For many years, unsuccessfully struggling with the dairy?
The head of the Institute: “You will be amazed how easy it is to cure a thrush by taking each day.
Surely almost every adult girl is familiar with such an unpleasant disease as thrush (vaginal candidiasis). It arises because of microorganisms of fungal origin of Candida, conditionally pathogenic in nature, normally they are present in the microflora in a small amount. Under the influence of adverse factors, fungi begin to multiply actively, which causes the disease. Quite often, candidiasis occurs in pregnant women. Thrush during pregnancy - the danger to the fetus? All future mothers need to know about this, so we will try to answer this question.
Causes of disease
For the treatment of thrush, our readers successfully use Candiston. Seeing the popularity of this tool, we decided to offer it to your attention.
Read more here ...
It is pregnant women who become 2-3 times more likely to get thrush. According to statistics, 75% of cases of the disease in women occur during pregnancy. The reason lies in the fact that during the period of childbearing hormonal changes greatly. Hormone progesterone is produced in smaller quantities. The acidity of the vagina is changing, there is a decrease in immunity. This happens because the defense mechanism invented by nature works out - thanks to it, the woman’s immune system does not perceive the fetus as a foreign body and does not reject it. But unfortunately, it is precisely because of these changes that the disease most often begins, which has negative consequences for the child during perinatal development and after birth.
There are several reasons that provoke the acceleration of the reproduction of fungal microorganisms and the appearance of candidiasis:
- infections and inflammations
- tight synthetic linen
- vaginal microtraumas,
- avitaminosis and dysbacteriosis,
- non-compliance with personal hygiene,
- stressful situations
- cases of candidiasis before pregnancy.
Symptoms of candidiasis
Most of the manifestations of the disease during pregnancy and do not differ from other women, but on the background of the general condition can be more acute:
- sensation of burning and itching in the vagina,
- discoloration, swelling of the mucous membrane of the vulvar lips,
- white or yellowish lumpy discharge,
- discomfort when emptying the bladder,
- painful feelings during sexual intercourse,
- characteristic odor from the vagina.
Symptoms may manifest themselves intensely or be unclearly expressed.
Possible consequences for the baby
Of course, expectant mothers are interested in the question of how the thrush affects the fetus. Is thrush dangerous for a future baby, and what could be the complications of this disease?
You can find the opinion that the influence of thrush on the fetus does not occur at all. Of course, it will not cause the development of intrauterine pathologies. In addition, the baby is in an environment tightly closed from environmental exposure. It is almost impossible to infect a baby during pregnancy. The danger lies in the other:
- Against the background of fungal infections, other diseases can also develop, which, in turn, can be dangerous for children,
In the process of childbirth, when a baby passes through the birth canal, fungi can get on the skin, eyes, nasopharynx, and genitals of a newly born baby. Quite common cases of oral candidiasis in children are often associated with infection from the mother. Due to the effects of Candida fungi, whitish, cheesy lumps and sores in the oral cavity appear in the newborn. This is especially dangerous for premature babies. There are cases of death due to blood poisoning - candidal sepsis,
Candidiasis is dangerous for the mom's body: in addition to the mass of unpleasant sensations, it can turn into a chronic form, and even cause erosion and other diseases.
If the mother suffered thrush, she should carefully monitor the health of the baby. If there are signs such as white plaque in the mouth of the infant, sores, problems with eating, you need to be alert and show the baby to the doctor in order to immediately start fighting the infection. In newborns candidiasis is even in the internal organs.
Diagnosis and treatment
When the first symptoms appear, you should immediately consult a doctor to pass a smear (bacterioscopy). This is usually a reliable method for determining the disease. If this is not enough, make microflora seeding. Fight with candidiasis is necessary, and the doctor must prescribe treatment. It is extremely dangerous to engage in self-treatment, since most drugs are not intended for therapy during pregnancy.
In normal cases, thrush is treated with systemic and external medications. But systemic medications, i.e. tablets and capsules enter the blood from the intestines. They are dangerous for the fetus and can cause intrauterine pathologies or miscarriage. For example, fluconazole containing products that are popular in Russia are prohibited. Doctors have proven that fluconazole causes deformities and malformations in children.
Therefore, pregnant women are prescribed topical medications - suppositories, ointments, aerosols. The most safe for pregnant women are Terzhinan (vaginal tablets, the price is about 400 rubles), Pimafucin (the price is from 300 to 500 rubles), Natamitsin (about 300 rubles), Butoconazole or Gynofort (about 650 rubles). After the first trimester, this list can be expanded: Clotrimazole is allowed (on average it costs 40 rubles). The doctor selects the medicine individually based on the nature of the pregnancy and the possible risk to the fetus. Sometimes there are situations when the possible benefits of the drug outweigh the risk to the fetus. If side effects appear, it is better to stop treatment and immediately inform your doctor. Perhaps he will choose another tool that does not cause allergic reactions or other undesirable consequences.
You also need to take vitamins to improve immunity. It is imperative that you follow personal hygiene rules: regular showers, rinsing, wearing of linen in size and from natural materials. Do not forget about proper nutrition. It is important to reduce the amount of sweets, not to lean on carbohydrates and foods containing yeast. For example, it is better to buy bread without yeast. It is also undesirable to eat spicy, spicy, fried. The above harmful products provoke the reproduction of the fungus. Without proper nutrition, treatment will be ineffective.
We must not forget that it is necessary to be treated and sexual partner of a woman. If this is not done, the partners will be constantly infected from each other. If possible, it is better to exclude sex during treatment or at least use a condom.
Separately, it should be said about folk remedies. Some future moms give them preference, because they believe that the risk to their health is less. On the Internet you can find many recipes and recommendations. From the safest can be identified:
- washing away with water in which baking soda is dissolved,
- washing and sessile baths with chamomile or calendula decoction.
It can help relieve itching and burning and reduce inflammation. In any case, they can be used only after consulting with your doctor. For example, treatment methods such as douching or ingestion of herbs inside can hurt a lot. Due to douching, the infection can penetrate deeper and also get into the urinary system. Due to decoctions and infusions taken orally, there can be not only side effects in the form of allergies and problems with the gastrointestinal tract, but also miscarriages.
Self-treatment is dangerous for any disease, and especially for pregnant women. A woman is responsible not only for her health, but also for the health of the future baby. With the help of folk remedies, one can only alleviate the symptoms and speed up the healing process, but they cannot kill the fungus. Therefore, it is impossible to refuse medication prescribed by a doctor.
100% eliminate the risk of the disease is impossible. But this does not mean that nothing can be done at all. In order not to get sick or at least reduce the risk of this, you must adhere to the following rules:
- when planning pregnancy, be examined by a gynecologist, get tested and cure all infections,
- eat right,
- monitor personal hygiene,
- wear comfortable underwear
- do not take antibiotics and hormonal drugs without consulting a doctor,
- ensure that the sexual partner is healthy,
- to undergo a scheduled check-ups at the doctor.
If, despite the fact that all precautions have been taken, the woman is still sick, do not panic. It is best to start treatment as soon as possible. With the disappearance of the first symptoms of treatment can not be interrupted, because the disease is not only recurrent in nature, but can turn into a chronic form.
Pregnancy and thrush: risks, consequences, treatment
Contrary to the popular belief that carrying a child decorates a woman, this process activates many chronic processes in the future mother's body. Some of them can adversely affect the health of the future baby. For example, a common disease is thrush during pregnancy, how is this pathology dangerous for the fetus? Most often, the expectant mother finds out about her illness already in the antenatal clinic, because most often it is almost asymptomatic. For successful treatment of this unpleasant disease, a pregnant woman must clearly understand the features of changes in the vaginal flora.
What causes thrush
It should be noted that the concept of thrush is used in private conversations among patients. This is due to the fact that with this pathology, the main symptom is discharge, similar in appearance to sour milk.
Experts call this disease candidiasis, since most cases of infection are caused by pathological fungi of the Candida genus. For a long time, thrush was attributed to sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea or trichomoniasis.
However, recent studies did not confirm this theory, since pathological fungi were found during examination only in 8% of men who had sexual contact with sick women. Therefore, candidiasis is considered an exclusively female problem.
Most experts are inclined to believe that the cause of thrush during pregnancy is getting a certain number of candidal fungi from the intestines of women in the vagina. In the normal state, the vaginal microflora copes with this problem, however, the pregnant woman's immunity is lowered, and most bacteria in the intimate mucosa do not have time to restore their bactericidal functions.
In addition to this main reason, the independent use of various hormonal preparations, an excessive amount of carbohydrates in a woman’s daily diet, and nervous tension can lead to the occurrence of thrush. Often, such a pathology can be detected in patients with hormonal disorders and diabetes.
In 75% of cases, candidiasis affects the vagina of a pregnant woman in the last trimester. This condition is associated with an increase in the blood levels of the patient oxytocin and prolactin. However, in the early stages of gestation, a similar problem may arise.
The main symptoms of a pregnant woman
External manifestations of the disease are directly dependent on its form. Most often in pregnant women, candidiasis is asymptomatic, that is, the expectant mother is simply a carrier of pathogenic flora. This condition is usually detected at the first visit to the antenatal clinic and laboratory examination of vaginal smears.
Under the influence of various factors during pregnancy, the process can be acute. Patients celebrate:
- irritation and pain in the external and internal genital organs,
- heavy discharge with specific odor,
- swelling and hyperemia of the labia and vagina.
To establish the diagnosis, in addition to laboratory tests, use the method of colposcopy. The characteristic picture at the same time allows for differential diagnosis.
Features of the flow of thrush in the future mother
Since the fungal inflammation of the vagina occurs when carrying a child 2 to 3 times more often than in ordinary women, a natural question arises: “What is the danger of a thrush during pregnancy?”
The biggest problem of this pathology is considered a high risk of infection of the baby during childbirth. According to various literary data, the probability of infecting a child reaches 70 - 80%. In this case, the usual physiological labor does not differ in the frequency of fungal infection of the fetus from the operation of cesarean section.
Candidiasis in a child’s body is most often limited to the infant’s mucous and umbilical cord, but in the case of deep prematurity, the candidiasis of a newborn can aggravate the condition of the child and even lead to postnatal complications.
As mentioned above, the main cause of thrush in a pregnant woman is the constant hormone jumps in the blood, which leads to changes in the microflora of the vagina and infection of the woman. The course of the disease is usually undulating. Symptoms of mucosal irritation and frothy discharge can occur and disappear throughout the course of pregnancy with virtually no apparent reason.
Even after a course of treatment, candidiasis can bother a woman again, although in this case we can talk about the unsystematic form of the disease and only manifest itself in tests. In rare cases, when the disease existed in the pregnant woman's body even before conception, chronic candidiasis develops. Such a course of the process is poorly treatable and may occasionally give exacerbations.
What is dangerous thrush during pregnancy? This disease can pose a threat to the mother and her unborn child, therefore, despite difficulties in diagnosing and prescribing therapy, it is imperative to treat candidiasis in pregnant women.
Treatment of this pathology in a woman during gestation
Difficulties in the treatment of thrush in pregnant women arise from the fact that you cannot use the usual proven drugs because of their negative effects on the fetus.
Treatment of fungal diseases of the female genital organs is usually carried out comprehensively. The patient is prescribed oral medications and local specialties. This practice is connected with the fact that the majority of pathogenic fungi are in the intestines, and treatment of candidiasis should begin with the gastrointestinal tract of a pregnant woman.
It is at this point that difficulties arise. Known drugs for the treatment of thrush type “Orungal” and “Fluconazole” have been banned during pregnancy for several years, as scientists have proven their ability to cause various developmental defects in the fetus. In quite rare cases, when the fungal process threatens the health of the mother and baby, these drugs are used a week before delivery under the supervision of laboratory tests.
To avoid such a risk, most experts recommend treating thrush in pregnant women with topical medications. The pharmacy chain offers a large number of ointments, creams and suppositories of any price level.
At the beginning of pregnancy, gynecologists prefer Pimafucin and nystatin suppositories. For patients who are on the 2nd and 3rd trimester, “Ginofort” or “Isoconoral” are more suitable. Thanks to the success of the leading pharmaceutical campaigns, it was possible in these preparations to achieve a combination of an excellent effect on the fungal flora of a woman and complete safety for the unborn child.
In the last week before childbirth, pregnant women with fungal pathology are usually placed in preparation for this process in the pathology department, where, in addition to other procedures, they are treating a woman’s genital tract infection with the drug “Terzhinan”. This remedy, among other infections, successfully copes with mushrooms in the vagina of the expectant mother.
We recommend reading an article on the treatment of thrush during pregnancy with folk remedies. From it you will learn about the causes of the disease, the use of home recipes for the treatment of candidiasis, the effectiveness of baths, wiping, the possibility of douching.
For the treatment of thrush, our readers successfully use Candiston. Seeing the popularity of this tool, we decided to offer it to your attention.
Read more here ...
Thrush is a rather nasty and complex disease that can bring a woman a big problem. In addition to constant irritation in the perineum, difficulties with daily hygiene, this disease interferes with normal sex life, which often causes neurosis in the fair sex. Especially candida is dangerous during pregnancy, when not only the health of the woman, but also the well-being of the future baby are at stake. Thrush need to be treated necessarily, but in the period of carrying a child can not self-medicate. Acceptance of any drugs by the future mother should be constantly monitored by specialists. With the joint efforts of the woman and the doctor, the fungal infection of the vagina during pregnancy will definitely be defeated and will not bring any problems to the future baby.
Can there be thrush during pregnancy, danger to the fetus
Can there be thrush during pregnancy, often worried expectant mothers. Infectious disease can appear during the first trimester of pregnancy, and not pass until the birth.
The fungus Candida exists in every organism, but under the influence of various factors it begins to multiply. It brings discomfort to every woman. Vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women occurs due to changes in the hormonal levels in the body, immunity decreases, vaginal microflora changes.
How to treat the disease in pregnant women, because many drugs are contraindicated? In order not to harm the development of the child in the womb, it is necessary to undergo an examination by a specialist who will prescribe the correct treatment.
Causes and symptoms of candidiasis
The reasons for the occurrence of vaginal candidiasis are many. In the body there is a restructuring that is so necessary for the normal development of the fetus. Progesterone levels increase, which contributes to the development of the fungus.
In pregnant women, the immune system is often reduced, the acidity of the vagina changes. These factors provide beneficial conditions for the development of the disease.
The reasons for the development of fungal infection are minor factors:
- Improper diet, pregnant girls often indulge themselves with sweet candies, sweet pastries.
- Stress, constant worries about the baby.
- Underwear made of synthetic, which does not allow the passage of air. Constant moisture causes the spread of the disease and brings greater discomfort.
- Crude sexual relations cause injury to the vaginal mucosa.
- Diabetes mellitus, such patients especially important to monitor their health.
- Infectious diseases that are not cured before pregnancy.
- Unreasonable use of antibiotics, it is important for women in an interesting position to take all medications prescribed by the doctor.
- Not enough vitamins and microelements in the body.
- When dysbiosis, thrush begins to progress.
- Problems with the urinary system.
- The use of flavored intimate hygiene products.
Girls who expect the birth of the baby is especially important to monitor their health. When the first symptoms appear, you need to consult a gynecologist. Self-medication can cause serious consequences for both the mother and the child. If you do not get rid of the problem before giving birth, while the baby is passing through the birth canal, he may become infected with a fungal infection.
Symptoms that should alert a woman and become a reason to seek help in a medical institution:
- Discomfort in the genital area - itching, burning. These signs are worse at night or after washing.
- Pain during urination, during sexual contact.
- Cheesy discharge from the genitals with an unpleasant odor.
It is especially important to prevent the development of fungal infection in the first trimester of pregnancy. After all, thrush can harm the development of the fetus, the disease can cause miscarriage. The doctor, after examining the patient, will prescribe a treatment that is permitted to pregnant women.
What are the complications of candidiasis in pregnant women?
It is wrong to take thrush as a sign of pregnancy, leave the disease to chance. It is necessary to treat this disease, it brings discomfort to the woman, affects the development of the baby and the course of pregnancy.
To diagnose the disease you need to pass a smear from the vagina, it happens that an increased number of fungi is a normal condition for women. Therefore, treatment is prescribed individually in a particular case.
Without proper therapy, the disease can lead to the following complications:
- Gap amniotic membrane. Under the influence of the fungus, with a small exertion, the shell may rupture, leakage of amniotic fluid is dangerous for the child and mother.
- Infection of the infection of the fetus, the fungus is able to penetrate into the lungs, the oral cavity. With reduced immunity, other organs may be involved.
- Maybe the infection of the child during labor. Often affects the mucous membrane of the mouth. The newborn thrush brings pain, he refuses to suck the breast or the bottle, constantly naughty.
They will recommend the correct treatment, which will save women from serious consequences.
Treatment for thrush
Many antifungal drugs are prohibited for pregnant girls. Therefore, you should seek advice from an experienced specialist, all the means to use according to his recommendations.
More often prescribed drugs for local use, their active substances are not as toxic, therefore, affect only the fungus and do not affect the body.
The course of therapy is about ten days. The dosage and duration of treatment is determined by the attending doctor.
With thrush, you can use traditional methods of treatment. Rinse soda solution, medicinal herbs. Douching pregnant women is prohibited.
You also need to take drugs to raise immunity, more to use vitamins, minerals.
In the third trimester, the doctor may prescribe antifungal pills, means to restore the microflora of the vagina, immunomodulatory drugs.
Thrush should be treated when the first symptoms appear, regardless of the gestational age. Drug therapy of candidiasis is important to engage both spouses to prevent relapses.
Recommendations of specialists
In order to be less engaged in treatment during pregnancy, and to enjoy the expectation of a baby, it is important to pass a full examination before both parents before conceiving.
Often the disease is asymptomatic, so it can only be identified by laboratory research.
If an infectious disease is found, it must be completely cured in order to protect itself and the baby from serious consequences. After drug therapy, you need to pass repeated tests, it may be that the infection is not completely cured.
When pregnancy is important to follow the recommendations of doctors:
- Avoid stressful situations, do not worry about trifles, be charged with positive emotions.
- To wear underwear from a natural material, it should be free, not to constrain the genitals.
- In the daily diet to eat fresh vegetables, fruits, vitamins are necessary not only for the mother, but also for the child. Limit the consumption of sweets, fatty, canned food, baking with yeast, carbonated drinks.
- Try not to communicate with people who have infectious, viral diseases.
- Regularly take a shower, while not using antiseptic, daily pads.
Thrush is a medical condition that can be treated. The main thing is not to ignore it, to adhere to the advice of experts, then the whole pregnancy will take place on positive emotions, without the use of medication. Girls who expect a child need to go to a maternity clinic, it will help diagnose the disease in its early stages, deal with timely treatment.
Get a free consultation
Causes and symptoms
Reproduction of Candida fungi is the cause of thrush. Factors provoking vaginal candidiasis:
- Reduced immunity, especially due to pregnancy.
- Taking antibiotics causes the destruction of not only harmful microorganisms, but also those that are normal.
Hormonal changes associated with taking contraceptive drugs or transitional age.
- Failure to properly intimate hygiene.
- Improper nutrition.
- Allergy to intimate hygiene products.
- Sexual transmission (rare).
- Concomitant diseases: STDs, intestinal dysbiosis, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, diseases of the circulatory system, tuberculosis, etc.
Typical symptoms of thrush:
- cheesy vaginal discharge with a sour smell, white,
- itching and burning of the genitals,
- pain during intercourse (due to swelling and inflammation of the labia).
Thrush can have a chronic form that is more difficult to treat. It usually occurs before menstruation.
Possible consequences for pregnant and unborn child
“Is thrush dangerous during pregnancy?” Is a frequent question for women when carrying a child. Every pregnant woman should know how thrush affects the fetus and during pregnancy. Candidiasis is an infectious disease, so there is a chance of fetus infection and pregnancy complications.
But with timely treatment to the doctor and proper treatment, the danger is unlikely.
What is dangerous thrush during pregnancy and childbirth:
- Spontaneous abortion, premature birth. If thrush occurs in the early stages and there is no treatment, then there is a risk of fetal death.
- The accession of a secondary infection: thrush changes the vaginal microflora, which is a favorable environment for other harmful microorganisms, which can be much more dangerous.
Early discharge of amniotic fluid.
- Inflammation of the placenta (chorionamnionitis).
- Endometritis in the postpartum period.
- Inclusion of infection in the birth canal.
- Breaks the birth canal of the mother in childbirth. In the place of the dead epithelial cells connective tissue is formed, which does not have the property of elasticity. Passing through the birth canal, the fetus tears these tissues into the adjacent part.
Infection of the child occurs more often during childbirth than during pregnancy.
In the womb, it is protected by amniotic fluid, fetal membranes, fetoplacental barrier, and closed uterine throat, so the probability of infection is minimal (according to statistics, intrauterine infection occurs only in 0.4% of cases).
But the risk is still there, if candidiasis is not treated, there will be a huge amount of fungi and they will penetrate to the organs of the fetus. The baby suffers from thrush much harder than adults, there may even be some deviations. Possible effects on the fetus:
Infection of the child’s organs during childbirth (oral cavity, respiratory system, skin, umbilical cord). In children, fungi, mostly, settle in the mouth, causing stomatitis. A child cannot eat normally, as a result of which he is underweight. With timely treatment, the disease passes without consequences.
- Hypoxia and chronic oxygen deprivation. Because of thrush, the baby gets less oxygen and nutrients.
- Birth with a small weight.
If you ignore the treatment during pregnancy, the consequences of thrush can seriously affect the health of the child, even leading to death in the first days of life.
Causes of pathology
The most common cause of thrush in pregnant women are yeast-like fungi of the Candida albicans species. But in 5% of cases candidiasis is caused by other fungi, of which there are a large number, but they are conditionally combined into the Candida non-albicans group. Their peculiarity is resistance to the drugs traditionally used in the treatment of candidiasis.
Candida non-albicans is more common in women with additional pathologies that drastically reduce immunity. It can be:
- HIV infection,
- oncological pathology.
Mushrooms of the Candida genus are part of the normal microflora of the vagina, but are found there in minimal concentrations. They like the environment rich in glycogen, which serves as the main substrate for metabolism. But with a lack of glucose, fungi can move to the processing of fatty acids, acetic and lactic acid.
Under normal conditions, the reproduction of candidates is restrained by the immune system. But at its weakening fungi get the opportunity to reproduce more actively. Usually they do not penetrate deeper into the vaginal epithelium, which is the ideal medium. But with deep immunosuppression, Candida can overcome the epithelial barrier, connective tissue and enter the bloodstream.
The occurrence of candidiasis is facilitated by the following factors:
- use of sanitary pads,
- poor nutrition,
- change of sexual partner
- uncontrolled antibiotic treatment.
Features of the development of thrush during pregnancy
During pregnancy, ideal conditions are created for the onset or recurrence of thrush. A woman's body works to preserve the fetus, but often against itself. The following factors contribute to the activation of the fungus.
- Estrogen. Along with progesterone in the period of carrying a child there is an increase in the concentration of estrogen. This leads to an increased accumulation of glycogen in the vaginal epithelium. Glucose should serve as a breeding ground for lactobacilli, performing a protective role. But the fungus also eats due to the processing of glycogen.
- Immunity. Natural reduction of the body's defenses is necessary for carrying a child who is 50% genetically alien to the mother's body. But the suppression of immunity leads to the activation of a latent infection.
- Wednesday vagina. Increased blood flow to the genitals leads to an increase in temperature. Also in pregnant women may increase the amount of vaginal discharge. Warm and humid environment - ideal for the development of fungus.
Depending on the reactivity of the body, thrush can occur in several clinical forms.
- Carrier. Before pregnancy, this condition is considered as a variant of the norm, but only if there are no symptoms and no more than 104 CFU / ml of mushrooms is detected in the smear. At the same time, the main flora must be represented by lactobacilli, there are no signs of inflammation. But such an analysis in the early stages of gestation should be a reason for increased attention.
- Candida vulvovaginitis. The disease is characterized by a pronounced clinical picture. More than 104 CFU / ml of candida are found in the smear, lactobacilli are normal (more than 106 CFU / ml), other flora is not detected.
- Thrush and bacterial vaginitis. The disease is caused by co-infection - a fungus and opportunistic flora. This form is most often observed during pregnancy: a decrease in immunity contributes to the reproduction of not only the fungus, but also the optional flora.
Sometimes thrush is combined with bacterial vaginosis. Microorganisms create on the surface of the mucous membrane of the vagina a special film that protects them from the action of antibacterial agents.
By the nature of the flow there are three forms of thrush.
- Spicy The disease occurs once, the duration of the disease does not exceed two months.
- Chronic recurrent. There are more than four cases of exacerbation of thrush per year, despite the treatment.
- Persistent A woman is worried about persistent symptoms of thrush, periods of improvement are observed only when using antifungal drugs.
The main sign of thrush is discharge. They can be cheesy, milky or creamy. The amount varies from moderate to heavy. Beli usually have a sour smell.
Itching and burning in pregnant women may be absent or be insignificant. Sometimes women do not attach importance to them. Symptoms may worsen after intercourse or hygiene. A pronounced lesion of the vagina is accompanied by dyspareunia. Sometimes the urethra is involved in the process, there is pain when urinating.
Thrush is dangerous during pregnancy with possible complications for the child and additional changes in the immunity. Mushrooms can be present in different forms - in the form of individual cells, filamentous forms. In response, B-lymphocytes are produced that cannot produce specific immunoglobulins. Therefore, there is a gradual sensitization - increased sensitivity with the development of an allergic reaction.
Pregnancy may be complicated by the following conditions:
- abortion (in 1 trimester),
- intrauterine infection,
- malnutrition and low fetal weight,
- placental insufficiency,
- preterm labor (late),
- early discharge of amniotic fluid
- complications of childbirth (bleeding, injuries of the birth canal),
- infection of the child during childbirth.
Optimal diagnostic methods
Non-pregnant women themselves often treat the symptoms of candidiasis to a doctor. But in pregnant women, the clinical picture may be erased, so examination is necessary.
- Smear microscopy. It is impossible to establish candidate carrier with this method, but if you have symptoms on a smear, you can determine the presence of a fungal pseudomycelium and individual cells. Concurrent flora and inflammatory response can also be detected.
- Cultural research. If there are symptoms of candidiasis, but there is no pathogen in the smear, then this method allows you to grow fungi colonies on a nutrient medium. The method allows to identify Candida non-albicans, as well as to determine its sensitivity to antifungal drugs. The disadvantage of the method is a long wait for the result - at least three days.
- PCR diagnostics. With its help, the pathogen DNA is detected in the vaginal secretions. The method has a high sensitivity, can be used in candidacy.
The possibilities of treatment of thrush during pregnancy are limited. It is necessary to take into account not only the sensitivity of the fungus to drugs, but also the risk of a possible impact on the developing fetus. Drugs for thrush should have no teratogenic, toxic effects. Чтобы снизить системное воздействие, используют формы для местного применения. Таблетки не применяют.But treatment should lead to full recovery in order to reduce the risk of the thrush becoming chronic.
How to treat thrush during pregnancy, can only determine the doctor, based on the result of diagnosis and history. The most commonly used drugs are the following groups:
- polyene antibiotics - drugs with natamycin,
- Imidazole derivatives - Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Econazole,
- triazoles - Terconazole.
Clinical recommendations indicate the primary use of natamycin-based Pimafucin suppositories in pregnant women. They have a fungicidal effect and are not contraindicated for pregnant women in any period. The course of treatment at home lasts three to six days. Per day one suppository is used at night.
A good effect in the treatment of acute and chronic forms gives "Clotrimazole." But its use is allowed only from 2 trimester. According to reviews, the elimination of itching occurs after the first use of suppositories.
Another drug from the group of imidazole derivatives is ketoconazole, on the basis of which Livarol candles are manufactured. But their use is also limited to the second and third trimesters. Course duration is seven days. But with chronic recurrent candidiasis, the duration can be changed to 14 days.
After delivery, the doctor may decide on additional therapy. Within six months once a week, natamycin is administered one candle for prophylaxis or once a month according to the Clotrimazole candle.
When combined with other candidiasis nonspecific infection using combination drugs. Treatment is allowed from the second trimester:
A similar approach to therapy is maintained in the third trimester.
Douching soda, herbs and other folk remedies for pregnant women are prohibited. Before laying candles, antiseptic solutions can be used (for mechanical removal of secretions):
How to supplement therapy with diet
For successful reproduction of yeast, a nutrient substrate, glucose, is needed. With enough of it, they can synthesize the rest of the necessary substances and maintain an optimal state of the environment.
Increasing the concentration of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) leads to its increased accumulation in the tissues. For the vaginal flora, excess glucose is just as harmful as a deficiency. Changing the acidity of the environment, reduced protective properties, decreases the number of lactobacilli. They are gradually replaced by conditionally pathogenic flora, in particular, candida.
Chronic hyperglycemia reduces local immunity, worsens the processes of recovery of the mucous membrane. During pregnancy, the negative effect is complemented by an excess of progesterone, corticosteroids, estrogen and insulin deficiency.
To increase the effectiveness of treatment, it is necessary to deprive the substrate fungus for reproduction. This can be done by changing the type of food. A diet for thrush should be based on the following rules.
- Prohibited products. Simple carbohydrates, sugar-containing products and fructose-based sweets, as well as alcohol, whole milk, are excluded from the diet. Prohibited products based on yeast - beer, kvass, pastries. They contain maltose, which can be used by mushrooms on a par with glucose. Caffeinated beverages dramatically increase blood glucose, so they are also excluded. The same applies to marinades, dyes, smoked meats, spicy dishes, irritating the digestive tract.
- The basis of the diet. The main should be dairy products. They contain acidophilic flora, which changes the state of the intestinal biocenosis, affects the immune system and contributes to the restoration of vaginal microflora. There should also be a sufficient amount of fresh vegetables and fruits rich in fiber.
- Antifungal products. They can affect the growth and reproduction of the fungus. First of all - fresh garlic. But with caution it is used in the presence of heartburn and gastritis, which is not uncommon during pregnancy.
Before treating thrush during pregnancy, it is necessary to undergo a qualitative examination. If the cause of candidiasis is not Candida albicans, then it will require an adjustment of the treatment regimen in accordance with the sensitivity of microorganisms to antimycotic drugs.
The classification of candidal vulvovaginitis is based on the distribution of the flow pattern. Experts identify two main types of the disease:
- easy flow
- complicated or heavy.
Candidiasis of mild severity is characterized by a sporadic course - an occasional, single appearance of symptoms. It is accompanied by a dimly expressed clinical picture, amenable to therapy. Most often, this type of thrush occurs in women with a normal immune status.
Candida vulvovaginitis severe has a chronic, relapsing course. After a course of drug therapy comes remission, but the symptoms of the disease return after 1-3 menstrual cycles. Severe thrush has a vivid clinical picture. Usually this variant of the pathology is observed in patients with impaired immunity.
There is no healthy carriage of Candida fungi in the classification of thrush. If pathogens are detected in a vaginal smear and the clinical picture is absent, the woman is healthy.
The etiological factor in the development of thrush is a fungus of the genus Candida. He is a normal representative of the microflora of the vagina and vulva.
In a vaginal smear of most healthy women, Candida fungi are found in small numbers. However, the symptoms of the disease develop only against the background of their active reproduction.
Scientists identify two main types of fungi Candida - Albicans and Non-albicans. The first group of pathogens is found in 90% of cases of thrush. Albicans mushrooms are poorly resistant to antibiotics, they usually cause sporadic cases of the disease.
The remaining Candida fungi are combined in the Non-albicans group. They are characterized by good resistance to drug therapy, occur in 5-10% of cases of thrush. The described mushrooms often cause recurrent severe candidiasis.
The healthy woman's vagina is populated with rod-shaped bacteria - lactobacilli. In small quantities on the wall of the body may be other microbes. Lactobacilli maintain a low acid-base composition and prevent pathogens from multiplying.
The cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis - a shift in the environment of the vagina in the alkaline side, the death of lactobacilli and the activation of the reproduction of fungi. Various external and internal factors contribute to the processes.
Often thrush is associated with the intake of antibacterial agents. Drug therapy leads to the death of beneficial lactobacilli and the development of candidiasis.
Pathology is observed against the background of a decrease in the body's defenses. Pregnancy - a state of physiological immunodeficiency with a decrease in the synthesis of protective globulins. Impaired function of the local immunity of the vagina promotes the growth of fungi.
Thrush can develop on the background of hormonal disruptions in the female body. Normally, estrogens support the livelihoods of lactobacilli. During gestation, hormonal jumps can occur that affect the state of the microflora of the genital organs. The relative lack of estrogen causes the death of lactobacilli and the growth of other microorganisms.
Diabetes mellitus is the cause of recurrent candidiasis. Glucose is a good medium for pathogens. When it is elevated in the blood, conditions are created for the growth of fungi.
Thrush during pregnancy: causes, symptoms and treatment
The clinic depends on the degree of candidiasis and the duration of its course. In the beginning, thrush is manifested by three subjective symptoms:
- The appearance of abundant discharge whitish color with a sour smell. In shape, they resemble cottage cheese.
- Sensation of itching and discomfort in the region of the external genital organs.
- Redness of the vulva.
The acute phase of the disease may be accompanied by bleeding of the vaginal mucous membranes. The symptom is associated with their erosive damage.
Early relapses of the disease have the above clinic. Usually another exacerbation of thrush occurs immediately after the end of menstrual bleeding.
Long-term recurrent candidiasis has a scanty clinical picture. Discharges become less abundant, sometimes they are accompanied by an unpleasant odor. Its appearance indicates the adherence of bacterial vaginosis.
The chronic form may be accompanied by itching and other unpleasant sensations, but more often it is almost asymptomatic. The mucous becomes dry and atrophic. That is why a woman experiences pain during intercourse.
When considering the genitals there is a slight redness. It is less pronounced than in the presence of a sporadic form of pathology.
One of the main risk factors for vaginal candidiasis is the presence of immune pathologies. These include HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, diseases of the red bone marrow - leukemia. Drug immunodeficiency occurs against the background of long-term intake of glucocorticosteroids.
Long-term and uncontrolled use of antibiotics is an additional factor for thrush. Especially dangerous drugs from the group of macrolides, carbapenems.
Concomitant hormonal diseases also increase the risk of candidiasis. Most often thrush occurs against the background of pathologies of the thyroid gland, ovaries, adrenal glands. Reception of endogenous hormones can promote reproduction of fungi.
Improper hygiene contributes to the development of pathology. Increases the risk of infection by wearing tight linen and back-scrubbing.
Chronic stress can be a factor in the development of thrush. Constant nervous tension inhibits the body's defenses and reduces the work of immunity.
Impact on the fetus
Candida vulvovaginitis can have a negative effect on pregnancy. The disease increases the risk of spontaneous interruption or fading. Thrush also contributes to the pathologies of labor activity - weakness, discoordination.
Thrush is a disease that has a negative effect on the fetus. Candidiasis is a risk factor for ascending infection of the unborn child.
In the early stages of infection, the baby has the most dangerous consequences. Infection of the unborn child contributes to his death or the formation of severe congenital anomalies. Most often, the pregnancy ends in a fade or miscarriage.
In later pregnancy, fetal infection has a better prognosis. The placenta functions from the 2nd trimester, protecting the baby from pathogenic microorganisms. Intrauterine infection may be accompanied by a lag in the growth and development of congenital pathologies of the unborn child. The central nervous system of the fetus is most often affected.
Infection of the fetus in the last trimester of the gestation period increases the likelihood of premature birth. Babies with congenital candidiasis often lag behind their peers in physical and mental development.
In the first trimester of pregnancy, all organs of the unborn child are formed. That is why the use of most antifungal drugs is prohibited at this time.
In the first weeks of pregnancy, the use of antifungal antibiotic Pimafucin in the form of candles is allowed. It is also possible to use Betadine - antiseptic ointment with iodine.
In the early stages, doctors prescribe antiseptic solutions - Miramistin, Hexicon, Clorion. Medicines are safe for the body of the fetus.
Also in the first trimester of pregnancy may use a drill in glycerin. The active ingredient of the drug is antiseptic sodium tetraborate. Analogous medicines are vaginal tablets Fluomizin.
The list of approved drugs for the 2nd trimester of pregnancy includes all the medicines listed above except sodium tetraborate. By the 12th week of the gestation period, the formation of the rudiments of the organs of the future child ends. That is why from this date, doctors prescribe more effective, but toxic drugs.
Clotrimazole is indicated for 2 trimesters. The drug is available in the form of ointments, suppositories and vaginal tablets. Also at this time allowed similar drugs Zalain, Klion D.
After the 12th week of gestation period, it is possible to prescribe the combination drugs Terzhinan and Polizhinaks. Drugs have several components, so they have a higher efficiency.
In the third trimester of pregnancy, all the above drugs are allowed. Late use of systemic forms of antifungal antibiotics is also safe in the later stages.
How to get rid of thrush during pregnancy?
During clinical trials, negative effects of some drugs on the fetus were revealed. They are associated with high toxicity of drugs, their ability to provoke congenital anomalies. Doctors refer to prohibited drugs Ketoconazole, Livarol, Fluconazole, Butoconazole, Econazole.
Medications are strictly prohibited for use in the first trimester of pregnancy. Their use in later periods of gestation is shown only if there is a threat to the life and health of the mother.
What is candidiasis?
Thrush, also known as candidiasis, is a fungal disease. It manifests itself in the form of irritation on the genitals, which is accompanied by specific secretions resembling milk. Hence the name.
If you do not treat thrush, you can get a whole bunch of diseases. From the acute form, the disease becomes chronic, with the result that its treatment may be delayed for a long time. And not the fact that medications will help, because the Candida fungus can cause recurrences.
Signs that a person is sick with candidiasis are as follows:
- cheesy genital secretions,
- itching and irritation in the intimate area,
- unpleasant smell.
If these symptoms occur, you should take action as soon as possible and begin treatment. Otherwise, the consequences of thrush in women can be serious.
Risks for the patient
Is thrush dangerous? Of course! The consequences caused by this fungal pathogen in women are especially dangerous.
The disease can lead not only to discomfort, but also to serious violations in the intimate sphere.
And later it can cause a number of chronic diseases.
But the fungus itself is able to deliver a lot of inconvenience. In addition to the genitals, it affects the oral cavity, intestines. Foci appear on the skin causing persistent itching.
In men, candidiasis without treatment can also cause a number of complications. But women are more susceptible to the destructive consequences that occur if you do not treat thrush. This is due to the fact that the representatives of the weaker sex are more susceptible to fluctuations in the level of hormones. The menstrual cycle, the use of hormonal contraceptives and medications, changes during pregnancy and childbirth, other factors reduce the level of immunity. Against this background, Candida fungus multiplies, affecting a defenseless organism.
An ideal place for the development of this fungal infection is the vaginal wall. Here there is a favorable environment in which the spores of the pathogen of thrush develop rapidly and spread to the uterus and further along the urinary system.
Let's take a closer look at how dangerous thrush is for women. If you do not start treatment in a timely manner, the consequences of a fungal infection can be dangerous:
- immunity decreases,
- the fungus affects the urogenital system and kidneys,
- inflammation of the internal organs begins,
- cervical erosion occurs.
It worsens with thrush and general health. Without immunity, the body becomes more susceptible to various diseases that can occur with complications.
But the most dangerous is a fungal disease for pregnant women.
So, what is dangerous candidiasis for future mothers? The fungus, affecting the walls of the vagina, spreads into the uterus, causing the tissues to harden. Loss of elasticity leads to the fact that during childbirth breaks appear. Their treatment can be long and very painful.
In addition, the infection, which has already passed into the chronic stage, causes disruptions in the body, which lead to abortion or premature birth. According to doctors, miscarriages for candidiasis occur infrequently. Usually they occur in those women who do not monitor the progress of pregnancy and are negligent in their state of health.
With thrush, reproductive dysfunction may occur, due to which the woman becomes infertile. But this can happen only if the infected person does not resort to treatment at all.
The fungus can harm the unborn baby, especially if the mother has already been infected with Candida. Doctors say that the greatest danger to the future infant comes in the period when it comes out of the uterus and begins to move. Contacting the vaginal walls, the fetus is exposed to infection. The spores of the fungus settle on the mucous surface of the eyes and mouth, as well as on the skin.
As a result, the child is born already sick, requiring special treatment. Зараженный молочницей младенец становится объектом для других болезней, которые могут стать для него хроническими и негативно повлиять на всю дальнейшую жизнь.
Медики отмечают, что больные молочницей женщины, которые в период беременности не начали лечение, рискуют не только здоровьем, но и жизнью ребенка. Fungal damage to the internal organs of the fetus can cause premature termination of pregnancy. Especially high risk during the first trimester.
Many people, having gone through the first stage of candida treatment and feeling relieved, drop their medication. Like, does not hurt, then healthy. But in fact, the disease has not gone away. The fungus is capable of rapid reproduction, and within a short time all the painful and unpleasant symptoms of thrush will return.
But not only this is a dangerous disease. Repeated attacks of candidiasis can lead to the fact that there will be a complex damage to the organs of the urogenital system. That is, candidiasis will affect both genitals, and ureters and kidneys.
Without proper treatment, thrush also affects the blood. Bacteria spread throughout the body, which leads to candidal sepsis. In the body begin severe inflammatory processes that cover the whole body.
In this case, the disease enters a stage that needs long-term treatment. And if you ignore it, the disease opens the way for other, more serious diseases.
Why is candidiasis manifested during gestation?
Yeast-like fungi are conditionally pathogenic microflora. Normally, they are present in the vagina of every woman. When favorable conditions are created, Candida begin to actively proliferate and form colonies.
The main cause of infection during pregnancy is a decrease in local and general immunity. In violation of the protective functions of the genital mucosa, fungi grow rapidly, increasing their number. The development of thrush contributes to changes in hormonal levels and endocrine status, which are typical for every pregnant woman.
The impetus to the development of the disease may be non-compliance with personal hygiene. A woman should always be in cotton dry underwear. Excessive moisture is an ideal breeding ground for fungal microflora.
Another cause of thrush is treating a pregnant woman with antibacterial drugs. They violate the conditions of the natural environment of the vagina, reduce local immunity, promote the accession of infection.
Factors that can cause thrush include:
- sexual intercourse,
- use of flavored condoms,
- use of daily deodorized pads,
- Lactobacillus deficiency
- diseases of the digestive system - stomach, intestines,
- abuse of sweets
- bad habits - smoking, alcohol.
The consequences of pregnancy and thrush are not always predictable. The presence of fungus in the body of a woman creates risks for infection of the fetus. The infection itself does not pose a risk to gestation, but after birth, the infant may require serious treatment.
Fetal danger of fungal infection of the fetus
With the exclusion of sex, hygiene in the early stages of pregnancy, thrush rarely occurs. Symptoms of a fungal infection of the vagina occur in the second trimester, when hormonal changes.
With a favorable course of pregnancy, the disease is not dangerous for the unborn child. The microbe does not spread to the internal genitals of the woman, does not penetrate the placental barrier and does not infect the fetus. Candida does not emit toxins that could enter the bloodstream and infect a baby. Therefore, the disease does not affect prenatal growth, mental and mental development of children.
There are adverse conditions under which the presence of thrush in a pregnant woman is at risk of infection of the fetus. If there is no adequate treatment, the fungus spreads to the female reproductive system. Reaching the umbilical cord, it can penetrate into the placenta and infect the mucous membranes and internal organs of the fetus (systemic candidiasis). Such cases were recorded extremely rarely, but a woman should be aware of such a danger in order to prevent it in time.
The probability of intrauterine infection is negligible and, according to statistics, it is 0.5% of all cases of diagnosis of the disease during pregnancy. The fruit is reliably protected by shells, waters, and a placental complex. But there is always the risk of miscarriage if the uterus is affected by a fungus. Therefore, this germ that causes thrush during pregnancy is dangerous.
The negative impact of thrush on the body of a pregnant
The most frequent way that a thrush during pregnancy can be dangerous for a woman’s body is the appearance of a chronic inflammatory process of the reproductive organs. In the near and far perspective the following pathologies develop:
- frequent colpitis,
- adhesions in additional pipes,
- cervical erosion.
A pregnant woman increases the risk of developing postpartum infection. Endometriosis occurs - inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus.
The presence of thrush affects the physiological condition of the mucous membranes. Under the action of pathogenic microflora their elasticity decreases. This creates a risk of rupture and injury to the epithelium during labor. In the future, on the site of mechanical damage, fibrous formations are formed - scars from connective tissue. They violate the anatomical structure of the internal genital organs, lead to functional changes. Postpartum sutures heal for a long time and with complications, bacterial infection of wound surfaces, suppuration is possible.
The effect of thrush on a woman and a child during a first trimester pregnancy is a dangerously irreversible consequence — spontaneous abortion. This development is rare. The following factors contribute to this:
- treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,
- genetic disorders in women
- autoimmune diseases
- abnormalities of the genital organs,
- a history of miscarriage or preterm labor,
- chronic nicotine poisoning of the body
Can candidiasis affect conception
Young women often worry about whether it is dangerous to get pregnant with vaginal candidiasis, whether thrush affects the conception process.
By itself, the fungal microflora does not affect fertilization of the egg. Spermatozoa do not lose their quality and ability to conceive when they come into contact with an infected vaginal mucosa. Thrush does not interfere with the menstrual cycle.
There are indirect causes that may prevent the conception of a child.
Candida flora changes the pH of the vagina with a shift to the acidic side. This can have a detrimental effect on a part of the male seed. But in general, after ejaculation, a certain portion of sperm enters immediately into the cervical canal, and then into the uterus, where there is a favorable alkaline environment for the functioning of male germ cells. Therefore, the risks of infertility with thrush minimal.
Candidiasis postpones the process of conception for the reason that a woman refuses to have sex. Fungal lesion of the vaginal mucosa makes sexual intercourse painful, so the girl avoids it.
If partners with thrush have a chronic recurrent nature, then the pregnancy should be planned, taking into account the recommendations of the gynecologist, and undergo regular examinations and examinations.
Why does candidiasis occur?
The development of the disease provokes the fungus Candida. Such microorganisms are always present in the female microflora, and this is considered the norm. With active division, a yeast-like fungus causes characteristic symptoms. So there is a thrush. A large number of microorganisms provoke inflammatory processes, which is a danger.
Future mothers are at risk of developing the disease. Favorable factors for the fungus is considered to be the change of the vaginal microflora for an acidic one, supplemented by a decrease in immunity. Pregnant women are changing hormones, which leads to a change in the vaginal environment. Fungi receive a push to division. Contributes to the progression of candidiasis reducing the protective functions of the body. Such a phenomenon is a natural process. Reduced immunity is necessary so that the fetus does not reject. But it also stimulates the development of fungal disease.
There are a number of additional factors contributing to the appearance of thrush. Most often, the symptoms of the disease manifests itself when:
- non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene,
- the presence of allergic reactions to hygiene products,
- wearing synthetic underwear (“not breathing” material creates favorable conditions for the development of fungal disease),
- taking antibiotics before / during pregnancy (they change the microflora),
- unhealthy diet
- intestinal dysbiosis,
- the presence of associated diseases: tuberculosis, diseases of the genitourinary system, diabetes mellitus, oncology, infectious diseases, pathologies of the circulatory system.
It is believed that thrush can occur on the background of stress. Regular experiences lead to a weakened immune system. An excessive passion for refined carbohydrates can provoke a disease. They are the main cause of imbalance in the microflora of the digestive tract, which increases the growth of candidates.
Thrush can develop against the background of hobbies douche. Such a procedure should be carried out solely on the testimony. If we neglect this rule, the normal microflora will be cleaned, pathogenic will replace it.
Symptoms of candidiasis are recognizable, so a woman can easily recognize the presence of the disease. Characteristic symptoms include:
- Cheesy discharge. During the reproduction of fungi, the mucus is painted white, acquires a lumpy consistency. Particularly noticeable change in the secret of dark underwear. Sometimes the pathological discharge is gray. The profusion of mucus depends on the stage of the disease: the progress of the fungal disease increases mucus production.
- Peculiar smell. When candidiasis discharge acquires a sour smell. It is also called "kefir." He may have different degrees of severity, but the patient always hears him.
- Burning, itching. The fungus causes discomfort in the vagina: there is a burning sensation, itching does not stop. If you comb the affected area, the sensation will increase: pathogenic microorganisms penetrate deep into the tissue, the inflammatory process will become more extensive.
- Pain when urinating. Fungal disease leads to a decrease in the protective functions of vaginal mucus. Against the background of inflammation increases the sensitivity of the epithelium. This leads to unpleasant sensations while going to the toilet.
- Pain, burning during sexual contact. Under the influence of the fungus, the vagina becomes sensitive, which leads to unpleasant sensations during sex. A woman cannot lead a normal sex life with thrush. The same symptom is observed in chlamydia, so it is important to conduct a differential diagnosis.
Symptoms usually manifest themselves in a complex manner, but only one can be expressed with an atypical course of the disease. The future mother should monitor the signals that the body gives her. If you have any of the above symptoms, you should contact your gynecologist to determine the causes and subsequent therapy.
Only a gynecologist can diagnose candidiasis. The diagnosis is made on the basis of examining the patient's complaints, examinations, and test results. Important diagnostic methods are smears. They allow the doctor to determine the cause of the pathological manifestations. Only symptomatic diagnosis is difficult. Unpleasant sensations in the groin and abnormal discharge may indicate the presence of an infection.
With an atypical course of the disease, the diagnosis is complicated. Especially if the "identification mark" of the disease - chewy mucus lumps - is absent. Sometimes with an erased course of thrush it is not even possible to pre-suppose that it is candidiasis.
Fetal infection: myth or reality
Among the risks posed by thrush, doctors always refer to the probability of intrauterine infection of the fetus. This dangerous phenomenon can lead to the appearance of various pathologies in the baby, cause premature labor, and provoke a miscarriage. However, expectant mothers should be aware that the probability of such an infection is minimal. This is proved by medical statistics - 0.5% of cases. The child is reliably protected by fetal membranes, waters, and a placental barrier closed by a pharynx. The fungus, though rarely passes through the placental barrier, however, the probability of passage increases if Candida actively reproduces and there are a lot of them. Therefore, statistics are statistics, but it is impossible to remain inactive.
If intrauterine infection is rare, infection with a fungal disease when passing through the birth canal is common. In the process of delivery, the baby’s skin, mouth, umbilical cord, respiratory tract can be infected. Usually the fungus "chooses" the oral cavity. It causes stomatitis. The baby refuses to breast due to the fact that he can not normally eat, as a result - a shortage of weight. It is easy to solve the problem with the help of therapy that only a doctor can prescribe. The main thing is not to waste time, because the crumb must receive all the substances necessary for the normal development from birth.
How to avoid the consequences
You can avoid the consequences of thrush that threaten the health of the woman and her baby. If there are characteristic symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor who will determine the treatment tactics taking into account the “interesting” situation.
It is necessary to consult with the gynecologist if the patient had a thrush before the pregnancy. The doctor will give recommendations on how to prevent re-active reproduction of fungi. If the expectant mother has never suffered from candidiasis, then she needs to know what preventive measures exist and comply with them. This will help to make the baby, not being distracted by the fight against thrush, without fear of serious consequences.
When thrush is indicated treatment systemic drugs. They effectively fight candida. However, capsules and tablets are strictly forbidden to use during the period of carrying a baby. Drugs of systemic action penetrate into the bloodstream, affect microorganisms in the intestine. If you use systemic antifungal agents to treat a pregnant woman, then this will negatively affect the development of the fetus. Such drugs are highly toxic, so the gynecologist selects an alternative to pills.
For the treatment of candidiasis in pregnant women use local drugs - candles, ointments, cream. Pharmacological market offers a lot of options for such tools, but to objectively determine which of them effectively cope with the task and at the same time do not harm the fetus, the future mother herself cannot. This is the competence of the obstetrician-gynecologist.
A self-imposed prohibition is imposed on self-medication during gestation. You can hurt and their own health, and crumbs. The taboo extends to the use of traditional medicine methods without prior consultation with a gynecologist who is observing pregnancy. Douching herbal decoctions, the use of herbal infusions only at first glance seems to be a harmless solution. In fact, such actions may adversely affect the course of pregnancy. Sometimes alternative methods really help, but only those approved by the doctor.
The treatment of candidiasis in women in the position of doctors recommends a comprehensive approach. For the fight against fungi, they prescribe drugs of local action, to increase immunity - multivitamins. Sometimes additionally prescribed immunomodulators.
It is important that both partners undergo treatment. Pathogens can be transmitted during sexual intercourse, so treatment will be ineffective if the man refuses therapy. The whole period of treatment you need to use condoms during sex: one unprotected act - and all efforts will disappear.
Treatment must be not only safe and effective, but also timely. Any warning symptom is a reason to consult a specialist.
Than dangerous thrush to the fetus
Today there is no confirmed evidence that candidiasis is a threat to the fetus. This is because the baby is safely hidden in the womb, where the fungus cannot reach.
But, if the expectant mother is infected, it is highly likely that the baby will be infected during the birth.
In addition, the particular danger lies in the fact that candidiasis can go to the umbilical cord, affecting the internal organs of the child. This is fraught with the loss of the fetus, so do not run the disease too much.
When candidiasis is to avoid being in hot rooms, because in such conditions, the crotch area sweats a lot, contributing to the formation of irritation on the skin.
Avoid stressful situations that increase the symptoms of thrush.
Treatment of thrush medicines can be prescribed only by the attending physician. For this, smears must be taken and diagnostics performed. If necessary, gynecologists prescribe candles and vaginal tablets, as well as cream.
The following drugs are considered the safest to use during pregnancy:
При появлении молочницы во время вынашивания плода не стоит прибегать к средствам народной медицины, особенно использовать спринцевания.
Флуконазол – препарат, запрещенный при беременности
Как показывают клинические исследования, Флуконазол проникает сквозь плаценту, приводя к мутациям плода. Чаще всего фиксируются такие аномалии:
- волчья пасть,
- неправильное развитие скелета,
- mental retardation,
But, this is far from all possible anomalies, a total of 14 of them. Therefore, we can safely say that taking Fluconazole during pregnancy will make an unborn child disabled.
Take the drug in the 1st and 2nd trimester of pregnancy is absolutely contraindicated, because at this time the fetus is actively developing, which therapy Fluconazole can interfere with.
Fluconazolena treatment in the last months of pregnancy is rarely prescribed when there is a suspicion of fetal pathology, stillbirth or death for the mother.
Preparations for thrush during pregnancy
Despite the wide variety of pharmacological agents that effectively cope with thrush, not all of them are safe to use during pregnancy.
All medicines from thrush are classified into 2 groups: local and system-wide. Since system-wide tools affect the entire body as a whole, they are not recommended for pregnant women in order to avoid adverse effects on the fetus. Therefore, it is better to use topical agents that do not penetrate to the baby through the placenta.
The basis of Livarola is ketoconazole. This remedy is active against a wide range of pathogenic fungi, especially the genus Candida.
Contraindications in Livarolamo. Candles are not recommended in the first trimester of pregnancy, as well as in case of individual intolerance.
A side effect may be an itch that will pass by itself after therapy.
Candles are inserted into the vagina every day before bedtime. The duration of therapy is from 3 to 5 days. When running or chronic form of thrush the duration of treatment is 10 days.
Despite the effectiveness of Livarola, it is not cheap — from 500 rubles.
It is not the most suitable drug for treating pregnant patients. The appointment of Miconazole is possible only in extreme cases.
The active ingredient is miconazole, which has antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects. The drug is presented in various forms, but for the treatment of thrush are used only suppositories.
The duration of treatment with miconazole is at least 2 weeks. In this case, suppositories are inserted deep into the vagina all night.
The price of 1 package varies within 50 rubles.
These are vaginal suppositories for the treatment of thrush, which often worries pregnant women. However, therapy with Clotrimazole is allowed only from the 14th week of carrying the child.
The drug has an extensive antimicrobial effect, destroying a huge number of pathogenic fungi, inhibits the production of nucleic acids.
To eliminate thrush prescribed candles of 0.1 g or vaginal cream. Small doses are used to suppress the production of protein, which prevents the growth of the fungus. With a high dosage of the active substance, the pathogenic microflora is eliminated.
Folk remedies against thrush
It is possible to get rid of thrush not only medicines, but also traditional medicine, which are actively used by pregnant women.
But, it is important to bear in mind that such therapy does not replace pharmacological agents, is used in addition, allowing you to bring a recovery point closer.
Very often during pregnancy from thrush women use herbal infusions, such as nettle, chamomile, sage.
Chamomile for thrush is an excellent antiseptic, safe even for pregnant women. A decoction of chamomile flowers is used to rinse the genitals after a shower.
Chamomile decoction is also widely used for insertion into the vagina, relieving itching and inflammation. But, it is possible to douche in the position only for patients who have a pregnancy without complications, and there is no threat of miscarriage.
Complications of thrush during pregnancy
With timely treatment of thrush the disease proceeds without complications. But, if untreated, thrush is aggravated by additional infections, and this is fraught with serious consequences.
That is why we believe that thrush in pregnant women is fraught with risks, both for a potential mother and an unborn baby.
Yes, candidiasis without timely treatment carries the risk of pregnancy, the probability of erosion of the uterus is high.
Also, risks are considered:
- probability of miscarriage,
- preterm labor,
- postpartum infection of internal organs,
- ruptures of the birth canal.
These complications are not only dangerous, but also cause a long recovery of the female body after childbirth.
Causes of thrush during pregnancy
There are two main reasons for the onset of symptoms of candidiasis during a child's birth:
Weakening of the immune system. Immunity of the body "works" to destroy / remove any foreign cells and bodies - the appearance of the embryo in the uterus is also perceived by the body as an alien formation. Nature is designed so that to prevent miscarriage, spontaneous abortion, premature birth or fetal death of the fetus, the immune system is “suppressed”. A lack of strong immunity provokes the appearance of candidiasis.
- Correction of hormonal background. In connection with the restructuring of the entire body during pregnancy, and changes in the hormonal background of the woman occur - gestagens begin to predominate in it. It is these hormones that create a favorable environment for the growth and reproduction of fungal colonies of the Candida genus.
Doctors differentiate some factors that can trigger the development of thrush:
- long-term use of antibacterial drugs (antibiotics) before conception - for example, if a woman was undergoing a course of treatment for infectious or inflammatory diseases during pregnancy planning,
- chronic diseases characterized by frequent exacerbations - diabetes mellitus, iron deficiency anemia, pathological processes in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract and the endocrine system,
- previously diagnosed chronic inflammatory process in the vagina - it is called colpitis, must be cured before conception,
- regular violation of the meal schedule, insufficient amount of vitamins and trace elements entering the body - especially often diagnosed against the background of severe toxicosis.
Despite the too pronounced symptoms and easy diagnosis, thrush during pregnancy must be confirmed by a gynecologist.
The doctor already on the usual examination of the patient in a gynecological chair will find all the signs of the fungal disease in question:
The doctor already on the usual examination of the patient in a gynecological chair will find all the signs of the fungal disease in question:
- crotch will have redness, itch may be found traces of itching - scratched skin,
- on the walls of the vagina visually found colonies of fungi - in the form of white dense plaque,
- The vulva (entrance to the vagina) is swollen.
But no doctor will put an end to the diagnosis without a laboratory test of a vaginal smear - the Candida fungus will be found in it.
According to the data, 75% of all women in the world at least once in their lives suffered candidal vulvovaginitis, 30-40% of this number of cases occurred during the period of gestation (pregnancy).
There is also an increase in the occurrence of symptoms of the disease just before childbirth, in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy - up to 40-50%.
Since candidal vulvovaginitis in pregnant women usually proceeds in a worn out form, with frequent relapses, the risk of not only intrauterine, but also intranatal infection of the child increases.
According to statistics, over the past 20 years, the frequency of occurrence of this pathology has increased almost 8 times. It is during the gestational period that the infection is dangerous with various complications, including miscarriage and premature birth.
2. Mushrooms of the genus Candida
The main role in the occurrence of candidal infections belongs to yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida. In total, there are about 196 species in the genus, but, fortunately, not all of them are pathogens for humans and are equally common.
In 95% of cases, the cause of "thrush" in pregnancy is the appearance of Candida albicans. Due to the high prevalence of this type of candida, the term "Candida non-albicans" appeared, summarizing all other types of candidates that cause the disease.
It should be noted that the infection caused by Candida non-albicans is more often observed in women with concomitant extragenital pathology (endocrine diseases, including diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, oncological diseases, etc.).
In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of cases of vulvovaginal candidiasis due to other types of candida (C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. troricalis, etc.). Recall that such IHC poorly respond to standard therapy, require the use of more aggressive antimycotics.
Yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida are characterized by pronounced polymorphism, high adaptability and resistance to environmental conditions.
These are single-celled microorganisms, components of the optional flora of the vagina of a healthy woman, having a tropism for glycogen rich tissues (vaginal epithelium). However, with an insufficient amount of glucose, Candida can switch to anaerobic glycolysis, that is, begin to synthesize the nutrient substrate from unmixed carbon sources (lactate, acetic acid, fatty acids).
Under normal conditions, to activate such a conditionally pathogenic agent as fungi of the genus Candida, a significant decrease in the body's immune forces is necessary, since normally they are the ones that maintain the healthy state of the flora and have a restraining effect on the facultative flora.
There are several stages of the spread of candidal infections:
- 1 Adhesion, that is, attachment to the epithelial cells of the vaginal wall.
- 2 Invasion, or introduction, inside the epithelium.
- 3 Deeper invasion of microorganisms, overcoming the epithelial barrier and penetration into the connective tissue.
- 4 Overcoming tissue and immune barriers, penetration into the bloodstream.
- 5 Hematogenous spread of infection.
As a rule, in thrush the infection does not spread deeper than the epithelium (it is the best substrate for the growth and reproduction of the fungus).
In addition to the mechanisms of high stability and adaptability, Candida fungi have the following pathogenicity factors:
- 1 "Integrin-like" surface proteins.
- 2 Glyco and polysaccharides.
- 3 Mannoproteins of the cell wall of the fungus.
- 4 Hemolysins.
- 5 Dermatonecrotic activity.
- 6 High adhesiveness.
3. Features of the course of thrush during pregnancy
The state of pregnancy itself predisposes to the activation of facultative flora and the occurrence of infections, which the woman had never suspected before.
Predisposing factors include:
- 1 The state of natural immunosuppression required for full gestation.
- 2 A state of hyperestrogenia, accompanied by an intense accumulation of glycogen in the vaginal environment - the main nutrient substrate of Candida fungi.
- 3 Increased levels of progesterone, which has a pronounced immunosuppressive effect.
- 4 Changes in temperature and acidity of the vaginal environment.
During the period of gestation, the body's defenses are so weakened and aimed at carrying the fetus that to fully contain the accompanying flora are not enough.
Candida infection during pregnancy often has an erased course, a tendency to relapse. Outside the period of gestation, the clinical manifestations of “thrush” are quite vivid, expressed (in particular, itching and discharge), and during the gestation period a woman can only be disturbed by a change in the nature of the discharge (color, consistency).
Candidiasis during pregnancy often acquires a chronic relapsing course and leads to complications.
4. Forms of vulvovaginal candidiasis
Depending on the clinical manifestations and the course of the infection, there are several forms of VVC:
- Candidate carrying is characterized by the absence of any clinical manifestations, but a smear on the microflora shows a moderate increase in the number of Candida fungi (up to 10 4 CFU / ml). By the number of microbial associations, the leading place, as it should be normal, belongs to lactobacilli.
At the same time, if for a healthy non-pregnant woman candidature is considered as a variant of the norm, then if it is detected during pregnancy, the attending physician will be more alert.
In candidatism, the woman herself has the main role: she should carefully monitor her health, undergo a prophylactic medical examination, and immediately contact a specialist if she suspects vulvovaginitis.
- Candida vulvovaginitis is characterized by bright clinical manifestations with an absolute increase in the number of Candida fungi in the vaginal contents (more than 10 4 CFU / ml). The level of Doderdiyon sticks is maintained within normal limits (more than 10 6 CFU / ml). The growth of other facultative flora is not observed.
- The combination of thrush and bacterial vaginitis is a more difficult situation in terms of therapy, in which only facultative flora (especially Gardnerella vaginalis) and an absolute increase in the number of fungi of the genus Candida are found to increase in the vaginal contents.
This variant of candidal infection is most typical for pregnant women and is more often detected in the 3rd trimester, immediately before childbirth. The frequency of its occurrence is again due to specific changes in the body during gestation, when favorable conditions are created not only for the growth of Candida fungi, but also for the concomitant facultative flora, since the epithelium itself does not represent a “serious” barrier, and the immune system is weakened and simply not able to inhibit the growth of opportunistic agents.
With the combination of candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis, specific protective biofilms are formed on the surface of the vaginal epithelium, which reliably protect pathogenic microorganisms from external influences, including antibacterial agents.
By the nature of the changes emit:
- Pseudomembranous form.
- Erythematous / atrophic form.
It is the pseudomembranous form of the IHC that is called “thrush”, for which the lesion of the superficial layers of the vaginal epithelium is typical.
For the course of vulvovaginal candidiasis, the following forms are distinguished:
- 1 Acute (duration of the episode not more than 2 months, single episode of the disease)
- 2 Chronic recurrent - characterized by 4 or more episodes of the disease per year, despite ongoing antifungal therapy.
- 3 Persistent form - clinical manifestations are constantly observed, temporary improvement is observed only during the period of use of antimycotic drugs.
To eliminate the effect of infection, conception is better to plan after recovery or the onset of remission.
5. Clinical manifestations
- 1 The leading symptom of thrush is discharge. Their quantity can vary - from moderate to heavy, texture - from cheesy to milky and creamy, the discharge has a sour smell.
- 2 Unpleasant sensations in the vagina and the vulva, often itching and burning. During pregnancy, they may be absent or be mild. In this case, the woman simply does not attach importance to them. Itching and burning may increase after sex and hygiene.
- 3 Discomfort, pain in the vagina during sexual intercourse (dyspareunia).
- 4 Change the normal smell of discharge from the genital tract.
- 5 Painful urination (dysuria).
Most often, the only symptom that makes it possible to suspect an infection is pathological leucorrhoea (characteristic discharge), without other typical symptoms.
Exacerbation of chronic candidiasis may be one of the first signs of pregnancy (before the delay). Hormonal alterations alter the immune status of a pregnant woman, which leads to an exacerbation of existing chronic diseases (including vaginal candidiasis). However, it must be remembered that pregnancy is confirmed by a test or blood test for hCG.
6. What is dangerous thrush during pregnancy?
The range of pregnancy complications associated with candidal infection is quite wide. A major role is played by the timely detection and treatment of infection, which helps prevent the adverse effects of fungi.
- 1 Miscarriage (in the first trimester, in the first weeks),
- 2 Increased risk of intrauterine infection of the fetus,
- 3 Fetal hypotrophy,
- 4 Placental disorders,
- 5 Spontaneous miscarriage and its threat,
- 6 Preterm labor,
- 7 Untimely rupture of amniotic fluid (3 trimester),
- 8 The probability of complications during childbirth is higher (maternal injuries of the birth canal, bleeding, hypotension of the uterus),
- 9 Intra-natal infection of the fetus (including hematogenous spread and generalization of the infection, especially in premature and weakened children).
Infants who have received a fungal infection from their mothers are more likely to have oropharyngeal candidiasis, skin candidiasis, vulvovaginal candidiasis (in girls) and balanoposthitis (in boys).
The last 20 years has seen an increase in the number of such babies. That is why in Germany all pregnant women receive treatment, in smears of which mushrooms of the Candida genus have been found, including candidates.
In pregnant women with untreated "thrush" in the postpartum period, endometritis is significantly more likely to occur, which is associated with a violation of local immunity during colonization of the vagina by Candida fungi (LA Kravchuk et al., 2000).
7. Методы диагностики
If the diagnosis of IHC in non-pregnant patients is often not difficult, then the clinic can be so erased during pregnancy that the diagnosis can only be made by microscopic examination of a vaginal smear.
Diagnosis of the disease includes:
- Vaginal smear microscopy is a routine, inexpensive and informative method. A smear is taken with each vaginal examination of a pregnant woman. The prevailing flora (sticks or cocci) is analyzed, and pseudomycelium of yeast-like fungi is also detected.
Undoubtedly, this type of analysis is not specific, the composition of the vaginal contents is examined, so to speak, in general, but this is often sufficient to verify the diagnosis. Candidate, as a rule, is not detected.
- In the presence of clinical manifestations of IHC, but in the absence of pseudomycelium in a smear, a smear culture study with specific verification of the pathogen is performed. Such a study allows to detect representatives of Candida non-albicans, which are less common.
The cultural method allows to determine the sensitivity of the selected fungi to antimycotic drugs, which leads to further treatment tactics.
The disadvantage of this study is its duration - at least 72 hours. As a rule, by this time empirical antifungal therapy is already prescribed, which during the period of gestation is rather limited.
- PCR diagnostics is the most specific method, as it allows to detect the DNA of the fungus in the vaginal contents. This method is also shown for the identification of candidature as it provides the possibility of not only a qualitative analysis of the fungal component of the flora, but also a quantitative one.
Currently, PCR diagnostics is distributed in real time, which allows analyzing the composition and quantitative contents of various components of the vaginal flora. Such a study is most likely to reveal the combined form of candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis.
8. Drug therapy
Treatment during gestation is a serious task and should fulfill such requirements as:
- 1 Lack of embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of the used drugs.
- 2 Drugs should ensure maximum elimination of the pathogen.
- 3 Drugs used should be absent or have minimal systemic effects.
- 4 Simplicity and frequency of use of drugs (this increases patient compliance).
- 5 Treatment should not allow the transition of the disease into a chronic recurrent form.
Thus, the range of drugs used for thrush pregnant drugs is very limited. These requirements are met only by the following means:
- 1 Polyene antibiotics (Natamycin),
- 2 Imidazole derivatives for topical use (Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Econazole, etc.),
- 3 Triazoles for topical administration (Terconazole).
An important point in the treatment of candidiasis in pregnant women is the appointment of only local antimycotics, systemic medication (tablets, through the mouth) is contraindicated!
Natamycin is an antifungal drug from the group of polyene antibiotics. It is characterized by a fungicidal action (that is, causes the destruction of the cell wall of the fungus and leads to its lysis), is active against the simplest (in particular, vaginal Trichomonas).
It does not affect gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It is characterized by the absence of a systemic effect, during vaginal application under the action of body temperature forms a foam, which is evenly distributed over the entire surface of the vaginal mucosa.
When vaginal suppositories are administered, a woman may first notice discomfort (for example, a burning sensation), which then quickly passes. The presence of these side effects is not an indication for discontinuation of the drug, therapy should be continued. The drug can be used with the 1st trimester of pregnancy (in early pregnancy).
Natamycin is recommended for the treatment of thrush in pregnant women on the territory of the Russian Federation (clinical guidelines, level of evidence C).
8.3. Combined preparations
Combination medications are often prescribed when a fungal infection is combined with bacterial vaginosis. Terzhinan - a combined drug (ternidazole + neomycin sulfate + nystatin + prednisone), has antiprotozoal (ternidazole), antibacterial (neomycin sulfate), antifungal (nystatin).
Prednisolone in the composition of Terzhinan reduces the severity of the inflammatory process, has antiallergic, antiexudative, antipruritic action.
When using the drug is not marked pronounced local adverse reactions, but its use is possible from the second trimester.
Other combined drugs include:
- 1 Polygynax (neomycin + polymyxin B + nystatin),
- 2 Neo-penotran (miconazole + metronidazole),
- 3 Klion D (miconazole + metronidazole),
- 4 Amintaks (neomycin + nystatin + polymyxin B),
- 5 Marmyr complex (nystatin + nifurantel).
In the 3 trimester, you can use all of the above drugs: natamycin, clotrimazole, combined means. The use of folk remedies for pregnant women at any time is unacceptable!
Treatment of thrush in a nursing mother is made with local antifungal drugs (vaginal suppositories and vaginal tablets). During lactation (HB), their range is wider than in pregnant women, and includes:
- 1 Natamycin
- 2 Clotrimazole,
- 3 Butoconazole,
- 1 miconazole,
- 5 Terconazole.
You can check the safety of a particular medicine for a baby using the E-Lactancia service.
Betadine is an iodine-based antiseptic preparation in combination with a synthetic polymer that acts as a carrier, which allows iodine to be released gradually and evenly.
Iodine belongs to the group of halogen antiseptics with a wide spectrum. The mechanism of its action is the destruction of the quaternary structure of the protein and, as a consequence, the loss of the catalytic and enzymatic activity of the microbial cell.
Systemic absorption of iodine is possible with prolonged and frequent appointment. Betadine use during pregnancy is limited to frequent undesirable reactions (burning, idiosyncrasy). The drug is contraindicated in persons with thyroid disease.
Other antiseptics with good activity against Candida fungi include:
- 1 Chlorhexidine (Hexicon),
- 2 Dequalinium chloride (Fluomizin).
The control of cure is carried out in 10-14 days after the full course of therapy.
The development of candidiasis can be prevented. Since future mothers are at risk, preventive measures should be strengthened. It is possible to reduce the likelihood of developing candidiasis if:
- wear cotton underwear and completely abandon synthetic,
- pay close attention to personal hygiene,
- Do not take antibiotics without a doctor's prescription.
- adjust your diet (be sure to include vegetables, fruits, bran, cereals, they have a positive effect on the microflora of the digestive tract).
A pregnant woman should be registered on time at the antenatal clinic, it is important to pass all tests. With the appearance of alarming symptoms, you should not postpone the visit to the doctor, in the future you need to follow all his recommendations.
When planning pregnancy, you need to pass tests and make sure that the microflora is normal. Especially if the woman already had thrush. It is also important to identify and cure all diseases that can cause problems during gestation, before pregnancy.
Planning, prevention and timely treatment can minimize all the risks associated with candidiasis. With the right approach to the problem of consequences can be avoided.
Complications and effects of thrush on the fetus
Although the fetus is carefully protected by the placenta and amniotic fluid, there is still a risk of infection.
Complications for a child can be:
- infection during childbirth,
- insufficient weight at the time of birth.
To avoid this, it is enough to undergo a course of quality therapy as soon as possible, before the onset of labor.
Why is thrush during pregnancy so frequent?
Thrush in pregnant women is associated with physiological changes in the microflora in the vagina. Also, the cause of the disease can be a growth of hormonal levels and a decrease in the protective forces of the immune system.
To avoid re-aggravation of thrush, you need to restore the vaginal microflora and lead a healthy lifestyle.
It is very important during pregnancy planning to make sure that the expectant mother has no infectious diseases. In case of their presence, it will be necessary to undergo an examination and be treated comprehensively.
Traditional medicine can help in getting rid of the symptoms of thrush, but never cure the disease. Therefore, doctors recommend using the methods of national treatment at the same time as drug therapy. The most effective recipes:
- From 1 tablespoon of dry thyme or sage and 300 ml of water to prepare the broth (cook in a water bath for at least 15 minutes) and wash them twice a day,
- brew dry oak bark (according to the principle of brewing ordinary tea) - once a day, use the resulting solution for washing.
note: during pregnancy it is strictly forbidden to carry out syringing without appointments of the gynecologist! And even if the pregnancy proceeds without complications and any peculiarities, and syringing is recommended by the gynecologist as an auxiliary therapeutic agent, manganese, lemon juice and any aggressive substances cannot be used for the procedure.
As a folk remedy, you can use baby cream with the addition of a few drops of tea tree oil. They lubricate the external genitalia, which helps relieve irritation, reduce puffiness of the labia majora, and relieves itching. But keep in mind: make sure that the cream does not fall on the vulvar mucosa, because it can cause a strong allergic reaction or, at least, irritation and increased itching.
Features of the treatment of thrush during pregnancy
Pregnancy is a special condition of the female body, so the treatment of the fungal disease in question must be carried out taking into account some of the nuances:
- local treatment - candles, vaginal tablets, creams, applicators and gels will be the most effective and safe
- Of all the vaginal suppositories in the arsenal, Pimafucin is considered the safest - even using them in large quantities does not adversely affect the development of the fetus,
- the tablet form of antimycotic group drugs can be used strictly for the purpose of the gynecologist and only in the second and third trimester,
- Some women may feel a burning sensation in the area of the vulva (the entrance to the vagina) after the introduction of the first candle. This is a physiological feature, it is not necessary to stop treatment.
Just to go through the treatment of thrush and forget about the problem will not work:
first, you will need to pass a control examination,
- secondly, thrush during pregnancy occurs with a certain frequency - relapses will require a new course of therapy,
- thirdly, if for the entire period of childbearing at least one episode of candidiasis was diagnosed, then a month before the expected date of birth a woman should receive treatment even in the absence of characteristic symptoms.
note: when diagnosing thrush, the husband and partner of the pregnant woman should undergo treatment - a fungal disease can be sexually transmitted.
Danger of thrush during pregnancy
Thrush poses a certain danger to women and children:
- As a result of constant irritation of the vaginal mucosa and cervix, erosion of the latter can develop. This is fraught with a decrease in the elasticity of the cervical tissue, which causes difficulties during childbirth: the uterus will open slowly and incompletely, ruptures of the cervix may appear, and in especially severe cases, a woman is undergoing a caesarean section (operative / surgical delivery).
- If the thrush is not cured before the birth, then when the baby passes through the birth canal, it becomes infected with a fungal disease. This leads to the development of thrush in the baby’s mouth, which affects the diet - it will not be able to suck the breast or the nipple due to severe pain.
- Thrush, or rather, a fungal infection, can spread throughout the woman's body. After all, medicine knows cases where the umbilical cord is affected by this infection, connecting the fetus and the mother - this always leads to the death of the latter.
Thrush during pregnancy is classified as a dangerous disease - modern medicine has all the possibilities for the treatment of even neglected forms of this fungal disease. What is required from a woman:
- plan a pregnancy and undergo a full examination before conception - this will eliminate chronic forms of candidiasis, conduct a full course of therapy,
- closely monitor their health status in the period of childbirth and, when the first symptoms of thrush appear, immediately contact a gynecologist for help,
- perform all doctor's prescriptions and complete a full course of treatment without self-cancellation of medications,
- regularly, throughout pregnancy, to undergo control tests for the "return" of candidiasis.
The considered fungal disease occurring during pregnancy has a favorable prognosis - no complications, if properly treated, the woman and the child are not diagnosed. After childbirth and the rehabilitation / rehabilitation period (at least 5 months), candidiasis does not bother a woman.
Yana Alexandrovna Tsygankova, medical reviewer, general practitioner of the highest qualification category.
11,513 total views, 1 views today