Delayed menstruation is one of the earliest signs of the onset of conception. However, it is not always the absence of menstruation in time says about pregnancy. Sometimes the delay is a result of stress, emotional stress, hormonal failure or other pathologies.
All girls and women of reproductive age should carefully monitor their cycle. For greater accuracy, gynecologists recommend a special calendar, which indicates the date of the beginning and end of each menstrual bleeding. The regularity of the cycle indicates the correct operation of the reproductive system.
Menstrual cycle - A set of changes in the body of a woman aimed at the ability to conceive. Its regulation is carried out with the help of a complex hormonal mechanism.
The average duration of the menstrual cycle is 28 days. However, its length in healthy women can be shortened to 21 days or lengthen to 35 days.
Ovulation - the process of release of the female reproductive cell from the ovary into the free abdominal cavity. This event corresponds to the middle of the menstrual cycle - 12-16 days. During ovulation and 1-2 days after it, the female body is ready to conceive a child.
Menarche - the first menstrual cycle in the life of a girl, it is the beginning of the reproductive activity of the female body. Usually this event occurs at the age of 11 to 14 years, but the period from 9 to 16 years is considered the norm. The time of menarche depends on many reasons - genetics, physique, diet, general health.
Menopause or menopause is the last menstrual cycle in life. This diagnosis is established after the fact, after 12 months of absence of bleeding. The normal range of menopause consider the period from 42 to 61 years, on average - 47-56 years. Its onset depends on the number of pregnancies, egg supply, oral contraceptive pills, lifestyle.
Menstruation or menstruation - part of the female cycle, characterized by the development of uterine bleeding. Normally, its duration is from 3 to 7 days, on average - 4-5 days. Menstruation is a rejection of the endometrium of the uterus - its inner mucous layer.
Due to menstruation, the uterine endometrium is renewed. This process is necessary to prepare the wall of the body for the next cycle, in which conception is possible.
Delay of menstruation is considered its absence for longer than 6-7 days during a normal cycle. Shorter terms are not considered pathological. Normally, cycle shifts of 2-3 days are possible. Delay of menstruation can be observed in women and girls of any age due to natural (physiological) and pathological reasons.
Causes of delayed menstruation
The regulation of the menstrual cycle is a complex process, depending on many factors of the internal environment of the body. The work of the hormonal system is very susceptible to stress and emotional turmoil. This feature is the result of a close interaction of the endocrine glands and the brain.
Psychological and emotional stress are unfavorable environment for the onset of pregnancy. That is why the brain gives a signal to the endocrine system that conception should not occur. In response to this, the hormonal glands change the mode of their work, preventing the onset of ovulation.
The reason for the delay of menstruation can be a variety of stress. Some women calmly endure severe shocks (death of a loved one, diagnosis of the disease, dismissal from work, etc.). In some patients, the absence of menstruation may be associated with minor experiences.
Possible reasons for the delay in menstruation are also a strong lack of sleep and overwork. To restore the cycle, the woman should exclude the action of the provoking factor. If this is not possible, the patient is advised to consult a specialist. Typically, the delay of menstruation during stress does not exceed 6-8 days, but in severe cases it may be a long absence - 2 weeks or more.
Heavy physical exertion
By nature, the female body is not adapted to strong physical exertion. Excessive stress can cause disruptions in the menstrual cycle. Such disorders of the reproductive system are quite often observed in professional athletes.
The reason for the delay in menstruation with heavy physical exertion is the production of an increased amount of testosterone - a male sex hormone. Thanks to him, the growth of muscle tissue in response to its tension. Normally, there is a small amount of testosterone in the female body, but its increase leads to disruptions in the menstrual cycle.
High levels of testosterone affect the complex mechanisms between the pituitary and the ovaries, which interferes with their interaction. This leads to a lack of ovulation and delayed menstruation.
If there are failures in the menstrual cycle, a woman should exclude strength training. They can be replaced by aerobic exercises - dancing, jogging, yoga.
What are the reasons for delaying menstruation?
Sometimes the human body is hard to adapt to new living conditions. Sharp climate change can cause menstrual disorders. Most often, this feature is observed when traveling to hot and humid countries.
Changing environmental conditions is a signal of the need to prevent conception. This mechanism is similar to the delay of menstruation with emotional stresses and shocks. The brain sends a signal to the ovaries about the need to block ovulation.
Another reason for the delay in menstruation with a negative pregnancy test is a long stay in the sun. Ultraviolet rays have a negative effect on ovarian function. Delay may occur when tanning is abused.
Typically, the duration of the delay of menstruation during travel does not exceed 10 days. With its longer absence, a woman should consult a specialist.
In adolescent girls during the first 2-3 years after menarche, jumps in the cycle are possible. This feature is a normal phenomenon associated with the regulation of ovarian activity. Typically, the cycle is set to 14-17 years, if the delay of menstruation continues after 17-19 years, the girl should contact a specialist.
The reason for the delay of menstruation after 40 years is the beginning of menopause, characterized by the extinction of the reproductive function. Usually, the period of menopause lasts for 5-10 years, during which there is a gradual increase in the period between bleeding. Quite often, menopause is accompanied by other symptoms - a feeling of fever, sweating, nervousness, and irregular blood pressure.
Also, a long delay in menstruation is a natural reaction of the body after pregnancy. During lactation in the pituitary gland produces a special hormone - prolactin. It causes blocking of ovulation and the absence of menstrual bleeding. This reaction is conceived by nature, since the female body must recover after giving birth.
If a woman does not breastfeed immediately after childbirth, her normal cycle is restored in about 2 months. If the young mother begins lactation, menstruation will occur after its completion. The total duration of the delayed bleeding should not exceed one year.
Natural hormonal adjustment occurs after the cancellation of oral contraceptives. During their reception, the ovaries cease to function, so they need 1-3 months to recover. Such an organism reaction is considered absolutely normal, it does not require medical adjustment.
Another reason for the delay of menstruation for a week or more is the use of emergency contraception (Postinor, Escapel). These drugs contain artificial hormones that block the synthesis of their own. Due to this effect occurs blocking ovulation and shift of the menstrual cycle.
Lack of body weight and poor nutrition
Not only the endocrine glands, but also adipose tissue are involved in the endocrine metabolism of the female body. Its percentage of body weight should not be less than 15-17%. Adipose tissue is involved in the synthesis of estrogen - female sex hormones.
Lack of nutrition is the cause of severe weight loss, which leads to amenorrhea - the absence of menstruation. With a strong lack of mass, cyclical bleeding may not be observed for a long period of time. This feature is adaptive in nature - the brain sends signals that a woman can not bear the child.
Persistent delays can be associated with inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. These substances are involved in the endocrine function of the ovaries, causing the normal division of female germ cells.
To restore the cycle, a woman should gain the missing kilos and revise her diet. It should include sea fish, red meat, nuts, vegetable oil. If necessary, you can use preparations of vitamin E.
An increase in body weight can trigger menstrual irregularities. The mechanism of reproductive function pathology is associated with the blocking of ovulation due to excessive accumulation of estrogen in adipose tissue.
Also, against the background of obesity, insulin resistance occurs - a condition in which the cells of the human body become less sensitive to insulin. In response, the pancreas begins to synthesize an increasing amount of the hormone. A steady increase in the amount of insulin in the blood increases testosterone levels.
An increased amount of male sex hormones disrupts the normal menstrual cycle. That is why women are advised to monitor their weight and prevent obesity.
Any inflammatory process disrupts the normal course of the female cycle. The body perceives it as a negative background for the onset of conception, therefore it blocks or shifts ovulation.
One of the most common causes of delayed menstrual bleeding is colds and other diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Typically, with such pathologies, the cycle shifts no more than 7-8 days.
Specific diseases of the urinary organs (cystitis, thrush, vaginosis) can cause a prolonged absence of menstruation due to the disruption of the internal organs. If a woman has a pain or pulling the lower abdomen, pathological discharge from the genital tract is observed, body temperature rises, pain occurs during intercourse, she should consult a specialist.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
This pathology is characterized by multiple changes in hormonal levels that cause blocking of ovulation and a shift in the menstrual cycle. In polycystic ovary syndrome, the endocrine function of the pituitary gland is impaired. This leads to the maturation of several follicles, but none of them becomes dominant.
With polycystic ovary syndrome, an increased amount of male sex hormones is observed in the blood of a woman. They aggravate the course of the disease, further preventing ovulation. Quite often on the background of the pathology observed insulin resistance, which increases the secretion of testosterone.
To diagnose the disease it is necessary to conduct an ultrasound. Ultrasound shows enlarged ovaries with many follicles. With pathology in the blood, an increase in androgens (male sex hormones) and their derivatives is observed. Quite often, polycystic ovary syndrome is accompanied by external symptoms - male-pattern hair growth, acne, seborrhea, and low timbre of the voice.
Treatment of pathology involves taking hormonal contraceptives with antiandrogenic effects. When planning a future mother’s pregnancy, ovulation stimulation with drugs can be shown.
Hypothyroidism is a disease characterized by a decrease in thyroid function. There are many factors that cause this condition - iodine deficiency, pathology of the pituitary, trauma, autoimmune damage.
Thyroid hormones are responsible for all metabolic processes of the human body. With their lack of a decrease in reproductive function due to blocking ovulation. That is why hypothyroidism is often observed long-term delay of menstruation until its absence.
For the diagnosis of pathologies of the thyroid gland is used its ultrasound and counting the amount of hormones in the blood. Treatment is based on the type of disease, it may include iodine intake, replacement therapy, surgery.
This disease is characterized by increased synthesis of the pituitary hormone - prolactin. Its excess amount blocks ovulation and disrupts the menstrual cycle. Hyperprolactinemia occurs due to trauma, pituitary tumors, medication or hormonal regulation failures.
Diagnosis of pathology includes the delivery of a blood test for hormones, as well as an MRI or CT scan of the brain. Medications - dopamine agonists are used to treat this disease.
Hyperprolactinemia: the main mechanism for the development of PMS
The delay of menstruation is considered one of the very first signs of pregnancy. To confirm the conception, the expectant mother can use test strips that determine the level of hCG in the urine. The most modern of them can determine pregnancy even before the delay of menstruation.
In addition to pregnancy, menstruation may be delayed by more rare pathologies and diseases:
- Itsenko-Cushing disease (hyperproduction of adrenal hormones),
- Addison's disease (hypoproducts of the adrenal cortex),
- hypothalamic and pituitary tumors,
- damage to the endometrium of the uterus (as a result of surgery, cleaning, abortion),
- resistant ovarian syndrome (autoimmune disease),
- ovarian exhaustion syndrome (premature menopause),
- ovarian hyperhidrosis syndrome (with long-term oral contraceptive use, radiation exposure).
What delay does not require treatment
One of the reasons for the delay in menstruation for 7 days is pregnancy. Her probability increases if a woman had sexual intercourse a couple of weeks before the expected day of the onset of menstruation. To confirm you need to do a test. You can use the pharmacy pregnancy tests or donate blood or urine for hCG. Upon receipt of a positive result, you must register. If the delay is 7 days and the test is negative, then you should visit a specialist.
If a woman has reached the age of 40 years, the delay in menstruation for a week may indicate the beginning of menopause. In this case, the function of the genitals gradually begins to decline, the menstrual cycle becomes irregular, which is why delays occur.
To diagnose the initial stages of menopause, you need to consult a gynecologist, or conduct a test for menopause.
When menstruation is absent for seven days, a woman needs to remember whether she has undergone any gynecological procedures recently. Delay can cause:
When carrying out these procedures, the period of the absence of menstruation can last up to 14 days. Moreover, such a delay will be a single case, and from next month the menstrual cycle should improve.
If no more than 35 days have passed from the first day of the last menstrual period, the lack of discharge may be caused by stresses and overcooling of the body. Such a failure does not require treatment, the menstrual cycle itself returns to normal.
When there is no monthly period a week, a woman should pay attention to her weight. The fact is that a long delay can cause large fluctuations in body mass - both in the smaller and in the larger direction. Severe weight loss or an active set of kilograms can lead to a lack of menstruation.
Long-term delay of menstruation may be a consequence of taking oral or emergency contraception. Lack of secretions when taking contraceptive drugs is normal and does not require treatment. Failure of the menstrual cycle when using emergency contraception is due to ingestion of a large dosage of hormonal components.
When to do your women's health
The delay of the month for 7 days may be a consequence of the development of genital infections. Recognize these pathologies can occur by the appearance of concomitant symptoms. This includes:
- the presence of discharge, having an unpleasant smell, yellowish, greenish tint,
- itching in the intimate area, burning in the genital area,
- sensation of pain during sexual intercourse.
In women of reproductive age, the delay is often due to the presence of infection and inflammation in the genitals. In this case, you may experience severe pain in the lower abdomen. In this case, the pain gives in the side.
Также признаками наличия таких патологий выступают общая слабость, приступы тошноты, повышение температурных показателей тела, в некоторых случаях наблюдаются очень обильные выделения из влагалища.
При появлении перечисленных симптомов, а также, если у женщины возникают частые задержки месячных, ей необходимо срочно обратиться к врачу. Otherwise, neglected diseases of the genital organs can lead to impaired reproductive function.
If there are no periods for 7 days, hormonal disruption could occur in the body. Such a violation can cause various diseases requiring emergency treatment. These include polycystic ovary, adrenogenital syndrome, the appearance of tumors in the pituitary gland.
If a woman notices that her menstrual cycle has become irregular, and long periods of menstruation occur monthly, she needs to consult a gynecologist and undergo a complete examination.
This is due to the fact that such changes indicate dangerous pathologies of the reproductive or endocrine system.
Reasons for the delay
There are several reasons for the delay in menstruation for the week. Disruption of the menstrual cycle in women of reproductive age is caused by:
- taking hormone-based drugs,
- termination or initiation of contraceptive use,
- taking hormonal drugs for emergency contraception,
- climate change,
- abuse of alcoholic beverages, smoking, narcotic substances,
- development of various diseases and their therapy,
- regular fatigue.
In addition, the delay in the process of beginning menstruation can be observed in the postpartum period.and also with the onset of menopause.
There are more serious reasons for the delay of menstruation:
- inflammatory processes in the ovaries,
- inflammation in the appendages,
- ovarian dysfunction,
- development of cyst of the corpus luteum,
- pituitary adenoma,
- uterine tumor
- endocrine system pathologies,
- the presence of intrauterine adhesions.
May lead to a prolonged absence of menstruation and improper nutrition. Most often this occurs when a woman keeps to a diet. Refusal from the substances necessary for the body to function normally leads to endocrine system disorders, which is why the problem of the production of sex hormones arises, leading to the absence of menstruation.
To eliminate the risk of delay caused by hormonal disorders due to malnutrition, it is necessary to take into account that for the timely maturation of the egg the fat content in the body should be 15% of the total body weight.
In this case, there is a full-fledged work of all genitals.
Many women who are faced with the problem of delay for 7 days are wondering if pregnancy can be its cause. A woman of the fertile age of childbearing age may be late in commencing menstruation for a week, indicating that the conception has occurred, if she had sexual contact 2–3 weeks before the expected first day of the menstrual cycle. In this case, there will be no discharge. To confirm pregnancy is necessary to make a test.
The delay in the onset of menstruation can be caused by a lot of reasons, therefore, when such a problem occurs, you should consult a doctor. This is required to exclude the presence of various pathologies of the reproductive system.
What is the reason for the delay of 2 weeks
Delayed monthly 2 weeks! Someone this phrase makes literally jump to the ceiling, and someone throws in a cold sweat. As a rule, a 1-2-day delay is even in perfectly healthy women with a stable cycle, but a 2-month delay is already a cause for concern. To dispel all doubts is to make a pregnancy test, since they are sold in every pharmacy and are not so expensive. It is better to choose the goods of proven manufacturers or to make several tests with tests of different companies in order not to get a false positive or a false negative result.
So, the result was positive. Here you can be sad and happy - depending on how much the child fits into your future plans. In any case, you should go to the antenatal clinic to either make a decision about abortion, or get directions for tests and undergo a thorough examination.
However, there is a reverse situation - the test showed only one strip, that is, that there is no pregnancy. To resolve all doubts, in this case, you can donate blood and make an analysis of hCG. This analysis determines the presence of a special hormone that is produced during pregnancy - chorionic gonadotropin, to which, by the way, the test strip reacts. Cases of late ovulation and late conception are known to medicine - sometimes on the eve of the onset of menstruation. Analysis will put everything in its place. If hCG is more than 25 (25-156), there is a pregnancy and a period of 1-2 weeks. With hCG 102-4870 gestational age 2-3 weeks. If the analysis shows higher numbers - the period is even longer. If the result cannot be interpreted unequivocally - for example, hCG 8 or 16 it is worth repeating the analysis after a couple of days. In the normal course of pregnancy, numbers should double in a day. If this does not happen - you should definitely visit a gynecologist.
What else can be connected with the delay of 2 weeks? It can cause any hormonal failure - for example, the start of taking contraceptives, or their sudden and sudden cancellation. Sometimes women forget to take oral hormonal contraceptives or periodically skip one or two days between medications. In this case, the late onset of menstruation is likely. The situation when the delay is 2 weeks, the test is negative, can cause the reception of powerful hormonal pills used as emergency contraceptives after intercourse without contraception.
Delayed menstruation 2 weeks can be caused by abrupt changes in lifestyle. For example, when a girl abruptly goes on a diet, begins to strengthen training in the gym or moves to another country with a different climate. Such situations for the body are stressful and may cause a delay. In addition, overweight in the stage of obesity and weight deficit can also affect the timely onset of menstruation.
Unfortunately, the reasons for the delay can be much more serious than a short-term hormonal failure. It can be caused by inflammatory diseases of the ovaries, endometriosis, cancer and precancerous diseases of the body or cervix, polycystic ovary syndrome, and endocrine disruption.
What should I do if the delay is 2 weeks? If the hCG test and analysis are negative, you can wait another couple of days. If the monthly did not come, it is necessary to consult a doctor. Most likely, he will prescribe an ultrasound scan of the uterus, thyroid gland and adrenal glands, as well as direct it to brain imaging.
It is not necessary, however, to worry in advance. Delay of menstruation - a fairly common phenomenon, more than half of the visits to the gynecologist are associated with this issue. The doctor will prescribe adequate treatment after identifying the cause of the failure and the cycle will be restored.
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Delay of menstruation for the week
Every woman should know the reason for the delay of menstruation, well, if the reason for this is the beginning of pregnancy, however this is not always the case. The delay of 7, 8, 9, 10 days can occur for a number of reasons, they can be both completely harmless, requiring no action, and extremely serious, which can hardly be resolved without a doctor. So, let's try to find out in more detail why the delay of menstruation for a week and what it can be connected with.
10 days delay
If the delay of menstruation is more than a week, then this should certainly alert any woman. Such cycle irregularities can result from non-gynecological and gynecological problems. Delay cycle for a period of 10 days may be the result of diseases of the tumor and inflammatory nature, miscarriages, abortions and injuries of the genital organs. Such cycle changes most often occur as a result of adnexitis, oophoritis, polycystic ovary, uterine fibroids, and cysts of the corpus luteum. Also, the cause of this failure can be climate change, severe stress, medication, including hormonal, endocrine disorders, past illnesses and intoxication of the body. Overweight and heavy thinness can also affect the delay. Each of these causes requires an indispensable consultation with a doctor, as well as subsequent treatment aimed at eliminating the original cause and effect.
Delay more than 2 weeks
The above causes and diseases can also cause a delay of the menstrual cycle for two weeks or more. Quite often, the reason for the delay of the menstrual cycle may be in the cancellation of oral contraceptives after their prolonged use, as well as as a result of taking hormonal emergency contraceptives. In addition, the prolonged absence of the menstrual cycle can also occur in girls in their teens - after menarche, the second menstrual periods can begin only a few months later. There is nothing terrible in this, since the time must be set for the cycle to be settled. In women over 40, such a delay may also indicate an approaching menopause. However, in any case, it is better to consult a doctor.
Why is there a monthly delay of 5, 7 days?
What to do if the delay in menstruation is negative? First of all, all women and girls assume pregnancy and make a test. With a negative result, many panic covers, serious serious illness is thought out.
In fact, in the reproductive age, the delay of the monthly cycle up to 7 days is not a pathology. The norm can be periodically disturbed under the influence of many physiological causes.
Minor delay of menstruation, except for pregnancy - of course, can occur:
- because of heredity, if there were such violations in the family,
- in the postpartum period
- after the abolition of contraceptive drugs
- when using hormones for emergency contraception,
- in the premenopausal period,
- with physical or mental fatigue,
- while on vacation when changing climatic conditions or time zone.
Cycle instability is normal during puberty girls. In adolescence, there is no hormonal stability, therefore, after the first menstrual period, the delay should not cause concern if there are no alarming symptoms and exclude pregnancy.
Various non-hormonal diseases and the associated drug treatment are also frequent causes of the absence of “red calendar days” on schedule. A single offset for a few days is not dangerous.
What to do if a delay of 10 days or more?
The absence of menstruation for 10–15 days should be alerted, as it may be the result of serious gynecological diseases. Very often, the cause of an irregular cycle is inflammation in the ovary (oophoritis), inflammation of the uterine appendages (adnexitis), or dysfunction of the ovaries (polycystic).
Also, cycle failure (or ovarian dysfunction) is a symptom of diseases such as corpus luteum cyst, endometriosis (proliferation of uterine lining cells - endometrium), pituitary adenoma, and uterine tumor (myoma). Another reason may be intrauterine adhesions.
The delay of menstruation (except pregnancy) for two weeks or more may occur:
- after genital trauma, miscarriage, abortion or diagnostic curettage,
- after acute diseases (inflammation of the genitourinary system, acute respiratory infections),
- during exacerbation of chronic processes (diseases of the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract),
- in the pathology of the endocrine system (including diabetes mellitus, diseases of the adrenal glands, abnormalities of body weight),
- after a strong psycho-emotional load,
- as a result of active sports or excessive physical exertion.
Long delay of menstruation
The delay in menstruation after 40 is associated with failures in the ovaries. Termination of the menstrual cycle (amenorrhea) occurs during perimenopause - the period preceding the onset of menopause. At this stage, the ovaries reduce the production of hormones necessary for the maturation of the egg.
In connection with this, the nature and duration of discharge decreases; menses become irregular and cease. Perimenopause is characteristic for women 40–45 years old, however, it can be observed at the age of thirty.
One of the reasons for the prolonged absence of menstruation is the period of breastfeeding. In a woman's body, during the entire lactation period, the level of prolactin, a hormone that blocks the maturation of the eggs, increases significantly. The usual cycle is restored after the end of the lactation period (6 months or more).
An important factor affecting the female body is body weight. With a long-term diet, the body lacks the necessary nutrients. As a result - a violation of metabolic processes, leading to instability of the cycle. With severe exhaustion, menstruation stops altogether.
As you can see, the reasons for the delay of periods other than pregnancy for more than 10 days can be a warning signal. Do not postpone the visit to the gynecologist, even if it seems to you that everything is all right with you. Timely diagnosis and follow-up treatment will ensure a quick recovery, a happy life. Be healthy!