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Hypomenstrual syndrome: symptoms, causes, treatment

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Hypomenstrual syndrome is another confirmation that the treatment of even the most "minor" gynecological pathologies should be dealt with by a qualified doctor, and not an omniscient neighbor of uncertain years with a whole bunch of diseases. Even if the reasons for feeling unwell are well known, and the symptoms seem obvious and unambiguous. “The author decided to remind everyone about the dangers of self-treatment. Again they will moralize ... ”, - so many readers will probably think so and prove to be wrong. We hasten to reassure: today there will not be any moral lectures, we will try to limit ourselves solely to the facts. Moreover, the topic of our conversation - hypomenstrual syndrome (HS) - does not belong to the category of rare violations.

The essence of the problem

Regular periods for many of the fair sex remain a pipe dream. In the conditional risk zone can be both teenage girls and respectable ladies "slightly over 40." Until a certain point, the problem is not paid attention, but under unfavorable circumstances it ceases to be an easy “cosmetic” flaw. Menstruation becomes scarce, short-term, irregular and rare, and the woman is gradually embraced by a feeling close to panic.

Most patients will immediately begin to suspect the worst, but the reasons for this state of affairs are most likely much more prosaic and lie in the hypofunction of the ovaries or adenohypophysis (more details below). Simply put, all the discomfort and “deadly” symptoms are explained by insufficient levels of female sex hormones in the body, which, in turn, leads to disruption of the normal blood supply to the uterus and changes in the structure of its internal mucous membrane - the endometrium.

Special mention deserves the popular belief that amenorrhea and hypomenstrual syndrome are identical concepts. In fact, they have no more in common than the fresh Cosmopolitan issue and the cutting from the Peasant Woman of the 1970s lying somewhere on a shelf. Amenorrhea is the complete absence of menstruation for a long period, and hypomenstrual syndrome - various violations of the cycle:

  • hypomenorrhea: the average volume of bleeding - no more than 25 ml,
  • oligomenorrhea: menstruation lasts 1-2 days,
  • opsomenorrhea or bradymenorrhea: the interval between the onset of critical days increases to 6-8 weeks,
  • Spaniomenorrhea: an extreme case of osomenorei (the duration of the menstrual cycle is 4-6 months)

As we have already found out, the hypomenstrual syndrome is due solely to the hormonal failure of the pituitary or the ovaries, but the very mechanism of the development of the HS can be “triggered” by a variety of factors:

  • medical manipulations affecting the endometrium (curettage, abortion),
  • inflammatory diseases (tuberculosis of the genital organs),
  • significant and abrupt weight loss (exhaustion, excessive exercise, anorexia, inadequate diet),
  • problems with the central nervous system caused by nerve overload, stress or neuropsychiatric diseases,
  • underdevelopment of the genital organs (most often due to a genetic mutation),
  • surgical removal of the uterus,
  • various endocrine pathologies,
  • chronic intoxication (adverse environmental conditions, poor quality food, features of professional activity),
  • metabolic disease,
  • anemia,
  • lack of essential vitamins (hypovitaminosis),
  • any urinary trauma injuries (possibly due to surgery),
  • a side effect of improperly selected hormonal contraceptives,
  • breastfeeding
  • prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation.

They entirely depend on what type of menstrual disorders is the main (hypomenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, opsomenorrhea or spanimenorrhea). But since most patients are most likely not interested in the subtleties of the classification of the HS, but in the methods of its treatment, we decided not to divide the possible clinical manifestations into groups. The only thing to remember is the duration of the menses and the interval between them. Other symptoms are as follows:

  • the color of the bleeding is light or dark brown,
  • headaches of unknown etiology,
  • chest and lower back pain

  • gastrointestinal effects: nausea, dyspepsia, constipation,
  • spastic contractions of the uterus against the background of severe pain,
  • nose bleed,
  • decrease in sexual desire.

It is important to remember that the above list is (attention!) Possible clinical manifestations, the likelihood of which is generally relatively low. Moreover, during puberty or during menopause, they are not a sign of any irregularities and are generally considered one of the manifestations of the norm.

If the problem is observed in women of childbearing age, this may indicate a serious disorder of reproductive function and requires prompt consultation by a gynecologist.

Diagnostics

At the beginning of the article we mentioned that amenorrhea and hypomenstrual syndrome are completely different gynecological problems. But the underlying causes and methods of detection (to clarify: not all of them are mandatory), oddly enough, are in many ways similar:

1. Medical consultation

  • analysis of the patient's subjective complaints,
  • clarification of the detailed history (general, gynecological and genealogical).

2. Initial inspection

  • height, weight, body type,
  • the nature of the distribution of adipose tissue
  • the presence of somatic anomalies,
  • condition of skin and mammary glands.

3. Standard gynecological examination

4. Laboratory analyzes

  • clinical: urine, blood, coagulogram, glucose level, RW, HIV, HbsAg,

  • pathogens,
  • specific oncocytological smear,
  • levels of testosterone, progesterone, prolactin, estrogen, FSH, TSH and LH,
  • urine for the presence of 17-ketosteroids.

5. Functional Ovarian Diagnosis

  • basal temperature measurement
  • mucus arborization research
  • hormonal colpocytology.

6. Instrumental studies

  • Ultrasound of the pelvic organs,
  • x-ray turkish saddle
  • determination of the field of view of both eyes,
  • hysteroscopy
  • laparoscopy,
  • diagnostic curettage of the uterus.

1. Full nutrition with a predominance of proteins and a sufficient content of vitamins and minerals.

2. Drugs that improve the liver:

  • Essentiale Forte (2 capsules, 0.175 g, 3 times a day),
  • Kars (1-2 tablets of 0.07 g, 3 times a day),
  • hepabene (1-2 capsules 3 times a day),
  • Hofitol (2 tablets 2 times a day for 10-15 minutes before meals),

  • Silibor (1-2 tablets of 0.04 g, 3 times a day).

Once again we recall: a competent and comprehensive treatment of the hypomenstrual syndrome is an extremely difficult task, therefore the indicated doses of drugs are approximate. First of all, you should focus on the appointment of the attending physician!

  • pyridoxine hydrochloride,
  • thiamine bromide,
  • folic acid,
  • aevit
  • rutin
  • vitamin C,
  • vitamin b12,
  • ferroplex,
  • ferrum-lek.

  • combined estrogen-progesterone drugs: non-ovlon, ovidone, rigevidon, norinil,
  • chorionic gonadotropin, clomiphene and progesterone to stimulate follicle maturation,
  • progestin: pregnin, organomer, urozhestan, norkolut, progesterone, dufaston,
  • preparations containing follicle-stimulating hormone (metrodin, urofollitropin, gonal-F) or gonadotropin (prophase, choriogonin, pregnil),
  • FSH and LH stimulation: pergogrin, pergonal.

  • electrophoresis with copper salts or vitamin B1 of the pelvic organs,

  • galvanization of the neck or neck area,
  • diadynamic therapy (abdominal sacral technique),
  • amplipulse therapy
  • inductothermy of the abdomen,
  • ultrasound therapy with rectal or vaginal electrode,
  • helium-neon laser irradiation of the vagina or iliac areas.

6. Gynecological massage.

  • Therapeutic fee №1. Combine the grass of rue, fennel, St. John's wort, Potentilla goose and juniper fruits (1 part), the root and seeds of parsley, wormwood grass and rosehips (2 parts). 2 tbsp. l Mix the mixture with 2 cups boiling water, let it brew (until the collection reaches room temperature) and strain. Regimen: 100 ml 2 times a day. Duration of treatment: several months.
  • Therapeutic fee №2. You will need 2 parts of the herb rue and buckthorn bark and 6 parts of rosemary leaves. 1 tbsp. l Mix the mixture with 200 ml of boiling water, let it brew until the liquid has cooled, and strain. Regimen: received volume in small portions to drink throughout the day. Duration of treatment: optional.

basic information

More and more often, the fair sex is faced with irregular menstruation. Moreover, not only adult women, but also teenage girls are in the conditional risk zone.

As a rule, until a certain time this problem is not paid any attention. If there is no menstruation, then most women refer to an adverse set of circumstances. However, after some time, this pathology ceases to be a "cosmetic" disadvantage. With a scanty, short-term and irregular menstruation, girls begin to embrace panic. At the same time, patients begin to immediately suspect the presence of terrible diseases. But most often this gynecological pathology is associated with ovarian hypofunction or adenohypophysis. In other words, the absence of normal menstruation is due to the lack of sex hormones in the woman’s body, which leads to a disruption of the uterus blood supply, as well as a change in the structure of her mucous membrane, that is, endometrium.

Gynecological diseases

Amenorrhea, hypomenstrual syndrome - is it the same thing? Many patients mistakenly believe that these concepts are identical. However, they have nothing in common.

Amenorrhea is the complete absence of menstruation for a long time, and hypomenstrual syndrome is only a violation of the cycle, which has various causes. By the way, the last pathological phenomenon is divided into the following types of symptoms:

  • Oligomenorrhea - monthly lasts no more than two days.
  • Hypomenorrhea - with this pathology, the average volume of discharge is no more than 25 ml.
  • Bradimenorrhea or opsomenorrhea - the interval between the onset of critical days is increased to 6-8 weeks.
  • Spaniomenorrhea is an extreme case of osomenorei. At the same time, the duration of the menstrual cycle often reaches 4-6 months.

Causes

Now you know what hypomenstrual syndrome is. According to experts, the development of this disease is due to hormonal failure of the pituitary gland or the ovaries. It should be noted that the very mechanism of development of hypomenstrual syndrome can trigger completely different factors. As a rule, they include the following:

  • various pathologies in the endocrine system,
  • medical and diagnostic manipulations that somehow affected the endometrium (for example, curettage and abortion),
  • problems with the central nervous system that have arisen due to nervous overloads, stress or neuropsychiatric diseases,
  • diseases of inflammatory origin (for example, tuberculosis of the reproductive organs),
  • severe and significant weight loss (for example, anorexia, exhaustion, inadequate diet, excessive exercise),
  • anemia,
  • underdevelopment of the reproductive organs, including those resulting from genetic mutation,

  • surgical removal of the uterus
  • lack of essential vitamins in the human body (hypovitaminosis),
  • chronic course intoxication (for example, caused by adverse environmental conditions, ingestion of poor-quality food, features of professional activity),
  • impaired metabolism
  • side effects from incorrectly chosen hormonal contraceptives,
  • breast feeding baby
  • injuries of the urogenital system (including those resulting from surgery),
  • prolonged exposure to ion rays.

Symptoms of the disease

How is hypomenstrual syndrome determined? The symptoms of this pathological phenomenon are completely dependent on the type of menstrual disorders (for example, oligomenorrhea, hypomenorrhea, spaniomenorrhea or opsomenorrhea).

Experts say that to identify such a disease, it is necessary to pay particular attention to the interval between periods and their duration.

So, the following are the main features of the disease in question:

  • the color of the bloody discharge is dark or light brown,
  • back pain and chest pain
  • headaches of unknown origin,
  • nausea, dyspeptic symptoms, constipation,
  • nose bleed,
  • uterine contractions spastic, occurring against the background of severe pain,
  • complete absence or reduction of sexual desire.

These symptoms are only possible clinical manifestations of the disease such as hypomenstrual syndrome. It should be remembered that during the period of menopause and during puberty girls such signs do not indicate any violations, and sometimes even are considered a variant of the norm.

If such manifestations are observed in the representatives of the weaker sex of childbearing age, this may indicate serious disorders of the reproductive system of the woman, which requires prompt access to a gynecologist.

How to diagnose?

As mentioned above, if a woman has no menstruation, then we are talking about such a disease as amenorrhea. At the same time, hypomenstrual syndrome differs only in some irregularities in the menstrual cycle. However, it should be noted that the methods for detecting such pathological conditions are in many ways similar. Consider them in more detail:

  • Consultation gynecologist. In the course of such a conversation, the doctor analyzes the patient's subjective complaints, as well as ascertains a detailed history (gynecological, general and genealogical).
  • Initial examination of the patient. During the examination, the gynecologist determines the weight, height and body type of the woman, as well as the distribution of her adipose tissue, the condition of the mammary glands and skin, and the presence of somatic anomalies.
  • Standard examination of the patient in a gynecological chair.
  • Lab tests. After examining a woman, the gynecologist is obliged to prescribe such general clinical tests as urine, coagulogram, blood, RW, glucose level, HbsAg and HIV. The doctor also takes a specific oncocytological smear, determines the type of pathogenic microflora, the level of progesterone, testosterone, estrogen, TSH, prolactin, FSH and LH. In addition, the patient must pass a urinalysis to detect 17-ketosteroids.
  • Diagnosis of the ovaries functional. During this examination, the gynecologist measures the basal temperature, examines the arborization of mucus and conducts hormonal colpocytology.

  • Instrumental examination involves the passage of ultrasound of the pelvic organs, hysteroscopy, x-ray of the Turkish saddle and laparoscopy. The patient also determines the field of view of both eyes and performs diagnostic curettage of the uterine lining.

Treatment of hypomenstrual syndrome

Is the disease treated? Experts say that only an integrated approach to therapy will help to normalize periods of the menstrual cycle with hypomenstrual syndrome. For this, doctors prescribe:

  • A diet with a predominance of protein, trace elements and vitamins.
  • Drugs that improve liver function, including Essentiale Forte, Gepabene, Carsil, Hofitol, Silibor.
  • Vitamin therapy, which includes taking such drugs as pyridoxine hydrochloride, “Rutin”, thiamine bromide, vitamin B12, “Aevit”, ascorbic acid, “Ferrum-Lek”, “Ferroplex”, folic acid.
  • Hormone therapy involving the use of combined estrogen-progesterone drugs, including "Ovidone", "Non-ovlon", "Norinil" and "Rigevidon".

In addition, this treatment requires the use of chorionic gonadotropin, progesterone (to stimulate the follicles) and Clomiphene. Also, doctors may prescribe progestogens in the form of "Pregnin", "Utrogestan", "Orgametril", "Norkolut" and "Duphaston".

It is impossible not to say that hormone therapy may include taking drugs containing follicle-stimulating hormone (for example, Gonal-F, Metrodin, Urofollitropin) or gonadotropin (for example, Horiogonin, Profazi, " Pregnancy »). Also, sometimes patients are recommended to use LH and FSH stimulation with drugs such as Pergonal and Perrogrin.

Physiotherapy

In addition to the diet and taking various drugs, the treatment of hypomenstrual syndrome may include:

  • electrophoresis of the pelvic organs with vitamin B1 or copper salts,
  • amplipulse therapy
  • galvanization of the neck-face or neck area,
  • inductothermy of the lower abdomen,
  • Ultrathrotherapy with a vaginal or rectal electrode,
  • diadynamic therapy (abdominal sacral technique),
  • laser irradiation (helium-neon) of the iliac regions or the vagina.

During the treatment of hypomenstrual syndrome, gynecological massage is very effective. It should be carried out only by an experienced specialist, applying a certain technique.

Folk treatment

Often, folk remedies are used to treat the patient's hypomenstrual syndrome. To do this, they use herbal preparations, which include rue, fennel, St. John's wort, cinquefoil goose, juniper fruits, seeds and parsley root, rosehips, wormwood grass, buckthorn bark, rosemary leaves and others.

What is hypomenstrual syndrome

Often, the unusual nature of menstruation can occur in adolescents during puberty and the formation of the menstrual cycle, during pregnancy and breastfeeding, in women aged 40-50 in the premenopausal period. In the second case, the function of the gonads dies out, after which amenorrhea occurs. All these disorders are associated with the natural lack of female hormones in the blood and are of a physiological nature.

Hypomenstrual syndrome, or “weak” menstruation, includes menstrual disorders in women of reproductive age, who are characterized by a deviation from the above-mentioned norms to the smaller side. There are the following forms of easing menstruation:

  1. Hypomenorrhea - reducing the daily blood volume during menstruation to 25 ml or less. Visually, this is defined as traces or drops of blood, which may look like slight dark discharge (bleeding) or traces of light blood. This form is often accompanied by oligomenorrhea.
  2. Oligomenorrhea - reducing the duration of menstruation to 1-2 days.
  3. Bradimenorrhea, or opsomenorrhea - delayed onset of menstruation with an extended (5-8 week) interval between them or an interval of more than 35 days.
  4. Spaniomenorrhea - very rare menstruation, which can occur up to 2-7 times within 1 year.

Especially often a combination of these forms occurs, for example, hypomenorrhea with oligomenorrhea or hypomenorrhea with opsomenorrhea. The syndrome is often accompanied by infertility, psychoemotional disorders, depressive states of various degrees, etc.

There are three forms of bradimenorrhea with a two-phase menstrual cycle:

  • Normal luteal phase, but elongated follicular phase, as a result, follicular maturation and ovulation, which occurs on the 17th - 30th day of the menstrual cycle, are slowed down, which leads to a slower secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone,
  • Reduced luteal and extended follicular phases, resulting in late ovulation, the formation of an inferior corpus luteum with insufficiency of its function and the development of glandular-cystic hyperplasia of the endometrium,
  • an extended luteal phase in combination with the normal follicular phase, such a violation is quite rare.

Causes and diagnosis of pathology

The regulation of the menstrual cycle is carried out by the neuroendocrine system through the hypothalamus and pituitary (hypothalamic-pituitary system) involving mainly the thyroid gland, ovaries, adipose tissue, adrenal cortex. It is based on the principle of universal feedback. The main biological meaning of regulation is to prepare for the perception of the introduction (implantation) of the ovum.

The whole process takes place through the exchange of signaling molecules between the organism of the future mother and the embryo, due to which they interact intensively at the molecular, cellular and cellular-tissue levels. In addition, there is also the activation of molecules of adhesion, cytokines and growth factors that carry out various types of regulation of the interaction.

Monthly bleeding occurs as a result of detachment of a part of the uterus mucous membrane prepared for embryo acceptance, if the fertilization of the egg cell did not take place.

“Weak” periods for girls and women at the age of 18–40 may be primary, that is, they are initially from the moment of puberty, and secondary, when they arise and persist for more than 3 months already after established and previously normal menstruation. In these cases, hypomenstrual syndrome is a manifestation of a functional or organic disorder of a complex regulatory system as a result of internal disturbances in the body in case of infectious acute or chronic diseases, infantilism, and endocrine gland dysfunction. The external environment also has a significant effect, for example, unfavorable living conditions, which worsen the general condition of the body, intoxication of various kinds, and other factors.

All this can provoke dysfunctions of the neuroendocrine system, leading to insufficiency of ovarian function, decrease in the level of sex hormones, impaired uterine circulation and the inadequacy of cyclic changes that the endometrium undergoes in normal conditions.

The main causes of hypomenstrual syndrome

  1. Insufficient local sensitivity of the endometrial receptor apparatus.
  2. Underdevelopment of the genital organs, especially accompanied by a decrease in ovarian function.
  3. The inferiority of the endometrium, which develops in chronic inflammatory diseases of the uterus or ovaries (with tuberculosis, STIs), after surgical interventions, which result in a reduction in the area of ​​the uterine mucosa (defundation or high resection during tumor processes), partial destruction of the mucous membrane during excessively active or frequent artificial instrumental abortions or diagnostic curets.
  4. Some types of psychoemotional stress and depressive conditions that cause impairment of neuroendocrine correlation in the axis of the central nervous system - pituitary - ovaries.
  5. PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) and resistant ovary syndrome.
  6. Hormonal disorders - Itsenko – Cushing’s syndrome and disease, acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia (excessive prolactin levels in the blood due to various causes), hypothyroidism, diabetes, brain tumors.
  7. Chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system, blood formation organs.
  8. Metabolic disorders, obesity, chronic deficiency of vitamins and microelements.
  9. The effects on the body of chemicals and radioactive radiation associated with professional activities.
  10. Long-term use of hormonal drugs, as well as sleeping pills, sedatives, neuroleptic, anticonvulsant, anti-depressive and narcotic drugs (pharmacological hypomenorrhea or amenorrhea).
  11. Traumatic injuries of the genitals.
  12. Abnormalities of sexual development, which are expressed by the insufficient development of sexual characteristics and the phenomena of virilization, infantilism, hypoplasia of the external or / and internal genital organs.
  13. Heavy physical activity of a sporting or professional nature.

The condition is often accompanied by the absence of the possibility of conception and / or spontaneous abortion. And although pregnancy with hypomenstrual syndrome is possible, its onset and gestation depend on its form and the causes of this disorder.

The essence of the disease

The disease appears due to hypofunction of the ovaries and is found in young girls, adolescents, and women of balsac age. Changes in the amount of bleeding due to the fact that the ovaries can not produce enough hormones. As a result, there is a malfunction in the blood supply to the uterus. This phenomenon leads to a change in the endometrium.

Many women think that hypomenstrual syndrome and amenorrhea is the name of the same pathology. In fact, this is far from the case. Amenorrhea - the absolute absence of menstruation, and by hypomenstrual syndrome understand a list of violations and failures in the cycle:

  • hypomonorrhea, the main symptom is a small volume of discharge, up to 25 ml,
  • oligomenorrhea, when the duration of menstruation does not exceed 2 days,
  • Oppenmenorrhea. With such a pathology in a woman, the interval between the onset of critical days is increased to several weeks, and in severe forms - to six months.

Symptoms of hypomenstrual syndrome

Symptoms depend on the type of violation in the cycle. Depending on this, the number of days between months and the amount of discharge varies. All other symptoms are almost identical, adjusted for individuality of the organism.

  • The color of the selection changes. They acquire a dark or light brown shade.
  • Appear discomfort in the lower abdomen. The pain may go down to the lower back.
  • Disorders in the functioning of the digestive tract. Constipation and nausea are most common.
  • Decreased libido.
  • Bleeding from the nose.

If you have noticed these symptoms in combination with the failures of the menstrual cycle, you should immediately consult a doctor. Hypomenstrual syndrome is a rather unpleasant disease, but the doctor must diagnose it. These symptoms are only clinical manifestations, which do not necessarily indicate this pathology. But you need to consult a doctor, including in order to get recommendations on proper nutrition.

Causes of hypomenstrual syndrome

The immediate causes of weak, short and rare menstruation is a violation due to those or other causes of the functions of the pituitary and ovaries, adrenogenital syndrome, sclerocystic ovary. It is possible to reduce blood excretion during menstruation and with changes in the endometrium: genital tuberculosis, adhesion of tissues after rough curettage of the uterus, etc.

The inferiority of cyclic transformations of the endometrium causes a decrease in the production of sex hormones, which can also lead to hypomenstrual syndrome.

Signs of hypomenstrual syndrome

Oligomenorrhea (from novolat. Oligos— “small”, now— “month” + rheo— “current”) - short-term menstruations that last less than the prescribed period. The disease indicates a violation of the duration of menstruation and certain disruptions in the body.

Opsomenorrhea - rare periods with intervals from 35 days to 3 months.

The complex menstrual cycle, simultaneously including scanty, short and rare blood, is called hypomenstrual syndrome. It is the primary, if the clinical forms of the violation appear from the very moment of the appearance of menstruation in the girl. The secondary type of the syndrome is characterized by weakening, shortening and contraction of previously normal monthly discharge.

More about the syndrome

Menstruation should come once every 21 - 35 days. The amount of discharge at this time is from 25 to 150 ml. And the duration of critical days in healthy women is 3 - 7 days. These are the usual criteria for the well-being of the reproductive system.

But for some women, it doesn’t work as flawlessly. This can be observed from a young age or come with a time when there is a climax ahead. Hypomenstrual syndrome is divided into several types of disorders:

  • hypomenorrhea, in which the average amount of discharge is up to 25 ml,
  • oligomenorrhea, when menstruation goes no more than 2 days,
  • Opsmenorrhea, characterized by 6-8 week pauses between critical days,
  • spaniomenorrhea, which is an extreme manifestation of the previous type of disorder, in which the intervals from one period to the other stretch to 4-6 months.

The problem is primary, that is, arising from the moment of menarche. It happens that until a certain period of the month go as usual. But then, under the influence of pathological processes, one or several of these disorders occur. Hypomenstrual syndrome rarely manifests itself only one of them.

Nonspecialists often confuse the concepts of amenorrhea and hypomenstrual syndrome. In the first case, there are no monthly periods at all over six months. But interruptions to them can translate one problem into another.

Causes of anomaly

The root cause of the existence of hypomenstrual syndrome is an imbalance of hormones. Lack of estrogen and progestogen provokes the underdevelopment of the endometrium, violation of the terms of its "ripening" until ready to be replaced. The lack of these substances can be caused by a reduced amount of other hormones, changes in ovarian and pituitary functions.

Several factors can provoke violations:

  • endocrine pathologies,
  • medical manipulations that occur with invasion of the uterus (curettage, abortion, diagnosis with a hysteroscope),
  • emotional overload, disrupting the functions of the nervous system,
  • inflammatory diseases of the reproductive organs,
  • malnutrition that caused a dramatic weight loss,
  • unbearable physical exertion
  • violation of the hematopoietic system,
  • congenital anomalies in the development of genital organs,
  • chronic ingestion of toxic substances, that is, not only work in hazardous industries, but also smoking and other bad habits,
  • receiving incorrectly selected hormonal drugs,
  • damage to reproductive organs,
  • prolonged exposure to ion radiation.

Treatment problems

Treatment of hypomenstrual syndrome is selected individually. Prescribing medications also depends on the cause of the problems. If there is inflammation or infectious pathology, antibiotic therapy, antifungal, anti-inflammatory agents, immunomodulators are indicated. But in almost all cases, hormonal correction is needed, for which multidirectional drugs are used:

  • estrogen-progestin "Ovidon", "Non-Ovlon", "Rigevidon",
  • containing FSH Gonal-F, Urofollitropin,
  • progestin "Duphaston", "Utrozhestan", "Norkolut",
  • gonadotropic "Choriogonin", "Pregnil", Profazi ",
  • funds with HCG "Horagon", "Gonakor" in combination with "Clomiphene",
  • stimulating the production of FSH and LH "Pergonal", "Pergogrin."

They will definitely need vitamin therapy with microelements:

  • routine,
  • pyridoxine hydrochloride,
  • tocopherol acetate,
  • folic acid
  • iron preparations
  • ascorbic,
  • carotene.

As well as the use of drugs that return to normal liver function. The following will do:

It is necessary to supplement the treatment with a protein-vitamin diet, physiotherapy, gynecological massage.

We recommend reading the article about short periods. From it you will learn about the causes of short menstruation, diagnosis and prescription of treatment, as well as measures to prevent possible pathology.

Home remedies for the syndrome

Treatment of hypomenstrual syndrome folk remedies is usually not used independently, as it is not enough. But herbs and natural products will be a good complement to drug therapy.

The following infusions are known to be effective in treating various types of disorders:

Epidemiology

Although hypermenstrual syndrome remains the leading cause of visits to the gynecologist, only 10–20% of women experience quite serious problems associated with blood loss during menstruation.

Any woman of reproductive age who has periods can develop menorrhagia, most often they occur at the age of 30 years.

Causes of Hypermenstrual Syndrome

  • Inflammatory processes of the uterus and appendages:
    • genital infection.
  • Endocrine pathology:
    • primary hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction,
    • secondary disorders of ovarian function associated with the pathology of other endocrine glands of the body.
  • Organic diseases of the uterus and ovaries:
    • endometrial hyperplastic processes (glandular hyperplasia, endometrial polyps, atypical hyperplasia),
    • benign tumors of the uterus (fibroids),
    • adenomyosis (endometriosis of the uterus),
    • malignant tumors of the body and cervix (choriocarcinoma, sarcoma, adenocarcinoma, cervical cancer),
    • hormonally active ovarian tumors.
  • Traumatic and operative damage to the genitals.
  • Hematological diseases:
    • hemorrhagic diathesis,
    • thrombocytopenia,
    • leukemia,
    • toxic-allergic damage to the walls of blood vessels.
  • Somatic and infectious diseases, intoxication.
  • Iatrogenic causes:
    • inadequate use of estrogen, anticoagulants,
    • intrauterine contraception.

Risk factors

  • mental depression
  • adverse living conditions
  • climate change
  • smoking.

The development of hypermenstrual syndrome may be associated with both delayed rejection of the thickened mucous membrane of the uterus against a background of absolute or absolute excess of estrogens, as well as its delayed regeneration at the end of the next menstrual period. In the dynamics of the development of the pathogenetic process, hypermenstrual syndrome is a less severe stage of menstrual disorder compared with hypomenstrual, as it develops under conditions of preserved production of estrogen by the ovaries.

In approximately 25% of patients, bleeding occurs as a result of organic lesions of the genital organs, and in other cases they are caused by impaired function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian system.

What is bothering you?

The following forms of hypermenstrual syndrome are distinguished:

  • Hyperpolymenorrhea - abundant and long periods.
  • Menorrhagia - bleeding in periods of menstruation.
  • Metrorrhagia - bleeding beyond periods of menstruation.
  • Manometrorrhagia is a combination of meno and metrorrhagia.
  • Acyclic bleeding - the cyclical nature of bleeding from the genitals is completely absent.

Complications and consequences

Rare episodes of menorrhagia usually do not pose serious risks to the overall health of women.

Patients who constantly lose more than 80 ml of blood are at risk of developing iron deficiency anemia as a result of chronic blood loss.Hypermenstrual syndrome is the most common cause of anemia in premenopausal women. If the bleeding is severe enough, women may experience shortness of breath, fatigue, palpitations.

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