight gain during menstruation is directly determined by the amount of food and fluid consumed before the onset of menstruation. Therefore, it is so important in the period of menstruation not to deviate from the usual diet and constantly monitor the amount of food consumed so as not to recover.
Why weight gain before menstruation
Normally, the main sex hormones of the female body - estrogen and progesterone - have certain meanings. Before the onset of menstruation, their level changes dramatically - the amount of progesterone begins to decrease to critically low numbers, and that of estrogen increases. This process provokes uncontrolled weight gain before menstruation: hormones force the body to store up with liquid, which it will lose so much along with menstrual blood. From the excess water, the body begins to swell, but the menstrual swelling passes a couple of days after the start of the CD.
However, there is a second problem associated with fluctuations in hormonal levels and causing a rapid increase in weight during menstruation: such jumps in the level of hormones do not have the best effect on appetite. Sometimes it becomes just brutal - uncontrollable, intrusive, uncontrollable. The metabolism slows down during this period, so all the excess calories are instantly processed into body fat.
Is it possible to lose weight during menstruation
Since during the menstrual bleeding the female body experiences a considerable load, a strict diet, like active workouts for wear, can be very harmful. They are not only unsuccessful in the process of losing weight during menstruation, but are often fraught with unpleasant consequences for the hormonal system, which with this approach can give a serious failure. Lose weight during menstruation is unlikely to succeed, the main thing in this period is not to get better. To do this, it is reasonable to limit your diet and monitor nutrition.
As you know, the menstrual cycle is controlled by hormones. In different periods, there is a change in the concentration of the main regulatory substances - estrogen and progesterone. They affect various metabolic processes and the function of internal organs. Before the onset of menstruation, progesterone levels remain high in the body. Its biological role is to ensure the onset and normal course of pregnancy. But it is impossible not to notice other effects. In particular, there is a retention of fluid in the body, which can reach up to 900 grams.
It should also be remembered that a few days before menstruation, the body requires more nutrients, rightly expecting that more pregnancy may occur. This encourages a woman to eat more, which can not but affect her figure. In addition, hormonal changes can provoke constipation due to reduced intestinal motility. Reducing the frequency of emptying also contributes to weight gain. In total, all factors can provoke an additional 2-3 kg.
During menstruation and in front of them, completely physiological processes occur that can cause some weight gain.
The appearance of extra pounds, of course, is not a very pleasant sign for every woman. However, this will not be critical, because with the end of the monthly weight will return to the usual numbers. If this does not happen, you need to carefully consider your body and think about why the expected did not materialize. If it is rather difficult to answer the question yourself, it is much easier for the doctor to understand the situation.
In a clinical examination, emphasis is placed on signs that bother the patient. If there are no other complaints besides weight gain, she has to deal with their active detection and confirmation. Often this situation is considered in the framework of premenstrual syndrome, which develops in a large number of women. In addition to weight changes, there may be other manifestations:
- Breast sensitivity.
- Pain in the abdomen.
- Increased appetite and thirst.
- Puffiness of the limbs and face.
- Headaches and dizziness.
- Feeling hot in the face.
- Mood change.
- Sleep disturbance.
It is not necessary that all of these features be present, but as a rule, a combination of them is observed. Someone symptoms are pronounced, causing significant trouble, and some are almost invisible. It all depends on the sensitivity of a woman's body to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle.
However, in order to determine why a woman gained a few kilograms in a short time, it is necessary to turn to a differential diagnosis with other conditions that also require an exception.
Therapeutic and preventive measures
To avoid serious weight changes during menstruation, you should listen to the advice of a doctor. Many activities are not only therapeutic, but also preventive. When a woman marks the appearance of such problems, you should carefully consider your health, taking into account the characteristics of the menstrual cycle.
Unwanted changes in the body during menstruation can be minimized by fairly simple recommendations. This requires only the desire and organization, and the effect is not long to wait. First of all, you should consider the following rules on nutrition for the period of "critical days":
- Do not overeat, at the same time, the diet should be full.
- To limit fat and flour products, sweets.
- Eat more fresh vegetables and fruits, greens.
- Minimize the intake of coffee, chocolate and hard cheeses.
- Eat more often - up to 5-6 times a day.
- Give up alcohol and smoking.
- Regularly monitor your weight.
In addition to diet, you need to pay attention to adequate physical activity. Now no one doubts the usefulness of morning exercises, walking in the fresh air and swimming. Need to sleep at least 8 hours a day. If you have problems with insomnia, it is recommended to take a warm bath or use other ways of relaxation, such as breathing exercises, aromatherapy or relaxing music.
Such recommendations will help overcome many of the manifestations of premenstrual syndrome and improve well-being during menstruation.
If a woman is seriously concerned about her condition and suffers from considerable discomfort from pronounced premenstrual syndrome, medications can help. The doctor may recommend certain medications to eliminate unpleasant symptoms. These include the following:
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory.
- Hormonal agents.
- Vitamins (B6, C) and trace elements (magnesium, calcium, iron).
Any medication must be taken in accordance with medical prescriptions. In no case can not interfere with the body's work independently, because it is fraught with many undesirable phenomena.
Disruption of the digestive system
Many women note not just excess weight, but also an increase in waist size. This can occur not only as a result of tissue edema. Progestogens, hormones of the second phase act relaxingly on the intestine, which reduces the peristaltic wave and leads to some swelling. The intensity will depend not only on the hormonal profile, but also on the associated diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in a woman, the way of eating and the percentage of carbohydrates in the diet.
Therefore, in the second phase it is better to avoid products that increase the intensity of fermentation processes. These include cabbage, pearl barley, easily digestible carbohydrates (sweets and bakery products), etc. This will help not to cause excessive swelling, and the increase in waist will not be so significant.
"Jamming" a bad mood
Everyone knows that hormonal changes in the second phase of the menstrual cycle in a woman provoke depressive and apathetic changes in mood. And if a girl noticed that she had grown stout before her menstruation, this may be due to the change in the nature of food these days.
Often there is a difficult controlled desire to eat something sweet, or there is a feeling of hunger at night. Also, many girls say that their feeling of satiety comes much later than on ordinary days. Therefore, it is important to know all these changes in a woman's body in order to prevent weight gain.
Often, women celebrate craving for sweet, salty, smoked and other bright flavors. And this entails an excess intake of salt and, as a result, water retention in the body.
So, if a woman notes significant fluctuations in body weight depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle, first of all you should reconsider your lifestyle and diet. Also, some medications, folk remedies will help.
It should be understood that the constant increase in body weight at an increasing rate indicates an increased caloric intake and reduced physical exertion. Therefore, first of all, it is necessary to establish a balance, or to correct one way or another of the violation.
The main recommendations on how to lose weight before menstruation and normalize the work of the whole organism:
- You should control your body weight. This will give a kind of incentive to a woman to control her appetite and bring physical activity to life. But you need to know that you need to be weighed for control at the same time of day (preferably in the morning), after going to the toilet and without clothes (or at the same time all the time). An interesting way: set the scales right on the dining chair, so a woman can follow the increase during the meal. As a result, when crawling up the arrow does not want to overeat.
- A woman’s diet should be enriched with vitamins and microelements, especially groups B, A, C. It has also been proven that zinc plays a significant role in fluid retention and the formation of tissue swelling. Therefore, it is recommended to consume a large number of lettuce leaves, pumpkin and sunflower seeds, meat (better than dietary red - beef), and dairy products.
But sweet, including chocolate and bakery products, it is better not to use or in the "tasting mode" - very small pieces from each. A portion of food should be calculated based on the ratio of 1: 1: 4 proteins, fats and complex carbohydrates, respectively. It is also useful on the eve of menstruation to do fasting protein days, in which the total daily caloric content should not exceed 800 - 1000 kcal.
- Do not forget about physical activity. It is believed that each person should take at least 10 thousand steps a day to maintain health. In the second phase of the menstrual cycle, the load can be slightly increased, which will help get rid of excess fluid in the body. At this time, it is better to add cardiac load, accompanied by intense sweating.
We recommend reading the article on what is ICP. From it you will learn about premenstrual syndrome and its symptoms, the causes of its manifestation and treatment.
The mechanism of "progesterone + water"
One of the main reasons for weight gain before menstruation is water retention in the body. It is important to know how many days before menstruation the mass begins to increase. This process is activated in the second phase of the cycle due to the production of a large amount of progesterone.responsible for preparing the girls for pregnancy. This hormone contributes not only to the retention of body fluids, but also to the deposition of fatty elements in the subcutaneous layer, which is why weight increases during menstruation.
Most often during this period women gain 1.5–2 kilograms. Such a change is considered the norm, and if a woman does not eat large amounts of sweets during this period, weight gain will go away after menstruation.
Progesterone produced before menstruation contributes to weight gain and indirectly. Increasing the level of this hormone in the body leads to the fact that the immune system begins to gradually weaken. This process explains the frequent exacerbation of chronic diseases in women just before the critical days. Some developed pathologies affect hormones.
For more information about what happens to hormones before menstruation, read a separate article on our website.
With a strong hormonal imbalance, metabolic processes in the body slow down, which is why the woman begins to gain weight. In some cases, if hormonal changes do not stabilize, the weight rises to a critical level.
If the hormonal background has changed slightly, premenstrual syndrome may occur: the production of estrogen and serotonin decreases, the woman becomes irritable, she becomes attracted to sweet and high-calorie foods. In this case, how much weight will increase during menstruation will depend only on the strength of the craving for the wrong diet. Most often, due to this addiction, 1.5–3 kg is added to the original body weight.
How to prevent weight gain
To avoid the appearance of excess volumes in the waist and hips before the month is recommended to refrain from drinking:
- carbonated and energy drinks
- salty and spicy foods
- smoked meat
These products contribute to the retention of excess fluid in the body and cause the appearance of edema.
Violation of the water-salt balance affects the work of the digestive system, flatulence occurs, and constipation may be disturbed. To normalize intestinal peristalsis, it is necessary to add more fresh fruits and vegetables to the daily diet (an exception is cabbage, legumes). Whole grain cereals porridges are rich in plant fiber: if you cook them for breakfast, the body is provided with energy for the whole day, and there is no accumulation of fat cells.
It is also necessary to deal with overeating. Chocolate is better to replace with fresh fruit, low-fat yogurt with berries, cottage cheese with cinnamon and honey. Tasty desserts will satisfy the craving for sweets and will not have a negative impact on the shape.
You can not completely give up physical activity during menstruation and in front of them. Если менструальный цикл нерегулярный, критические дни болезненные, то активные занятия спортом необходимо заменить прогулками на свежем воздухе, посещением бассейна.Help to relax yoga classes, meditation.
For women with increased irritability at the onset of PMS, it is helpful to take sedatives, drinking chamomile, valerian, and lemon balm tea. To normalize the intestinal work can also be used decoctions of herbs.
Minor weight gain before menstruation is the physiological norm and can be caused by fluid retention, increased appetite or decreased physical activity. Correction of the menu, moderate exercise help to prevent the appearance of extra pounds and keep a slim figure.