Chronic vaginitis is one of the female diseases of inflammatory nature, which is quite common in our days of the phenomenon. Most women of reproductive age know firsthand what is colpitis (vaginitis), vulvitis, vulvovaginitis, and other diseases that very often become chronic for many reasons.
Vaginitis (colpitis) is an inflammation of the vaginal mucosa that has both an infectious and non-infectious etiology. By the nature of the course of the disease can occur in the following forms: acute, subacute, chronic.
By origin (etiology), vaginitis is divided into the following types:
- Specific. Develop as a result of the presence in the body of sexually transmitted diseases.
- Candida (fungal). Colpitis resulting from fungal infection (thrush) of the vaginal mucosa.
- Bacterial. It occurs against the background of vaginal dysbiosis.
- Atrophic. The inflammatory process resulting from an insufficient amount of estrogen (female sex hormones), for example, during menopause.
- Nonspecific. Occurs as a result of exposure to conditionally pathogenic microflora, which, under normal immunity, does not cause inflammation.
The chronic form of vaginitis is a dangerous phenomenon that can cause infertility and other equally serious pathologies. Therefore, it is very important to seek qualified help immediately at the first symptoms of the disease.
Causes of development
Colpitis can occur for many reasons, but the main culprits of the disease are most often bacteria, fungi and viruses.
Factors contributing to the occurrence of vaginitis:
- lack of personal hygiene,
- long-term use of certain drugs, such as cytostatics, antibiotics or glucocorticoids,
- vaginal injuries (after abortion, postpartum, etc.),
- weakened immunity
- disturbed hormones,
- promiscuous, unprotected sex,
- age changes
- uncontrolled and improper use of contraceptives.
Very often, a cause of or exacerbation becomes a change in hormonal levels during pregnancy.
Causes of exacerbation of the chronic form can also be: strong physical exertion, menstruation, stress, eating spicy foods, hypothermia, etc.
The main task in making a diagnosis is to determine the main cause (causative agent) of the disease.
The following diagnostic measures are most commonly used:
- examination on the gynecological chair (during the inspection there are signs of inflammation),
- colposcopy (helps to more carefully examine the mucous membrane with the help of a colposcope),
- cytological examination is a procedure in which the composition of the microflora is assessed and the presence (absence) of mutations of normal cells into malignant cells is determined,
- The PCR blood test is one of the most informative (in this case) methods, which allows to determine the main type of pathogen (s).
In some cases, it may also be necessary to carry out a number of additional diagnostic measures: ultrasound, hysteroscopy, etc.
Treatment methods and recommendations
Chronic vaginitis most often develops due to prolonged neglect of the disease and (or) self-treatment. Therefore, when the first symptoms of colpitis appear, it is necessary to seek professional help from a specialist. Treatment can be carried out as a traditional method (with the help of medicines), and using the methods of traditional medicine.
Chronic vaginitis treatment using the drug method includes taking such medications:
- antifungal drugs (taken with fungal colpitis),
- drugs that stabilize the acidity and improve the vaginal microflora,
- estrogen drugs
- drugs that increase immunity,
- vitamin complexes.
Other drugs may be prescribed (depending on the underlying cause of the inflammation).
Selection of necessary medicines can be carried out exclusively by the attending physician.
Alternative medicine is known and revered since ancient times. To date, it also does not lose its popularity.
Various medicinal plants are used to treat vaginitis:
- tea tree (with oil of this plant they make douching and baths, as it has an anti-fungicidal action),
- pine extract (prepare infusions for douching, as this extract has anti-inflammatory and bactericidal action),
- St. John's wort (has anti-inflammatory effects)
- chamomile (a plant known to everyone for its healing properties, which also helps to relieve inflammation in case of colpitis).
Before you begin treatment with folk methods, you should consult with your doctor, because such treatment can not only not have the desired effect, but also harm.
Physiotherapy methods are also used for the treatment of colpitis, which in most cases are painless and safe.
The following techniques help especially with fungal or bacterial vaginitis:
- half potty with potassium permanganate,
- electrophoresis with zinc.
Additional recommendations for the treatment of vaginitis:
- temporary sexual abstinence,
- rejection of fatty, sweet and spicy foods (inclusion of fermented milk products in the diet).
All of the above recommendations will help improve the condition and heal faster.
How to treat vaginitis? Read in the article about the disease, its symptoms and reasons for the development of a woman, methods of treatment and the possibility of using methods of traditional medicine.
What are the symptoms of vaginitis in a woman? Details here.
Prognosis and prevention
Since the disease is quite serious, without the necessary treatment can lead to the following consequences:
- the spread of inflammation
- the occurrence of erosion,
- spontaneous abortion and (or) premature birth,
- transmission of infection to the fetus,
- sexual problems, etc.
To prevent the occurrence of this pathology, it is necessary to follow simple recommendations: to treat gynecological diseases in time, follow the rules of personal hygiene, and lead a healthy lifestyle.
Poor ecology, a high level of cancer incidence and the prevalence of HIV infection, a large number of poor-quality cosmetic products (personal care products) - this is only a short list of potential threats that can be overtaken at any time. Therefore, each woman should appreciate her health and not forget about planned gynecological examinations, since some diseases may not manifest themselves for a long time and can be asymptomatic.
On the treatment video
Features of the manifestation and treatment of subacute vaginitis
Experienced gynecologists know that subacute vaginitis is a common disease of the genital organs in women and girls. Improper treatment or ignoring the symptoms can lead to the spread of infection and the development of dangerous complications. When vaginitis, the vaginal mucosa is inflamed.
This organ is a muscular-elastic tube, localized in the pelvis. The vagina is bordered by the rectum, bladder and urethra. Often against the background of vaginitis, the uterus and appendages are involved in the process. This increases the risk of infertility.
Causes of disease
Vaginitis often develops on the background of changes in the microbial composition of the vagina.
The microflora of this organ includes Doderlein sticks, as well as random microbes (micrococci, gardnerella, staphylococcus, corynebacterium, bacteroids). The share of the latter accounts for up to 5% of all bacteria that live in the vagina.
Doderleyn sticks are needed to maintain the desired level of acidity, which allows you to suppress the reproduction of conditionally pathogenic microbes.
With vaginitis, this process is impaired. Most often this disease has an infectious etiology. The main risk factors are:
- unprotected sex with STI patients,
- impaired vaginal blood supply,
- non-compliance with the rules of intimate hygiene,
- diseases of the endocrine system,
- lack of vitamins
- long-term use of systemic antibiotics,
- HIV infection,
- operative interventions
- use of corticosteroids,
- cancer pathology,
- blood diseases
- inflammatory diseases of the uterus and appendages,
- decreased ovarian function
- abortions (including mini-abortions),
- foci of chronic infection in other organs,
- pustular diseases,
- uncontrolled hormonal medication,
- the introduction of intrauterine devices,
- non-observance of the rules of asepsis with medical manipulations.
Vaginitis often develops in the background of STIs. The causative agents of infection can be chlamydia, trichomonas, pale treponema, ureaplasma, mycoplasma, genital herpes virus, as well as fungi, E. coli and cocci. In most cases, microbes are brought in by unprotected sex.
The risk group includes women who have promiscuous sex and have several partners. If vaginitis is caused by STI pathogens, this inflammation is called specific. In girls, the disease sometimes develops against the background of parasitic infections (enterobiosis), urinary incontinence, furunculosis, tonsillitis and scarlet fever.
The state of the vaginal mucosa depends largely on the level of hormones (estrogen, progesterone). The risk factor is the pathology of the pituitary, hypothalamus and ovaries.
Frequent causes of vaginitis are reduced immunity and malnutrition of tissues.
This is possible against the backdrop of fasting, vegetarianism, strict diets, vascular thrombosis, vasculitis and mechanical damage to the vaginal mucosa during sexual intercourse.
The course of subacute vaginitis is characterized by a specific clinical picture. This gynecological pathology has the following symptoms:
- abundant discharge from the genital tract,
- abdominal pain,
- redness of the vaginal mucosa,
- swelling of the labia,
- dysuric disorders,
- feeling of bursting
- pain during intercourse,
- spotting after intercourse,
- moderate fever.
Changes in the vaginal microflora manifest pathological secretions. They are characterized by:
- occurrence in any phase of the menstrual cycle,
- slimy or purulent nature,
- consistency uniformity
- unpleasant smell.
With subacute inflammation they bother for several days or weeks. Their smell is determined by the type of microorganisms that caused vaginitis. Sometimes the discharge is frothy. This is due to the fact that some bacteria can enhance the formation of gases. Frequent symptom of colpitis is pain.
She is moderate or mild. Intense pain is not typical for this pathology. It is localized in the lower abdomen and increases during intercourse. Along with pain there is a burning sensation. The reason is irritation of the mucous membrane with urine. Many women complain of itching. It is felt in the perineum, groin or vagina itself.
In different genital infections, the symptoms of the disease may vary somewhat. If vaginitis is caused by fungi, the specific symptom is a cheesy white discharge with a sour odor. Candida vaginitis is otherwise called thrush. Trichomonas inflammation is often diagnosed.
It has the following clinical symptoms:
- frothy, yellow-green discharge with an unpleasant odor,
- the discomfort,
- pain while urinating.
The first signs appear 1-3 weeks after infection. In the absence of a full course of drug therapy, subacute inflammation becomes chronic. Less commonly, adults have gonorrheal vaginitis. It is called gonococci. In half the cases, the symptoms are absent.
For gonococcal subacute vaginitis are characteristic:
- purulent discharge,
- swelling, tenderness, and hyperemia of the vaginal mucosa,
- false urge to urinate,
- stranguria (difficult and frequent urination),
- feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder,
- pulling pain in lower abdomen.
The presence of dysuric symptoms may indicate a combination of vaginitis with cystitis and urethritis. In a latent form, specific colpitis occurs, caused by chlamydia and mycoplasmas. Possible spotting, slight itching and burning.
Sometimes atrophic vaginitis is diagnosed. It is caused by a sharp change in hormonal levels.
This pathology is manifested by dryness of the vagina, burning pain, itching, profuse purulent discharge, dyspareunia (pain during intercourse) and bleeding.
Treatment of subacute colpitis
The main objectives of the treatment of vaginitis are:
- normalization of the vaginal microflora,
- elimination of symptoms
- immunity stimulation
- prevention of complications
- elimination of provoking factors.
Subacute vaginitis therapy is conservative. Hospitalization subject to women with a complicated form of the disease. Subacute colpitis requires an integrated approach to treatment. With this pathology you will need:
- use of antimicrobial drugs
- treatment of sexual partner,
- the use of eubiotics,
- elimination of foci of chronic infection,
- the use of folk remedies
If colpitis is caused by non-specific microflora, then systemic antibiotics are prescribed in the form of tablets, capsules, or solution for injection. Such treatment is best carried out after determining the sensitivity to drugs of the infectious agent. Penicillins, macrolides, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins are used for vaginitis.
Treatment begins with local drugs. Well help candles and douching. When trichomonas vaginitis are assigned suppositories Metrogil, Neo-Penotran Forte or Hexicon. Of the systemic drugs for trichomoniasis, Flagyl, Klion-D 100 and Trihopol are used. For non-specific vaginitis, preference is given to drugs such as Terzhinan and Polygynax.
Well proven Ginalgin. This drug is effective for fungal, trichomonas, mixed and nonspecific vaginitis.
For inflammation of the vagina of a herpetic nature, the treatment regimen includes Aciclovir-Akrikhin or Zovirax, alpha interferon and Viferon. Well helps ointment Bonafton.
If a woman is diagnosed with Gardnerellosis, then Dalacin may be used in the form of a gel, suppositories or capsules.
Treatment of fungal vaginitis includes the use of Nystatin, Pimafucin, Candida, or Kanesten. In mycoplasmal vaginitis, macrolides are the drugs of choice. In vaginal inflammation, douching is effective. Apply a solution of potassium permanganate, herbal decoctions, Chlorhexidine, Miramistin, Rivanol, Hexicon and soda solution.
After antibiotic therapy, drugs are prescribed to restore the vaginal microflora. These include Azilakt and Bifikol. Additionally prescribed lactic acid diet. It is recommended to eat yogurt with bifidobacteria and cottage cheese.
A diet with vaginitis involves the abandonment of spicy and fatty foods. When candidiasis is necessary to limit the consumption of simple carbohydrates. Physical therapy allows to accelerate recovery from subacute colpitis (UFD, electrophoresis).
In case of chlamydial inflammation and immunodeficiency, immunostimulants are prescribed.
Specific measures for the prevention of subacute vaginitis are absent. In order to reduce the risk of inflammation of the vagina, it is necessary:
- use a condom
- do not take alcohol and drugs
- do sport,
- regularly undergo examinations gynecologist,
- maintain optimal body weight
- eat more dairy products, vegetables, fruits and meat,
- rinse regularly with warm water after urination,
- more often change the pads during menstruation,
- change your underwear daily
- drink vitamins
- stop smoking
- eliminate stressful situations
- eliminate foci of chronic infection
- to treat enterobiasis,
- avoid hypothermia
- not to abuse douches and hormonal drugs,
- refuse abortions
- improve immunity
- refuse pads and tampons with flavors,
- Do not take antibiotics and corticosteroids without a prescription.
It is important to monitor the hormonal background and promptly treat endocrine pathology.
If delayed treatment may have negative consequences. The most common complications of vaginitis are:
- the transition of the disease to the chronic form
- cervical erosion,
- the formation of synechia (adhesion of the labia minora),
- kidney damage.
There may be problems in the genital area in the form of pain during intercourse and a decrease in sexual desire. Persistent itching and discharge can cause depression and problems in family life. Vaginal infection is dangerous for pregnant women.If you have discharge, burning, abdominal pain or itching, you should immediately contact a gynecologist and not self-medicate.
How does subacute vaginitis manifest in women and how to treat it
Frequently occurring disease in women is vaginitis (colpitis). This is an inflammatory process caused by a violation of the microflora inside the vagina as a result of the multiplication of infectious microorganisms. Subacute vaginitis occurs in 30% of women.
The entire reproductive system stops functioning normally due to inflammation in the vagina, which can infect all ascending genitals. Colpitis also disrupt sex life, as pain and discharge appear during intercourse.
Classification of vaginitis
There are the following types:
- Subacute, acute, chronic.
- Baby, childbearing age and postmenstrual.
- Specific and non-specific forms.
- Postoperative, postabortion, postpartum and allergic and others.
Subacute vaginitis is an inflammatory disease of the vagina that affects the mucosal epithelium; it is the stage preceding the acute form. According to statistics, every third girl of reproductive age in Russia suffered vaginitis. The high incidence rate is due to the growth of genital infectious diseases. The form of subacute vaginitis is the most common.
Features of its manifestation are associated with changes in discharge, swelling of the vagina and vulva. Delayed menstruation, long periods, no cycle. Blood mucus outside of menstruation days.
Acute diseases are expressed by abundant painful secretions, fever and redness of the external pelvic genital organs.
Chronic vaginitis is less pronounced, painless, scanty discharge, the course of the disease for many months. Exacerbations may occur after viral illness, hypothermia, alcohol, menstruation and pregnancy.
The course of inflammation depends on the microflora, its pathogenic or conditionally pathogenic origin.
Specific subacute vaginitis causes inflammation caused by bacteria such as gonococci, trichomonas, mycoplasma and others.
Nonspecific subacute vaginitis is caused mainly by an imbalance of conditionally pathogenic microbacteria that are normally in the vagina in most women, such as staphylococcus, candida, herpes virus and others.
Symptoms of specific and nonspecific subacute colpitis are similar, but the treatment is different. With specific vaginitis, both sexual partners are treated.
Very often, mixed vaginitis, which complicates diagnosis and treatment, as pathogens are added to pathogens by microorganisms.
The best diagnostic laboratory tool for vaginitis is a smear and blood test.
Any vaginitis should be treated, as it can flow into the chronic form and during an ascending inflammatory process the infection spreads to the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries, which can cause infertility.
Symptoms of Subacute Vaginitis
Symptoms of inflammation common in specific and nonspecific colpitis:
- unusual nature, smell, color and amount of vaginal discharge,
- appearance of burning, itching, feeling of enlarged vagina and vulva,
- painful urination,
- contact bleeding.
Treatment of subacute vaginitis
At the first manifestations of signs of subacute vaginitis, you should seek help from a specialist. The gynecologist will first assign tests to confirm and identify the cause.
After therapy is prescribed, depending on the pathogen microorganism and factors predisposing to the disease.
It is important to go through the treatment completely, as badly treated subacute vaginitis can in six months cause a chronic disease.
The treatment is complex and includes:
- The use of anti-inflammatory techniques,
- Treatment of concomitant diseases that are causes of subacute vaginitis,
- The absence of sexual acts until full recovery of both partners.
- The complex also includes the rehabilitation of the painful vagina and vulva, due to their direct relationship to the disease.
Subacute vaginitis entails disruption of the entire reproductive female system. It is important to notice the disease at the stage of subacute form. If inflammations are neglected, then they become causes of impaired reproductive function.
Ectopic pregnancy, miscarriages, premature birth, intrauterine infection of the fetus and many other consequences may arise from simple vaginitis. In the postpartum period, the effects can be peritonitis, endometritis and sepsis.
Bacterial and trichomonas colpitis in the acute form resulting from specific subacute vaginitis can cause venereal diseases and HIV infection.
Causes of vaginitis
In children, colpitis can develop due to hematogenous infections, such as scarlet fever and flu that enter the bloodstream. The main cause of diseases is the violation of the microflora norm of the vaginal mucosa due to various reasons:
- Changing the balance of vaginal microflora. All that can lead to a decrease in immune reactivity is the cause. The ecology level, stress, medication decrease the immunity, and pathogenic microorganisms, without being subjected to opposition, begin to increase and occupy all the space, as a result urogenital infections appear.
- Trauma to the genitals. Mechanical violation of the mucous membrane of the internal organs is possible as a result of medical manipulations or foreign objects. When carrying out scraping, probing and other operations with penetration through the vagina, the balance of microorganisms is disturbed. Also, non-compliance with hygiene during operations such as dirty tools and gloves can cause infection from the outside. In the postoperative period, the infection can be obtained if hygiene is not observed and the therapeutic tampons are used improperly. Sexual intercourse with the use of foreign agents, which are often not subject to disinfection is also the cause of vaginitis.
- Sexual intercourse A large number of diseases is associated with sexual intercourse. Pathogenic microorganisms of a different nature enter the vaginal mucosa, resulting in subacute vaginitis, which can become chronic. Also, the appearance of extraneous microflora can be the result of the use of lubricants or a change of anal or oral intercourse to vaginal.
- Hormonal imbalance. Pregnancy, diseases of the endocrine system, hypofunction of the ovaries, menopause reduce the level of the female hormone - estrogen, as a result of which vaginitis can occur.
Any diseases that have not been treated or have not been treated in a timely manner may cause chronic vaginitis and, as a result, its recurrence.
Types of Vaginitis
Today, physicians identify ten major types of infectious vaginitis. Depending on the type of pathogen are distinguished:
- Candida (fungal vaginitis, candidiasis),
In addition, vaginitis distinguish:
- on the clinical course - chronic, subacute or acute,
- by age - vaginitis in girls, women of childbearing or postmenopausal period,
- by the nature of the pathogen - specific or nonspecific,
- According to the history - postoperative, postpartum, post-abortion or allergic vaginitis.
Very often, vaginitis becomes a mixed form. For example, a woman develops vaginitis, triggered by a specific pathogen (chlamydia, gonococcus), and a secondary infection joins her. In this case, it is quite difficult to diagnose the disease and it is difficult to prescribe a special treatment.
Causes of exacerbation of chronic vaginitis:
- viral, infectious or bacterial diseases,
- strong physical exertion
- stress, depression,
- food provocations (alcohol, spicy food),
When chronic colpitis develops, the symptoms and treatment of women will directly depend on the cause, under the influence of which the pathological process is activated.
In most cases, women do not report a general deterioration. Body temperature rarely exceeds 37-38 degrees.
Let us consider in more detail what are the symptoms of chronic colpitis, depending on the provoking factor.
In medical practice, this type of vaginitis is also called anaerobic. The main causative agent of the disease are conditionally pathogenic microorganisms that inhabit the vaginal microflora, in particular, anaerobic bacteria. Since they need oxygen to maintain their own vital functions, they inhabit the surface of the perineum.
Vaginitis of bacterial type. Source: sovdok.ru
When creating favorable conditions for reproduction, microorganisms penetrate into the vagina and colonize the mucous membrane. As a result, purulent secretion of yellow-green color is secreted from the penis. When the doctor examines the vagina, he will notice that the mucous membrane contains areas with heavy redness, and the walls of the organ have edema and purulent coating.
When carrying out certain manipulations, an acid reaction of the vagina is noted, and in the study of a smear in its composition, the presence of epithelium densely covered with bacteria is noted.
Beneficial lactic acid bacteria are available in small quantities or are completely absent.
If nonspecific chronic vaginitis progresses, the doctor will tell you what it is, but the patient should know that with this type of pathology, yellow vaginal discharge will disturb her for a long time.
The first signs of the development of Trichomonas vaginitis can be seen 3-12 days after intimate proximity with the person who is the carrier of this disease. It is worth noting that in certain situations the duration of the incubation period can be up to a month. Treatment of chronic obesity of this type must be carried out in conjunction with an experienced doctor.
After the asymptomatic period ends, and the number of pathogens microorganisms reaches a peak level, the full clinical picture begins to unfold. First of all, the woman notices that the abundant secret of the foamy structure with a foul odor, which has a yellow color, is released from the vagina.
Trichomonas colpitis in women. Source: cistitus.ru
This is joined by severe itching in the perineum, as well as soreness in the lower abdomen. Since Trichomonas can move, it easily penetrates from the vagina into the uterine and abdominal cavity, fallopian tubes. Against this background, body temperature rises to 38-39 degrees, the regularity of the menstrual cycle is disturbed.
When there is a suspicion of Trichomonas chronic colpitis, the doctor treats women only after a thorough examination. During the procedure, swelling of the walls of the organ is noted, the mucous membrane is red, and foamy secretion is present.
What does "subacute" the course of the disease
Inflammation of the vagina, some consider not a very serious problem that you can cope on your own. The result of self-treatment, lack of taking the necessary drugs or early interruption of therapy is the transition of vaginitis to another form.
On the mucous membrane of the vagina, bacteria, fungi or microbes still parasitize, but the woman’s well-being remains stable without any pronounced discomfort. This causes the illusion of recovery. If this is observed in the continuation of 2-6 months from the end of acute inflammation, this form is subacute.
What is a calmed down colpit
The type of malaise depends on what microorganisms it is caused by. There are several possibilities to get it:
- Activation of living and healthy mucous pathogenic bacteria,
- The emergence of pathogenic organisms from the outside (chlamydia, gonokokkov, Trichomonas, etc.),
- Changes in the vaginal microflora, as a result of which fungi multiply faster,
- Awakening or introduction into the body of viruses (herpes or human papilloma).
Subacute bacterial, viral or fungal vaginitis is noted more often than others, since the microorganisms causing them are constantly present on the surface of the organ.
Causes of Subacute Vaginitis
The form of the disease in question is transitional. From her it is easy to take a step towards health, if you carry out the appropriate therapy, or to return to an acute condition. The reasons why the latter is likely, experts call:
- Low immunity. The weakening of the protective forces makes it possible for the reproduction of pathogenic organisms, since the cells that destroy them are not sufficiently produced,
- Injury of the vagina. Damage to its mucous membranes adversely affects the microflora, and gives odds to pathogenic bacteria. The body reduces its restorative properties
- Hormonal disorders. The lack of some substances and an excess of others negatively affect the composition of the local flora, causing inflammation,
- Ignoring the rules of hygiene. This circumstance interferes with normal redox processes. Uncleanedness creates conditions for the reproduction of pathogenic organisms.
Features of the manifestation of subacute colpitis
The main thing in the symptoms of colpitis, which passed from an acute condition, is that the manifestations are erased. That is, they are present, but in a lighter, not always visible form to a non-specialist. Their whole group is:
- The type of mucus produced by the vagina changes. This symptom is always present. The type of discharge depends on the causative organisms. If it is subacute candidal vaginitis, they will be cheesy. When bacterial - yellow-white. Gonorrheal or trichomonas colpitis causes purulent or frothy yellow discharge. They are few, but they can be distinguished from normal ones with sufficient attentiveness.
- The walls of the vagina are slightly swollen, they feel discomfort, a feeling of distention. Strengthen it can sexual contact,
- Violated the process of menstruation. Since the infection retains its presence, it has a chance to rise higher, affecting the uterus and its appendages. Therefore, it is possible a more painful course of menstruation, delay, increase or decrease in the volume of menstrual mucus, a change in its consistency and color,
- There is a discharge with blood between critical days. They are mostly contact, because the vaginal mucosa is weakened and more susceptible to damage than normal.
We recommend to read an article about colpitis during menstruation. You will learn about the effect of the disease on the menstrual cycle, the causes of development, the impact on the nature of the discharge.
Difference of subacute condition from chronic
Subacute and chronic vaginitis vary in duration of the course. In the second case, it is not just a remission of symptoms, but also periodic outbreaks of the disease. The counting of the chronic form begins from 6 months from the end of the acute period.
Whatever the cause of vaginitis, one should not start the ailment, undergo treatment itself or be interrupted halfway to recovery. Otherwise, it is easy to make it a constant companion of life.
Why does the disease develop?
The vagina is adapted for frictions as a member and serves to take sperm and carry it into the uterus. It is a muscular tube, lined from the inside by a fairly strong multilayered epithelium. The top layer of mucosal cells contains a large amount of glycogen as a supply of carbohydrates. They are needed to power the normal microflora of the vagina - Dederlein sticks or lactic acid sticks.
Bacteria break down glycogen and release lactic acid into the vaginal cavity. Such a system creates a double protection against infections: Dederlein sticks richly cover the mucous membrane and do not leave room for reproduction of other microorganisms, and the acidic environment is destructive for most bacteria. In addition, the mucous daily self-cleaning. Its cells produce a small amount of mucus, which flows down the walls and carries off the desquamated epithelium, the dead normal microflora and representatives of the pathogenic one.
The amount of glycogen in mucosal cells depends on the concentration of sex steroids in the blood. Estrogen causes its enhanced deposition, and progestogens, in contrast, reduce the concentration of carbohydrates in the epithelium. The concentration of progestogens is highest before menstruation, so most of the acute vaginitis and chronic relapses occur during this time.
Thus, the vagina is reliably protected from the influence of pathogenic agents. However, the disease annually affects a large number of women. Contributing factors to vaginitis are:
- injuries of the perineum after childbirth and operations, due to which the walls of the vagina no longer close tightly and its opening gapes,
- pregnancy, childbirth, abortion, ovarian hypofunction, menopause - any condition associated with a decrease in the concentration of estrogen in the blood,
- severe diseases, infections, severe stress, psycho-emotional shock - all these factors lead to a significant reduction in the immune defense of a woman,
- failure to follow personal hygiene rules - pathogenic bacteria multiply rapidly in secretions, menstrual blood and can cause inflammation in the vagina,
- metabolic disorders (diabetes mellitus) - leads to excessive deposition of carbohydrates in the mucous membrane, itchy perineum, impaired healing processes,
- neglecting a condom with random sex often ends in vaginitis caused by pathogens of venereal diseases.
What happens with inflammation?
Vaginitis is an inflammatory disease, but pathogenic microorganisms are not always the cause of inflammation. Any damaging factors that damage the walls of the vagina lead to it. For example, rough sexual intercourse, inaccurate douching, the use of aggressive detergents for intimate hygiene. The cause of inflammation may be an allergic reaction to the lubricant, a means for contraception, tampons.
Infection enters the vagina in two ways:
- ascending - from the perineum, from the small and large labia, through the vestibule of the vagina, from the anus or urethra,
- descending - from the foci of chronic infection in the body along with the bloodstream or lymph flow (carious teeth, chronic tonsillitis, pyelonephritis).
Biologically active substances are released from the destroyed epithelial cells. They dilate blood vessels, causing local blood stasis. The permeability of the vascular wall increases, and through it immune cells - leukocytes and liquid blood plasma - are released into the tissues. Edema of the mucous membrane of the vagina develops, and in case of severe damage, it captures both the muscular and outer layer of the organ.
Decay products affect the sensory nerve receptors in the mucosa. The impulse from them becomes more intense and the woman feels discomfort. Constriction of the receptors with edematous tissue transforms it into itching or pain.
Secretory epithelial cells begin to intensively produce mucus in order to wash pathogenic bacteria and cell debris from the mucosal surface of the pathogenic bacteria. Clinically, this process is manifested by vaginal discharge. If a significant portion of leukocytes dies and purulent inflammation develops, then an admixture of pus appears in the mucus. The destruction of the small vessels of the mucous membrane makes the discharge bloody. The causative agents of STIs cause specific inflammation with characteristic discharge from the genital tract.
What forms of colpitis exist?
For the duration of the disease emit:
- acute vaginitis - lasts no more than 2 months,
- subacute vaginitis - inflammation persists for more than 2 months, but not more than six months,
- chronic - lasts more than 6 months, the colpitis acquires a wave-like character: periods of complete calm are followed by exacerbations.
Depending on the cause of the inflammation:
- bacterial vaginitis (non-specific) - it is caused by conditionally pathogenic streptococci, staphylococci, bacilli,
- Trichomonas - develops upon infection of Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of trichomoniasis,
- gonorrheal - it is caused by gonococcus, the causative agent of gonorrhea,
- mycoplasmal - its cause is intracellular parasite mycoplasma, sexually transmitted,
- yeast - develops during the reproduction of conditionally pathogenic yeast-like fungus Candida, the causative agent of thrush,
- atrophic vaginitis - it is caused by a decrease in the concentration of estrogen in the blood of a woman during menopause, during ovarian hypofunction or in case of their removal,
- Allergic vaginitis - develops after exposure of allergens to the mucous membrane of the vagina and the reaction of cells of the immune system.
Types of vaginitis by the nature of inflammation:
- serous - clear, liquid discharge,
- mucous - discharge thick, viscous, whitish, dull,
- purulent vaginitis - discharge thick, yellow or yellow-green, opaque with an unpleasant odor.
How does the disease manifest?
Symptoms of vaginitis depend on the cause of the inflammation and its severity. General well-being in women, as a rule, does not suffer. Fever rarely exceeds 37-38. High fever, general weakness, severe pain in the perineum indicate inflammation of all the walls of the vagina and fatty tissue surrounding the uterus.
The pathogen is sexually transmitted, the first signs of vaginitis appear 3-4 days after unprotected sex. The woman has pain, a burning sensation in the vagina and copious mucous-purulent discharge. The latter may contain whitish films - layers of rejected mucous cells.
On examination, the swollen and hyperemic walls of the vagina are visible, and on their surface there can be numerous small nipples of bright red color. In severe cases, mucous membranes are found on dense, whitish films, after removal of which there is bleeding erosion. The sick appear bloody discharge.
Candida vaginitis is familiar to the vast majority of women. Often they blame sexual partners for the disease, but is sexually transmitted vaginitis? Yeast-like fungus candida is representative of conditionally pathogenic microflora and asymptomatically lives in the vagina of every fifth woman. It can cause inflammation only with a significant decrease in immunity, metabolic disorders and hormonal status.
First, pronounced itching and dryness of the vagina appear. If the labia majora is swollen and painful, it means that fungal vulvovaginitis has joined the colpitis. After a day or two, a characteristic discharge appears: white, in the form of grains of cottage cheese with a sour smell. Their abundance may be different, in some cases, vaginitis proceeds without them.
Usually, a fungal infection is activated before menstruation or during pregnancy. Her unpleasant feature is the frequent chronization of the process, as a result of which the woman gets relapses of the disease several times a year.
Most often it is postmenopausal, that is, it develops during the period of menopause. It differs from other vaginitis in the painful itching and dryness of the vagina. The discharge is scanty, slimy, transparent, odorless. On examination of the vagina, a pale yellow mucous membrane is visible, on the surface of which there are hemorrhagic spots - bruises. The vagina is narrowed, connective tissue adhesions are formed in the posterior vault.
How to cure vaginitis?
Treatment of vaginitis is carried out on an outpatient basis, hospital clearance is not required. At detection of pathogens of genital infections, not only a woman but also her sexual partner undergo a course of therapy. An indispensable condition for treating vaginitis is complete sexual rest. It is important not only to eliminate inflammation, but also to restore the impaired microflora, immune defense and remove the effects of the causative factor (sanitize the foci of chronic infection, change personal hygiene or contraception, compensate for insulin diabetes).
The treatment regimen includes local and systemic drugs. Antibiotics are used in the treatment of bacterial vaginitis:
- with non-specific - Amoxicillin tablets, Clindamycin vaginal suppositories,
- with trichomonas - inside Ornidazole, Metronidazole, topically Tinidazole,
- with fungal - once fluconazole, vaginal plugs Metamicin, Isoconazole, Econazole. In pregnant women use local drugs - Natamycin, Etroconazole.
After a course of antibiotics, vaginal suppositories with lactobacilli are shown to the woman - Acilact, Lactonorm. They are necessary to restore the habitual microflora and immune protection of the vagina.
Additionally, syringing with:
- soda - 2 tsp. to a glass of water, in 20-25 minutes - with a weak solution of potassium permanganate,
- sulphate Zn - 2 tsp on a glass of water with purulent secretions,
- with a solution of protargol 3-10% - the drug is used for persistent discharge with pus,
- 1-3% solution of borax - a remedy helps with candidiasis.
A woman is recommended to take sedentary baths once a day for 10-15 minutes with a decoction of chamomile, calendula, St. John's wort, and oak bark. Indomethacin candles are used to relieve pain and itching.
It is difficult to cure chronic vaginitis, recurrent for years. In addition to the course of standard therapy, the gynecologist uses the methods of physiotherapy (magnetic therapy, UHF, electrophoresis), connects immunomodulatory therapy, prescribes vitamins. Women with chronic inflammation are indicated treatment in sanatoriums and resorts.
Symptoms and diagnosis of chronic vaginitis
The cunning of chronic vaginitis is that women may not always suspect the disease. Symptoms are very expressionless, they may even be absent. Only occasionally, the patient notices that there is a slight itching in the genital area or discharge acquires an atypical shade.
During exacerbation the following symptoms are possible:
- abundant whites,
- pain during intercourse,
- itching and burning in the vagina.
Symptoms of the subacute form are more pronounced. A woman may complain of pain, a strong change in the color of whiter, the appearance of an unpleasant smell from discharge. Ulceration is possible on the vaginal mucosa, which makes sexual intercourse very painful.
Diagnostic measures are microscopic examination and other laboratory methods. To do this, the patient is taken a smear from the vagina and urethra and examined for the presence of the pathogen. To clarify the diagnosis used PCR and ELISA studies.
Ultrasound in chronic vaginitis is rarely performed, only in case of suspected pathological changes in the vagina and in adjacent organs.
Treatment of subacute and chronic vaginitis
In most cases, the principles of treatment of subacute and chronic vaginitis are similar, only the dosage of some drugs and the duration of the course changes. However, there are significant differences depending on the type of pathogen. If the disease is caused by conditionally pathogenic microflora, allergies, hormonal disruption, antibacterial agents are rarely prescribed, and with specific vaginitis, antibiotic therapy is indispensable.
Non-specific form therapy
Before starting treatment, a woman is informed about what needs to be changed in life. Until full recovery is required to abandon sexual intercourse, not to eat spicy and fatty foods, it is advisable to exclude alcohol and smoking.
At the initial stage of therapy prescribed candles and solutions:
- Metrogil. A broad-spectrum antibiotic for chronic vaginitis is administered in the form of a gel intravaginally. Dosage of 500 mg per day, 10 days in a row.
- Candles Neo-Penotran Forte. One at night, the duration of treatment up to 14 days.
- Terzhinan. Combined antibacterial drug, dosage and duration of treatment are established by the gynecologist.
- Vaginal capsules Polizhinaks. One capsule per day, in the evening (just before bedtime). The course of treatment is 12 days, but the doctor may set a shorter period if there are reasons.
- Vaginal tablets Ginalgin. One tablet per vagina per day, course duration up to 10 days.
After the use of antibacterial agents, it is necessary to restore the vaginal microflora. To do this, prescribe various means. Including probiotics. In the treatment of subacute or chronic vaginitis, the means indicated in the table have a good therapeutic effect.
What is a disease
Vaginitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the vagina caused by various factors. This is such a common pathology that almost every woman faces her throughout her life.
Not always signs of vaginitis (colpitis) are pronounced. Often the disease is asymptomatic, because of which the woman does not seek medical help.
Chronic vaginitis is characterized by long periods of remission, during which there are no obvious manifestations of the disease. This condition can last for years, infectious agents are inactive. But as soon as a provoking factor appears, an acute or subacute process develops.
The disease is practically not reflected in the general state of the body. However, chronic vaginitis is often the cause of infertility, as long-term infection in the vagina tends to spread in an ascending way.
There are the following types of this pathology:
Infectious vaginitis caused by pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms.
Conditionally pathogenic microorganisms are part of the normal flora of the vagina, but become the cause of inflammation only under certain conditions - with changes in the acidity of the environment.
Pathogenic microflora is divided into non-specific and specific. Non-specific pathogens include:
- E. coli
- herpes virus.
It is non-specific microflora that most often causes chronic vaginitis.
- gonorrhea stick
Separately, isolated bacterial vaginosis. This is a type of infectious vaginitis caused by a violation of the composition of the vaginal microflora. As such, the pathogen is not determined, but conditionally pathogenic microorganisms may be found in an increased amount in the composition of the microflora of the vagina. Under their action, the mucous membrane becomes inflamed, characteristic signs of the disease appear. In some cases, bacterial vaginosis is symptomless.
Non-infectious inflammations of the vaginal mucosa can develop under the influence of various provoking factors:
- Allergens and chemicals - latex, intimate hygiene products.
- High temperature - when douche hot water.
- Urine - with urinary fistulas, when the contents of the bladder regularly enters the lumen of the vagina.
Non-infectious also includes atrophic vaginitis, which can develop in women in old age due to vaginal dryness due to a lack of sex hormones.
Causes of Chronic Vaginitis
In order to understand how the inflammation of the mucous membrane of the vagina develops, you need to be aware of how the microflora representatives get on with each other and in what conditions.
The mucous membrane of the vagina contains a fairly large number of microorganisms. Their growth and reproduction depend on the acidic state (pH). The acidity of the vaginal secretion is regulated by lactobacilli or vaginal sticks. With their sufficient content, lactic acid is produced, which maintains a certain pH level. Normally, it is no more than 4.5, and this level of acidity inhibits the growth of pathogenic microflora.
The hormonal status of a woman, that is, the functional ability of the ovaries, directly affects the vital activity of lactobacilli.
If the hormonal balance is disturbed, for example, in the climacteric period, the content of lactobacilli decreases. Therefore, women in old age often suffer from atrophic vaginitis.
In addition to sex hormones, the content of lactobacilli is influenced by the state of immunity, the quality of food and intimate hygiene, stress and various diseases, in particular, diseases of the endocrine system.
The quantitative and qualitative composition of the vaginal microflora is influenced by various factors.
A large role in the colonization of mucous pathogenic bacteria is played by the quality of the sperm, since during each sexual intercourse without using a condom a huge number of microorganisms get into the vagina.
With an insufficient amount of lactobacilli, conditionally pathogenic flora (streptococci, staphylococci, candida and gardnerella) begins to multiply vigorously, and mucosal inflammation occurs with characteristic symptoms.
As for specific bacteria that provoke STDs (trichomonads, gonococci and chlamydia), their contact with the vaginal mucosa causes inflammation, regardless of the state of acidity. In the normal microflora of the vagina they are not.
Risk factors for the development of vaginitis are:
- unprotected intercourse with an unexamined partner,
- uncontrolled hormonal drugs,
- unbalanced diet, including drinking alcohol, keen on spicy food,
- respiratory and other infections
- endocrine diseases (diabetes and others),
- frequent stress
- reduced immunity (including HIV infection),
- long wearing synthetic underwear.
These factors contribute to the transition of the chronic process in the acute, and the development of primary chronic, with unexpressed clinical signs.
It is worth noting that the quality of food plays a serious role in the transition of infection to the chronic form. The fact is that modern food products, such as canned food, meat and dairy products, contain a certain amount of antibacterial agents. If you regularly eat such food, then there is a risk of violation of the natural microflora of the vagina and the suppression of the protective properties of the mucous membrane. Against this background, infectious agents are able to multiply rapidly and cause inflammation.
On the other hand, preservatives and antibiotics, which are used in food, inhibit the growth of some pathogenic bacteria. The clinical picture of inflammation is “smeared”; there may be no clear and reliable signs of disease. Но инфекция никуда не девается, бактерии длительно существуют и активируются при удобном случае.
The chronic variant of the course of this disease is characterized by a long period of remission and relapse. Normal vaginal discharge is a colorless liquid, clear or whitish, odorless and does not cause irritation of the mucous membrane of the external genitalia. When exacerbation of chronic vaginitis symptoms of acute (or subacute) inflammation occur.
Signs of inflammation of the vaginal mucosa:
- Increase the amount of discharge.
- Unpleasant smell.
- Inflamed and edematous mucosa.
- The unusual consistency and color of discharge (frothy, cottage cheese, thick green).
- Itching, burning, discomfort in the vagina.
- Painful urination and intercourse.
In addition to common symptoms, there are individual differences depending on the specific pathogen. In the chronic variant, in the period of remission, patients may be disturbed by anything. Or the discomfort is so insignificant that it does not prompt to seek medical help. Symptoms in this case can pass on their own, to the next provoking factor, and the infection will remain.
Causes of illness
There are a large number of adverse factors and circumstances, the presence of which may cause the development of subacute vulvovaginitis. It is believed that this form of gynecological disease occurs in the following cases:
- mechanical injuries of the vagina, which were received as a result of blows, falls, intense sexual intercourse,
- unprotected sex with different sexual partners,
- circulatory disorders in the pelvic organs,
allergic reaction to synthetic underwear fibers,
- dysbacteriosis inside the vagina, caused by prolonged use of hormonal contraceptives or antibacterial drugs,
- poor nutrition and nutritional deficiencies (vitamins, minerals, amino acids, proteins, fats and carbohydrates),
- systemic immunodeficiency of the blood when the synthesis of immunity cells is disturbed due to the presence of autoimmune diseases or hereditary pathology,
- chronic inflammation of the ovaries and fallopian tubes,
- type 1 or type 2 diabetes
- recent surgeries on the urogenital system,
- the oncological process of malignant origin, which occurs in the epithelial tissues of the vulva, has not yet been identified.
Also, quite often the subacute type is found in women who are carriers of HIV infection, but are not yet aware of their positive status, which is reflected in the overall immune system.
How and what to treat subacute vaginitis?
The primary tasks for the doctor in the process of treating the patient, who addressed him for medical assistance with relevant complaints, are the normalization of the bacterial flora of the vagina, the elimination of pathological symptoms, stimulation of the immune system and the prevention of possible development of complications. To this end, the following drugs are used for the sick woman:
- intramuscular and antibiotic tablets, which are selected on the basis of the bacterial composition of the vaginal cavity,
- vaginal administration of anti-inflammatory suppositories containing antimicrobial components that stabilize the vulva microflora,
- adherence to a special diet restricting the consumption of sweets, bakery, confectionery,
- douching of internal genital organs with chamomile, St. John's wort broth, sage, thyme,
- taking drugs containing beneficial bacteria that stabilize the balance of microflora in the intestine (there is a direct relationship between the imbalance of microorganisms in the digestive system and the internal genitals of a woman),
- eliminate all foci of possible infection that are in the tissues of the body (sore throat, untreated teeth, damage to vital organs),
- lubrication of the vaginal mucosa with creams and gels Metrogil, Hexicon, Neo Penotran,
- folk remedies as an additional method.
If the disease is caused by Trichomonas, then the tablets Metronidazole and Trichopol are effective. So that after the course of treatment, the disease does not reappear in the form of relapse, it is necessary to conduct parallel therapy of the urinary system of the partner, since there is a 85% chance that he is a carrier of pathogenic microflora and in the process of the first intimacy again to saturate the walls of the vulva with pathogenic microbes.
Causes of the disease and its types
Along with the above reasons, viral organisms found in the female reproductive system are considered to be the basis for the onset of subacute vaginitis. Specific provocateurs pathology are:
Penetration into the internal genital organs occurs through dirty hands, stale clothes. Damage to the vaginal mucous membranes by mechanical means often provokes vaginitis. Frequent cases of childhood girls, adolescents. The most likely cause of such cases is viral infection through the bloodstream.
Specialists-gynecologists differentiate vaginitis subacute and chronic forms. The first case is caused by the state of the vaginal mucosa, which is predisposed to the further progression of the pathology. This stage should encourage the patient to think about lifestyle changes, because the next stage in the development of the disease is chronic vaginitis. There is a characteristic regular resumption of the disease of the female genital organs. Most girls who have not completed their treatment may not be aware of the development of chronic vaginitis. Only when they feel certain manifestations, they realize the presence of the disease.
The period of the weakening of the disease is accompanied by a rather weak manifestation of symptoms, the disease is able to linger in the woman’s body for quite a long time - several months and even years. Various provoking factors are capable of causing a sharp aggravation of the state of remission of the pathology: the period of gestation of the fetus by the woman, the transferred infection. Vaginitis is not able to cause serious damage to the overall health of the whole body, but this state of affairs should not put down the vigilance of the beautiful half of humanity, because the majority of girls unable to get pregnant have a chronic vaginitis record in the history of the disease.
Typology of the disease
The main types of the disease are based on infectious pathogens. They are classified according to their type of origin:
- bactericidal vaginitis,
- fungal vaginitis,
- viral vaginitis,
- Trichomonas vaginitis,
- chlamydia vaginitis.
Along with the key types of the disease, vaginitis can vary in:
- clinical signs - acute, subacute, chronic,
- age signs - pathology in girls of children, adolescents, women with active reproductive function, after menopause,
- excitable signs - standard and non-standard,
- contextual features - the postoperative period, postponed labor, the result of an abortion, an allergic reaction.
Therapy of the subacute form of the disease is carried out regardless of the patient's age features, the typology of the inflammatory ailment, the accompanying complications. Achieving an effective result of therapy requires a complex effect. The process of combating the disease involves the use of directional drugs, whose task is the complete elimination of infectious pathogens of pathology.
The main principle of the treatment of subacute vaginitis is based on a complete examination of the woman's body of laboratory and clinical level.
Having diagnosed the disease, determining its type, the gynecologist prescribes the correct course of treatment. The actions and decisions of doctors to eliminate the unpleasant disease are limited by many circumstances that determined the progress of vaginitis. In most cases, therapeutic measures are aimed at the general strengthening of the woman’s body, the elimination of bacterial pests and pathogens, and the removal of inflammatory processes in the vagina.
The use of local procedures is considered quite common. In such situations, apply washing, douching, baths based on drugs, vaginal suppositories. Guaranteed healing becomes possible only after a mandatory examination of each of the sexual partners. In order to avoid recurrence - re-infection of the genital organs - during treatment, refrain from sexual intercourse or use condoms. 2 times during the day, it is necessary to take a hygienic bath, a shower of intimate parts of the body. The period of menstrual flow in a woman is particularly dangerous, hygiene measures are becoming more frequent, they should be used after each change of personal hygiene products.
A child with vaginitis requires the most thorough and regular attention. Having done away with little need, the girl should be washed away using exceptionally clean, warm water.
Underwear is washed, using only detergents that do not cause allergic irritation of intimate parts of the girl’s body. Places affected by itching should be protected from scratching, otherwise the likelihood of new infectious parasites will increase.
The treatment time is accompanied by a light diet: the intake of spicy and salty foods is completely excluded, alcoholic beverages are strictly contraindicated.
Synthetic underwear, tight pants serve as an excellent platform for the development of this disease. Prevention of chronic vaginitis, which excludes the exacerbation of the disease, recommends the use of fermented milk products in food, use specific preparations for the care of intimate areas based on fermented milk bacteria.
Acute vaginitis progresses due to infection of chlamydia and trichomonas. The prevention of disease involves the use of barrier-type contraceptives.
What is chronic vaginitis?
Colpitis, or otherwise vaginitis, is called inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the vagina. Often, the inflammatory process involves the external genitalia (vulva). In this case, the disease is called vulvovaginitis. The disease can perhaps be considered the most common among women of reproductive age, so many of the fair sex treat vaginitis with insufficient attention, mistakenly underestimating its danger - delayed treatment of colpitis can lead to loss of sexual desire, the spread of infection and infertility.
Chronic vaginitis often becomes a consequence of undertreated acute infectious inflammations of the vagina, which have passed into a protracted phase, although in some cases this disease can immediately become chronic, as occurs with senile or atrophic forms of the ailment.
Symptoms of the disease
First of all, it should be said that the symptomatic picture of chronic vaginitis, as compared with the acute form of the disease, is quite blurred. Symptoms may occasionally worsen and subside. These exacerbations are usually associated with the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, periods of decreased immunity, for example, during seasonal epidemics of ARVI, etc. In many cases, a woman remembers colpitis only when he once again makes itself known and begins to cause her serious the discomfort.
What signs of pathology should pay attention to:
- discharge of different texture - thick, liquid or creamy, with an unpleasant smell,
- vaginal fullness, itching and burning,
- discomfort, and sometimes the feeling of pain during intercourse, which leads to a decrease in libido,
- spotting immediately after intercourse,
- discomfort when urinating.
The above are common signs for all types of colpitis. However, there are also specific manifestations, depending on the type of pathogen.