Changes in the ovaries during menopause


The process of menopause in the female body launch the ovaries. During menopause, their functionality decreases, they begin to produce less hormones, and also undergo changes in structure, etc. Therefore, it is important to carefully monitor the state of the ovaries during menopause, as sometimes changes can adversely affect them, for example , any pathology will develop.

Normal condition

What is the condition of the ovaries with menopause can be considered normal? It is worth noting that the body is undergoing a series of natural changes that are considered normal. In premenopause, their functionality decreases, they decrease in size and begin to produce much less hormones. In postmenopausal women, they cease to function at all, hormones are no longer produced.

In addition to size, the structure and shape of the ovaries change during menopause. At the very beginning of menopause, the organ is still slightly reduced in size. During this period, albeit in small quantities, follicles are still present in the ovaries. As the process develops, the organ changes even more, and after half a year to a year, the follicles in menopause are found only once.

After this, the last menstruation occurs (menopause). There is no longer any function in the ovaries after menopause. They decrease several times and shrink as it were. Over time, their fabric is replaced by connective, which does not have any functions. The size of the ovaries during this period is about 2.5 cu. cm, whereas immediately after menopause - 4.5 cu. cm.

Possible diseases

Due to lack of hormones and changes occurring during menopause, some ovarian diseases associated with the appearance of tumors can develop. The most typical for this period are various cysts of one nature or another, which can be treated surgically or medically. Typical for this period and polycystic.

It is important to timely diagnose such problems on ultrasound and to begin treatment, as unpleasant and even dangerous consequences are possible. Such, for example, as a tumor of the ovaries in women, which occurs quite often.

Functional cysts

During menopause, cystic formations of this type appear rarely. They are more characteristic of the reproductive stage. However, sometimes they can affect women in menopause, especially with incorrectly chosen hormonal treatment with synthetic drugs. An interesting feature of this neoplasm is that it appears less frequently on the left ovary than on the right one.

Functional cysts are neoplasms on the ovary, formed as a result of the fact that the egg has come out of the follicle and has left it. But the follicle closed again and fluid began to accumulate in it. Such cysts are able to resolve themselves when hormonal failure is eliminated.

Why does it occur?

The causes of this phenomenon are always hormonal. Cysts of this type are always formed with hormonal imbalance. Therefore, sometimes they arise during menopause, as well as an imbalance caused by artificially (using HRT).

The phenomenon forms a typical clinical picture of gynecological disease. Therefore, the main role in the diagnosis is not played by the symptoms, but by the results of the ultrasound, when the cyst was visualized.

  1. Abdominal pain - quite sharp and localized, usually high intensity, and associated with the menstrual cycle,
  2. Violation of the menstrual cycle - early onset of menstruation, their long duration and intensity, etc.,
  3. Bleeding acyclic nature.

Other nonspecific symptoms may appear, such as uncharacteristic or too abundant vaginal discharge (which is extremely uncharacteristic of menopause).

Hormonal treatment is almost always prescribed. During the reproductive stage, such a cyst can be absorbed and re-formed during the menstrual cycles (although this is not the norm). With climax, this does not happen. If, after the initial visit to the gynecologist and the observation of the neoplasm within 2-3 months, its reduction has not been identified, then hormone treatment is prescribed.

It is carried out by combined medical preparations, usually oral contraceptives. As a result, menopause can last, but its severity will decrease, and the cyst will resolve.

Follicular cysts

These are cysts of a different type that form in the ovarian follicle. They are much more typical for menopause than the previous type. During menopause, they rarely resolve themselves. Usually, you need a targeted and comprehensive hormonal treatment. In some cases, even surgery is required.

Such a cyst is also formed as a result of the accumulation of fluid in the follicle. But it happens for other reasons. The formed egg does not leave the follicle at all.

As a result of excessive accumulation of fluid, a cyst is first formed there, and then inflammation begins. It is from the moment of occurrence of inflammation that the symptoms become pronounced and obvious. For example, treatment of polycystic ovaries is often carried out in this way.

Changes in the ovaries during menopause

Under the influence of changes in hormonal levels and lower levels of estrogen during menopause, changes occur in the structure of the ovaries. Due to the replacement of the tissue, which previously produced the hormones estrogen, on the connective, they are reduced in size. In the initial stage of menopause, the development and maturation of follicles is still possible in them, but their magnitude differs significantly from the norm and it happens much less frequently than at reproductive age. Occurrence of functional cysts with such activity no longer occurs, and any formation in the ovaries during menopause is referred to as tumor processes. Women entering menopause should remember that stopping menstruation during menopause does not relieve them from the occurrence of problems in the reproductive system, but rather, on the contrary, all the processes that take place in the ovaries during menopause require more careful attention. Constant monitoring of the state of the internal organs during menopause allows detecting a tumor at the initial stage of development and preventing its growth until it is unable to respond to treatment. Any tumor or cyst identified during menopause must be removed, and its magnitude is not critical.

During life, the state of the ovaries changes many times. This occurs during puberty, during pregnancy, after childbirth, while breastfeeding, but the ovaries after menopause are particularly significant changes. This is especially noticeable, since in other situations their state returns to normal after a while, but irreversible processes occur in the ovaries during menopause. With the entry into menopause, reproductive abilities in women fade away, and this primarily affects the state of the ovaries. They lose their differences, and by the time when a woman finally enters menopause, both will be the same.

What sizes during examination on ultrasound can be considered the norm in menopause

The ovaries in a woman's body are designed to produce an egg, which, after maturation, leaves the follicle and begins to move through the fallopian tubes to perform fertilization. Since the processes intended for the birth of a new life, in general, begin precisely in the ovaries, the disruption of their work can have a negative impact on the entire reproductive cycle. Their sizes, which correspond to the accepted norms, are considered one of the indicators determining the general state of reproductive functions. When examining an ultrasound, the characteristic features of this organ are determined, since they may differ somewhat in size and may not be the same. But these differences should not exceed a few millimeters, otherwise you can suspect the development of the inflammatory process in one of the ovaries or a tumor. When conducting a survey, it is not the dimensions that are taken into consideration, but the volume of the ovaries to be examined, since this indicator may be a sign of a tumor.

When menopause occurs in the life of women, the processes caused by menopause in the body, significantly affect the size of the ovaries. Indicators corresponding to the norm obtained when examining the size of the ovaries during menopause, consider the following:

  • volume 1.5–4 cm 3,
  • thickness 9–12 millimeters,
  • length is 20–25 millimeters,
  • width 12–5 millimeters.

At the beginning of the climacteric period, although the menstruation has completely stopped by this time, single follicles can sometimes form. Therefore, when examining the size of the ovaries in menopause, some increase in their external indicators may be found. But these values ​​are very insignificant and are not considered a deviation from the norm. Due to the fact that the permissible shifts of values ​​in one direction or another are considered normal, the measurement results are not considered the only diagnostic method. At statement of the diagnosis other indicators are considered also.

How to prolong youth during menopause

It just so happened that the first age shock in the body of a woman, take over the ovaries. Of course, the brain undergoes changes with age, showing a deterioration in memory, as well as the endocrine system. But in women, in the first place, the ovaries are paid for everything, causing this to be a whole series of all kinds of disorders, expressed in the formation of cysts, in myoma growths, early cessation of menstruation, etc.

Many of the women are unaware that their constant fatigue, aging of the skin, hair dullness are symptoms of the unhealthiness of this important organ. The extinction of their functions in all happens in different ways, someone does not experience any unpleasant sensations, and some experience everything that can cause aging of the body. If a woman has felt similar manifestations in the ovaries during menopause, she needs to conduct a competent examination. Of course, you can’t argue with nature, and the extinction of the reproductive functions of the female body with the onset of menopause is considered a natural process. However, due to the fact that lately there has been a growing tendency in the world to prematurely stop menstruation with the loss of childbearing abilities, it becomes necessary to force this body to extend the period of its functionality.

How is everything going?

According to experts who have determined that a woman is born with a certain set of follicles, the number of which can no longer increase, but is only consumed during ovulation throughout life. When the follicle supply comes to an end, the corpus luteum does not produce estrogen, menstruation stops and menopause occurs. A great influence on the state of the ovaries in menopause, causing their premature aging, have interruption operations and spontaneous miscarriages. Also, the existing chronic diseases that interfere with the normal maturation of follicles and their transformation into the corpus luteum have a great influence on reproductive functions as a whole.

How to make the ovaries work?

Solving the problems that arise should be combined with various methods based on cleaning the body from the harmful effects of the environment and the use of acupuncture and homeopathy. However, all these measures will be short-lived and will not lead to significant results. Currently, there is only one effective means to turn the clock back and achieve rejuvenation of the reproductive organs. These are the so-called peptide technologies - a therapeutic treatment that uses a natural cell extract, which has no synthetic analogue. The meaning of the method used is the subcutaneous administration of the peptide, after which it, without affecting other organs, moves precisely into the ovaries.

A peptide is a whole chain of amino acids that are produced in any organism. As a result of treatment, menstruation is fully restored after menopause in patients. The same follicles mature, ovulation is restored, and the production of own estrogen is approaching normal.

What to do in case of diseases

Often with the onset of menopause, the patient feels pain in the lower abdomen, which is a sign of the development of pathological situations. A significant increase in the size of the ovaries during menopause can be a symptom of the following diseases in these organs, such as:

  • polycystic (with the formation of multiple cysts),

  • torsion,
  • benign and malignant neoplasms in the internal genital organs,
  • pathological abnormalities in the structure of the body or in its size.

Many conditions in the period of menopause require operational methods of treatment. Therefore, it is so important in the manifestation of pain in the area of ​​the location of the reproductive organs, urgently apply for examination. Late surgery can threaten the health and even the life of the patient. The most dangerous condition in menopause, leading to death, is a tumor that was diagnosed in its last stage. The chance of a successful outcome can be obtained only by starting the beginning of the pathological process in the organ and having carried out the operation during this period.

Diseases that occur during menopause, such as polycystic, can be cured using therapeutic methods. Drugs that increase the production of female hormones - estrogen. The characteristic features of polycystic are to increase the level of the male hormone. As well as a lack of female estrogen, therefore, the elimination of hormonal imbalance can provide significant assistance in the treatment of ovarian disorders during menopause.

What is an ovary?

The ovary is an oval gland, one edge of which is attached to the uterus, and the other is directed towards the fallopian tube. A mature ovary consists of cortical substance, medulla and the so-called gate. It is in the cortex that the follicles are located, within which the eggs mature. In the body of each woman laid a certain number of follicles. This is a kind of reproductive reserve, the reserves of which do not renew during life.

In each menstrual cycle one follicle matures, giving a chance for the birth of a new life. In the ovary, the production of such vital hormones as estrogens and androgens. The greatest value for the full activity of the female body is just estrogen.

Changes during menopause

During menopause, the structure of the ovaries changes dramatically. These changes are irreversible, their finale is the complete completion of the reproductive function. With the progression of climacteric changes, the place of the follicles is gradually replaced by connective tissue, and the place of the former corpus luteum is replaced by hyaline blocks. This dynamic process leads to a change in the size and structure of the organ. Gradually, the ovaries decrease in size, the process of tissue atrophy occurs.

Many women are interested in what overall indicators of the ovaries are normal during menopause. You should be guided by the following parameters:

  • the volume can vary in the range from 1.5 m3 to 4.5 m3,
  • the thickness should be between 9 and 12 mm,
  • length: from 20 to 25 mm,
  • width: 12 to 15 mm.

Features of the ovaries during menopause

As the age increases, the number of follicles in the ovarian cavity gradually decreases, which provokes a decrease in the number of sex hormones produced by this organ. Decrease in the synthesis of estrogen and is a trigger in the development of pathological manifestations of menopause, because most of the processes occurring inside the female body are hormone-dependent.

The lack of estrogen causes a response from the hypothalamus, the essence of which is that it tries to restore the full functioning of the ovaries by sending out follicle-stimulating hormone to help. Changes in the work of the hypothalamus provoke the development of failures in the system of thermoregulation, which explains the nature of the tides.

The lack of estrogen affects the nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, excretory, digestive, urinary systems of the body, causing irreversible changes in them. The hormone deficiency affects both the state of the musculoskeletal system and the external appearance of the woman.

As menopausal changes are gaining momentum, ovarian activity is steadily declining. By the time of full onset of menopause, the process of maturation of the eggs finally stops, ovulation no longer occurs, which is expressed by such external signs as the cessation of menstrual bleeding.

Postmenopause is characterized by the complete cessation of estrogen synthesis by the woman’s ovaries. Однако говорить о том, что в организме женщины в постменопаузальный период полностью прекращается выработка этого женского гормона, было бы неверно. The human body itself is endowed with high adaptive abilities, therefore the reproduction of estrogens continues outside the gland - they are synthesized by peripheral structures (adrenal glands, adipose tissue).

Polycystic ovaries with menopause

Unfortunately, menopause sometimes brings extremely unpleasant manifestations, which are accompanied by feelings of indisposition and pain. If we talk about possible malfunctions in the functioning of the ovaries, they are most often expressed in the following phenomenon: under the action of follicle-stimulating (FSH) hormone, the follicle increases in size, as it should be during normal menstrual cycles, but the difference is that the egg inside the follicle does not mature, and ovulation does not occur. This anomaly is accompanied by a lack of progesterone production, which normally should accompany ovulation. Estrogens meanwhile provoke a thickening of the epithelium and cause delayed menstruation. When menstruation comes, it is accompanied by sensations of pain, moreover, the duration and profusion of discharge increases significantly. This whole process combines the concept of "follicle persistence."

Symptoms of Ovarian Polycytosis

Such enlarged follicles are otherwise referred to as "cysts." If the appearance of a persistent follicle is not single, then doctors speak about the development of such a disease as polycystic ovarian disease. This disease may include the following symptoms:

  • prolonged delay of menstruation. The cycle increases to 35 days or more. Although this symptom is not fundamental during menopause, the irregularity of the cycle at this time is a completely natural phenomenon,
  • copious or, on the contrary, scanty menstrual secretions that accompany the sensations of severe pain. However, the nature of discharge during menopause is also a controversial sign, because this stage in itself causes a similar picture,
  • pain may manifest itself, localized in the area of ​​the left or right ovary, depending on the location of cysts. Discomfort persists outside menstruation. Sexual intercourse becomes painful,
  • an increase in the ovaries, which is easily explained by the presence of persistent follicles in their cavity. The size of the uterus becomes below the physiological norm,
  • increase in body weight with a characteristic distribution of body fat by male type,
  • excessive body hair growth
  • full or partial hair loss,
  • increased activity of the sebaceous glands,
  • acne,
  • coarse voice.

What is dangerous?

Polycystic is dangerous, above all, malignant degeneration. It is during menopause that such a probability increases several times. In addition, it is able to provoke a number of pathological processes in the body: mastopathy for menopause, myocardial infarction, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, obesity, vascular thrombosis.

Treatment of polycystic ovaries and single cysts can be both medical and operational. Initially, preference is given to hormone therapy, during menopause, it usually has a pronounced positive effect on the course of the disease. If there is no positive dynamics, then polycystic has to be treated with the help of a surgeon.

It should be remembered that the appearance of any pain in the pelvic organs should be a reason for immediate treatment to the doctor.

How to stimulate the ovaries during menopause?

The longer the woman’s ovaries retain their full function, the later the irreversible age-related changes in the body begin. How to make the ovaries work harder?

The foundation of any positive change should be a lifestyle change. This concept includes a whole range of activities.

Proper nutrition

Great nutrition. Preference should be given to food of plant origin (vegetables, fruits, berries, herbs, cereals), dairy products, dietary meats and fish. It is important to reduce the amount of animal fat consumed, to abandon fried, smoked, overly salty foods.

It is equally important to drink enough drinking water. To complete the work of the human body requires about 1.5 liters of clean water per day.

In order to support the work of not only the reproductive organs, but also of the whole organism during the period of menopause, one can supplement the diet with vitamin-mineral complexes. The modern pharmaceutical market offers a huge selection of drugs of this kind. Their composition is designed to reflect the changes characteristic of menopause. For example, these may be:

Active lifestyle

Equally important is having regular physical activity. It helps to avoid the occurrence of stagnation in the pelvic organs, thereby preventing the development of pathological processes, helps to reduce pain during menstruation, helps the woman's reproductive system to work balanced.

Use of infusions and decoctions

The safest way to influence the functioning of the ovaries can be the use of infusions and decoctions of medicinal plants rich in plant estrogen. Phyto-based compositions of these plants can perfectly complement the main treatment for menopausal changes in the ovaries:

  • sage,
  • boron womb,
  • red brush
  • red clover
  • shepherd's bag.

Reception of phytohormones

An improved option may be the treatment of ovarian dysfunction drugs based on herbal estrogens. These funds help to achieve a milder course of climacteric changes, as well as prevent the development of pathologies, including those from the ovaries.
Their choice today is huge, each individual drug has its own characteristics and influence on the female body. Therefore, treatment should be entrusted to an experienced specialist. The most popular and effective means are:

HRT use

Another option to stimulate the ovaries can be hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Preparations of this category can be produced in the form of gels, ointments (Estrogel, Divigel), tablets (Premarin, Proginova, Sinestrol) and skin patches (Extderm, Dermestril). All of them contain in their composition artificial female sex hormones. This treatment can help the ovaries work more actively again. Hormonal background is normalized in a fairly short time. However, it is HRT that requires a more cautious attitude, since it has a number of contraindications and side effects. To determine whether to force the ovaries to function longer, should an experienced specialist.

The hormonal coup that occurred during menopause cannot pass without a trace for any organ of the female body. Changes that undergo the ovaries, of course, the most significant and large-scale. And to try to minimize the risk of adverse effects of menopause - the main task of a woman that she must fulfill in order to preserve her health.. Timely diagnosis of menopause and related changes is the key to successfully overcoming this life stage.

Limited follicular reserve

During the period of embryonic development, a certain number of follicles are laid in the female gonads, in which eggs will mature. Initially, there are about 500 thousand. By the time of maturation of the body, their number is normally between 25 and 50 thousand. At sexually mature age, ovules mature in the follicles every month. The stock of follicles in the ovaries to 50 - 52 years of life in a woman normally ends, and menopause begins. Depletion of the ovaries before 45 years is called - syndrome of early aging of the ovaries.

In the view of man, there is a line between aging of the organism and its diseases. A random factor is considered a disease. Aging, menopause is considered to be a natural physiological process. If the aging of the body occurs in a timely manner, gradually adapting to change, it is called physiological. If it occurs in part and is ahead of the peer aging level, it is called premature.

What happens to the ovaries with age?

At a young age, the female reproductive gland consists of connective tissue, in which there are blood and lymphatic vessels, as well as nerves, and of the cortical substance, in which the follicles mature. With age, the connective tissue predominates, compaction and sclerosis of the genital glands occurs. The number of follicles in the ovaries during menopause at its very beginning is minimal; later on, in postmenopausal follicles are not normally visualized. The size of the sex glands changes accordingly.

In women of childbearing age, the size of the ovary is on average:

  • length 2.5 - 5.0 cm,
  • width 1.5 - 3.0 cm,
  • thickness 0.5 - 1.5 cm,
  • weight 5 - 8 g

From individual characteristics, a condition of an organism and age these sizes can vary.

Ovaries with menopause

The normal size of premenopausal ovaries can be considered:

  • length 2.0 - 2.5 cm,
  • width 1.2 - 1.5 cm,
  • thickness 0.9 - 1.2 cm,
  • volume 1.5–4.0 cm3.

The average volume of ovarium by age is calculated for each decade of life.

There is a statistically significant decrease in the volume of appendages with each decade of life from 30 years to 70 years. The average size of the ovaries in menopause is significantly higher than in postmenopausal women. The upper limit of the norm for the volume of ovarium is 20 cm3 in women in premenopausal women and in normal conditions postmenopausal ovaries can be up to a maximum of 10 cm3.

The volume of the ovaries in menopause decreases. In the menopausal period, single follicles can still be produced, with the onset of menopausal ovarian dysfunction.

Causes of Ovarian Aging

There are many hypotheses that explain the etiology of menopause. The most relevant theories are:

  • genetic predisposition
  • autoimmune conditions,
  • exposure to the external environment
  • modifiable factors: chemotherapy, radiation therapy, pelvic surgery, pelvic inflammatory processes,
  • smoking

These factors can affect the formation of the ovaries, which initially will have a deficiency of the follicular apparatus. Some factors are difficult to influence, but others are possible.

Half the women with ovarian depletion syndrome have a family history.

The level of sex hormones is reduced by the age of 30

The level of female sex hormones by the age of thirty begins to decline. The number of healthy oocytes by this time decreases, their quality also begins to suffer. To conceive a child every year becomes more difficult. Scientists have shown that after 30 years there is less chance of having a healthy child. Getting pregnant also becomes problematic. If the aging process of the gonads starts in the woman's body, then the chance of getting pregnant naturally becomes less with each passing year. It is also difficult to deal with this issue by IVF.

Given that healthy and strong oocytes have already emerged at a younger age, there is a risk of miscarriage, the birth of children with Down syndrome and other diseases, the causes of which are genetic damage.

Other causes that cause early menopause and reduce the body's response to stimulating factors:

  • Inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs have a poor effect on the ovaries, but they can potentially be prevented.
  • Endometriosis, although not a preventable factor, can be treated.
  • Chemotherapy and surgery on the pelvic joints, on the ovaries are important causes of premature aging of the ovaries. Surgeons should consider this during surgery.
  • Some treatments aimed at stimulating follicles reduce their stock. A short hormone replacement therapy increases the rate of conception after its cancellation. In this case, the frequency of pregnancies increases, and the risk of miscarriage decreases. Moreover, this process is controlled.
  • Chemotherapy, which limits the amount of ovarian reserve, should not be used without special indications.
  • The same approach should be applied during radiation therapy.

Scientists are thinking about changing the rate of decline in ovarian reserve, but so far there are few offers. One option is to freeze the eggs of good quality.

Yes, yes, a prudent woman can freeze her eggs for the future at a young age. For details on how to protect the eggs on the eve of menopause, see part 2 of this article.

Until now, scientists have not come up with a magical medicine that can prolong youth. Slow down this process can every woman.

Stress and anxiety can affect the level of hormones in the body.

How to make the ovaries work?

Restore, restore the work of the sex glands is very problematic. At the age of menopause is difficult to influence, but nevertheless, what we can do depends on us.

Smoking - a factor acting detrimental to the sex glands. And it depends only on us whether we ruin our eggs or not. Smoking or non-smoking, especially on the eve of menopause - voluntary choice

In addition, you can change the lifestyle and nutrition. If you do not agree to change your life, then you are unlikely to be able to push menopause. But changing diet and habits, you can win over old age for several years!

Stimulation of ovarian function in menopause

  • You can use hormone replacement therapy in premenopause. But this “double-edged sword” - hormone therapy can lead to the development of malignant tumors.
  • Stimulating the postmenopausal ovaries is a direct path to cancer.

In order to prevent this, it is necessary to regularly conduct ultrasounds. A pathological condition is when the ovaries are doubled under the influence of hormonal therapy.

If during menopause changes occur on the ultrasound, it can be assumed that there are any pathological processes:

  • occasionally, a follicle can be found on the ovary in menopause, and the follicle can cause an increase in the level of sex hormones. Ovarian follicles after menopause may appear even in very old age, there are cases of visualization of them over the age of 70,

Pathological processes in the gonads

  • Ovarian cysts of various etiologies. Benign serous tumors include cystadenomas, adenofibromas, cystic adenofibromas, and superficial papillomas. These tumors are common, accounting for about 25% of all benign ovarian neoplasms. Cystadenomas of the ovary during menopause are bilateral in about 10% of all serous tumors, about 70% are benign, 5-10% have a borderline malignant potential and 20-25% are malignant, depending on the age of the patient. Sometimes cystadenomas reach gigantic sizes. In 1922, Spon reported that he diagnosed a giant ovarian cystadenoma in menopause with a weight of 148.6 kg. Symmonds, in 1963, reported a cyst weighing 79.4 kg.
  • malignant neoplasms (ovarian cancer),
  • a large and lumpy ovarium may be due to metastasis to the gonad from other organs.

The most dangerous for women are malignant processes that can be determined by ultrasound and using tumor markers.

How to determine the period of menopause and ovarian reserve?

Recently, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology has developed criteria by which it is possible to determine the reserve of ovaries for their timely stimulation.

  • late reproductive age (> 40 years)
  • abnormal stock of ovaries (5-7 follicles or hormone antimulers)
  • previous ovarian reserve examinations in which oocytes

Early menopause heredity is a high risk factor for early ovarian aging and menopausal ovarian dysfunction as long as we do not know how to prevent it.

Functions at different stages

The ovaries give a woman a chance to have children. These paired organs exist so that they regularly stand out from the multitude of the follicle, and then the female sex cell. It happens every month from 12-14 to 45-55 years.

Naturally, not all germ cells are fertilized, and most cycles end with menstruation. The ovaries also play an important role in this process of renewing the inner lining of the uterus.

In the first part of the cycle, they synthesize estrogens, through which the follicle matures. In the second, the corpus luteum, formed after the disintegration of the egg, releases progesterone. Both of these substances affect the endometrium, enabling it to develop and eventually reject, replacing it with a new one.

Ovaries and menopause

Ovaries with menopause almost exhaust their potential. It begins a little earlier, in a period called premenopause. If in a young woman they are composed of connective tissue and cortical substance, which contains millions of follicles, then by the time of withering the first one begins to prevail.

The size of the bodies changes, they shrink. The dimensions of the ovaries in menopause at the initial stage look like this:

  • Length 20-25 mm
  • Width is 12-15 mm,
  • Thickness is 9-12 mm.

The longer the period of time since the last menstruation, the smaller these parameters.

But the decrease and correspondence of the values ​​of both organs to each other are characteristic of the later stage of menopause. Размеры яичников при климаксе со временем меняются так:

  • На первом году после пропадания месячных он составит 4,5 кубических сантиметров,
  • Через 5 лет отсутствия менструаций – 2,5,
  • Спустя 10 лет – 1,5.

And the weight of one body to 60 years of age of its owner is reduced to 4 g, although in her 40 years he was 9.5.

Follicles with menopause are quantitatively reduced, then disappear altogether. The ovaries become less susceptible to the effects of the pituitary hormones FSH and LH. Despite their high concentration, the maturation of the follicles slows down and stops. You can still find them at its initial stage. True, they too will be noticeably smaller in size than in youth. Their magnitude and decrease in hormonal activity is due to the fact that functional cysts no longer appear on the organs.

Features of the functioning of the ovaries in menopause

The important point is how the ovaries work with menopause. After all, this determines all changes occurring in the body.

Since the follicles in each of them are initially limited, it is natural that in the course of 35-40 years they are spent without compensation. Menstruation at the beginning of the menopausal period still comes, but most of them are without an egg cell. That is, they cannot be called fully monthly, as they pass without ovulation.

Follicles that remain in the ovaries during menopause at this stage, and qualitatively change. Others are made and menstruation. The volume of discharge may change, shorten or lengthen the intervals between them. Critical days become irregular, which was previously considered undesirable and requiring treatment, and now it is natural.

The follicles are also "guilty" of all this. A reduction in their numbers leads to a decrease in the production of estrogen by the organs. And since there is no egg, there is no yellow body. This means that progesterone becomes significantly less.

Is it possible to spur work?

Menopause is characterized by special manifestations, which are perceived by some very hard. Or she herself overtakes a woman too soon. The problem arises: how to make the ovaries work during menopause.

To solve it, there are several possibilities:

  • Someone enough normalization of lifestyle, the inclusion in the diet of products, pushing the production of estrogen. These are vegetables and fruits, legumes, but they also require the rejection of spicy, salty, fatty foods. Besides the method include reasonable exercise, quality rest,
  • Hormonal drugs. Among them are estrogen containing only (Proginova, Estrofem, Divigel, Estrogel gels) or combined (Divina, Femoston, Klimonorm). It is dangerous to choose them at random, because you can not guess the dose and the drug itself, provoke the appearance of a tumor, other diseases,
  • Phytoestrogens. Remens, Klimadinon, Klimaktoplan are also able to force the reproductive system to slow down degenerative processes and improve well-being,
  • Folk remedies. Broths of lungfish, licorice root, aralia, calamus, horsetail, normalize health, bringing to the body the proportion of missing estrogens. For the desired effect, brew 2 tbsp. one of the plants 2.5 cups of boiling water. It is necessary to drink 100 ml of the product three times a day before meals.

If the ovaries are larger than needed

Cyst is one of the reasons for an increase in the size of the ovary in a woman with menopause

An increase in both ovaries after menopause is an unwanted and disturbing symptom. The contraction and disappearance of follicles leads to the fact that in normal organs are reduced.

But the menopause is dangerous because many of the previously dormant or not at all declared diseases are activated. Therefore, if ovaries are enlarged in menopause, the reasons should be looked for in one of them:

  • Cysts. In 30% of cases with menopause, both organs are affected. The neoplasm in this period is not functional, that is, resorbable. As a rule, it is an epithelial cyst, which can be reborn into something more serious,
  • Polycystic. Sometimes there are multiple lesions on the organs. Menopause makes them likely due to a drop in the amount of estrogen and an excessive increase in the amount of male hormones. Contribute to this long use of oral contraceptives, as well as hormone replacement therapy. It facilitates the course of menopause, but increases the risk of gynecological ailments,
  • Crayfish. Malignant tumors of these organs are in second place among the culprits of the death of women from cancer. And they arise, as a rule, after the cessation of menstruation. Ovarian cancer provokes not only menopausal age, but also the previous circumstances of life: abortion, lack of childbirth, hormonal drugs.

We recommend reading an article about postmenopausal women. You will learn about the manifestations of this condition, the characteristics of the secretions, the causes of extinction of the reproductive function, as well as the need to take drugs to alleviate the symptoms.

What to do to not miss the disease?

Fading of ovarian function is not a reason to completely forget about these organs. By participating in the climacteric process, they can present unpleasant, or even terrible surprises. Conducting ultrasound during menopause is able to recognize the danger, despite the reduced size of the organs. The survey may indicate the abnormal size of the ovaries, if such is, as well as their asymmetry.

It is more difficult to double out healthy paired organs in menopause when the woman has reproductive abilities. Follicles that disappear in the ovaries during menopause complicate visualization through the abdominal wall, even with a full bladder. There are significant morphological changes in them.

But transvaginal ultrasound can reveal all the negative processes occurring in them.

Changes in the ovaries, as well as throughout the body at the age of menopause, have natural causes. But sometimes diseases get involved in the process, and some of them show obvious signs at the last stage, when it is too late to heal. To prevent this, it is worth examining regularly, and not only if you are unwell.

Ovarian Examination

Since the size of the postmenopausal ovaries is very small, and their tissue has been replaced completely or partially connective, the diagnosis of this organ is very complicated. In about half of the cases, with ultrasound through the abdominal wall, they are not visible. Therefore, using transvaginal ultrasound.

Ultrasound of the ovaries is performed by a gynecologist. In order to clarify its results, hormone analysis may also be carried out, but often this is not required.

How to prolong the functioning during menopause?

Is it possible to artificially wake up the ovaries? It is almost always impossible to do this after the extinction of the functioning. But you can extend their work. In most cases, doctors recommend doing this, because thanks to this therapy, menopause is more easily tolerated, and the restructuring of the body goes more smoothly. Of course, in this case, it is impossible to fully return to the body its functionality, it still acts less actively, and this leads to the extension of menopause.

In order to prolong the work of the ovaries, a special treatment is prescribed. Usually, one of three approaches is applied:

  • Taking drugs with natural analogues of female sex hormones - phytoestrogens. These are such remedies as Remens, Chi-Klim, etc. They saturate the body with hormones from the outside, which has a positive effect on the ovaries, smooths the menstrual cycle, decreases the severity of menopause symptoms. But such drugs are ineffective, they can help when the normal volume of the ovary is preserved, or at the very beginning of premenopause,
  • Hormone replacement therapy is conducted using chemical analogues of female sex hormones. They are much more efficient. And due to the fact that they can be dosed more accurately, and also include in the course not only estrogen, but also progesterone, with their help you can normalize or form an artificial menstrual cycle. They minimize and slow down changes in the ovaries, prolong their functioning and reduce the severity of the menopausal syndrome.

Selection of such drugs in premenopause should be carried out by a doctor. Sometimes this is not required, it is enough just to include in your diet foods rich in phytoestrogens. For example, yams, soybeans, apples, carrots, pomegranates, lentils, green tea, etc. An expert can also tell you more about this.

What are ovaries, and what are they for?

The ovaries are located in the pelvis, they are located symmetrically on either side of the uterus. As the factors of sexual life, they will help in some way to change their position: to be located closer to the uterus itself (this is often observed during pregnancy).

The size of the ovaries can vary: this question is strictly individual and depends on the woman herself. These organs are supplied with blood by the central artery, which has branches in the form of the ovarian artery. Inside these organs consist mainly of connective tissue, the outside is covered with a special crust.

The ovaries perform the following functions in the female body:

  • Playback function of the kind. An egg cell matures in the ovaries, without which the process of fertilization and the birth of a new life is impossible as such.
  • Vegetative function. Female genital organs and determine the belonging of a woman to the female sex.
  • Hormonal function. The ovaries secrete a set of hormones that help reproductive function.

How do the ovaries work during menopause?

With the advent of menopause, you need to pay special attention to the work of the ovaries, since according to their condition it is possible to understand exactly how the reproductive system functions. The follicle in the ovaries is a limited amount, and it goes without saying that they end at some point. When menopause comes and the last menstruation occurs, they occur without the formation of a new egg, since there is no relevant material for it. Such menstruation can no longer be considered fully menstruation.

The follicles that are still preserved in the ovaries at the moment are changing significantly. The nature of the menstrual flow is also changing. The volume of discharge decreases, the intervals between them are increasingly lengthening.

If at reproductive age such factors were considered abnormal and even dangerous, they required treatment, now it can be considered the absolute norm.
The absence of follicles determines the decrease in the level of estrogen in the body, so we can say that it is the follicles that are to blame for the menopause, their absence.

Gradually, the number of monthly simply disappears, which can be said about the number of follicles. When menstruation is completely stopped, and they have not been for a year or more, this phenomenon is called menopause. This means that a woman has entered into menopause, and now there will be significant changes in her body, the most important of which is that she loses her fertile function.

How to stimulate the work of the ovaries in menopause?

It also happens that menopause catches a woman too early when she still wants to give birth to a child. In this case, the question arises, how can the ovaries be activated, and can it be done at all? This can be done, but such manipulations with your body can be carried out only with the permission of the attending physician.

This can be done in the following ways:

  1. For some women, it will be quite enough to change your habitual diet, Lifestyle, include in your daily menu such products that stimulate the production of estrogen. Such products include vegetables, fruits, legumes, but, moreover, you should try to give up fatty and fried foods. In addition to food in your life you need to include a moderate and reasonable physical activity, do not forget about the rest.
  2. There are drugs that contain only estrogens, and there are combined. Choosing them yourself, relying on the advice of friends, relatives and neighbors is very dangerous.
  3. Reception phytoestrogen helps to stimulate the function of the ovaries safely for the body, since phytoestrogens practically do not cause any side effects, and the follicles during menopause while taking phytoestrogens continue to produce eggs. Phytoestrogens are those analogues of the female sex hormones that are found in certain herbs.
  4. Helps restore ovarian function during menopause and such folk remedies: root of horsetail, licorice root, medunits and many others. To achieve the desired effect, you need to pour a tablespoon of the selected component with half a liter of water and take it after it has completely cooled, before use. Then the follicles in menopause will work for some time properly.

The condition of the ovaries in menopause

It has been scientifically proven that during a woman's menopause, the size of the ovaries changes significantly. The same applies to the follicle, whose dimensions are also becoming smaller. If during this period on the ovaries a woman has any extraneous formations, then they all have the name of a tumor. This condition can not be ignored, sick ovaries should be treated.

In menopause, the female genital organs are much more susceptible to disease, so gynecologists should examine the patient with particular attention.

It doesn’t mean that if a woman has stopped her period, then she has no health problems either. This is not the case, so the gynecologist should be visited at least once every six months. This is necessary in order to make sure that everything is fine with the ovaries, or to detect pathology in time, including even such terrible diseases as a cancer.

Attention! Any tumor, cyst, or other formation that was detected in a woman during menopause should be treated with surgery, regardless of whether it is old or newly formed, large or small.

Ovarian pathologies

The period of menopause is dangerous because many diseases that did not make themselves felt at reproductive age may well manifest themselves in climacteric and cause a lot of trouble and problems to its owner.

If during the period of menopause a woman showed any changes in the ovarian area, then this is a very disturbing sign, especially in the case when the ovaries increase in size.

It must be remembered that the ovaries in menopause normally should decrease, but not increase. If this happens, there are several reasons for this.

  • Cyst. About 30% of women whose age has crossed the border of 45 years are susceptible to this disease of the reproductive organs. A cyst is such a formation, which most often has a symmetrical character, that is, if there is a cyst on one ovary, then there is a high probability that it will also form on the second. This neoplasm does not resolve itself, as some tend to mistakenly believe. It is treated only by surgical removal.
  • Polycystic. It also happens that not only one, but several such formations are detected on the female reproductive organs, which is why this condition is called polycystic. In menopause, they are more likely, since the number of female sex hormones decreases, and the male - is growing rapidly.

In addition to the menopause itself, this disease is promoted by long-term use of hormonal contraceptives that are used without a doctor's prescription, as well as drugs containing female sex hormones (they are often used for menopause as hormone replacement therapy). It must be remembered that hormone therapy facilitates the course of menopause itself and reduces its symptoms, but a side effect is that such drugs increase the risk of developing gynecological diseases.

  • Malignant tumors (crayfish). Of this disease, women often die prematurely. Usually there are such diseases after the complete cessation of menstruation, that is, in menopause. However, in addition to the menopause itself, the development of this disease is also influenced by several other factors that have been exercised throughout the life of the woman. These include: a large number of abortions, very frequent childbirth, the complete absence of childbirth, hormone therapy without a doctor's prescription, unhealthy lifestyle.

How can you diagnose ovarian pathology during menopause?

The most optimal and informative diagnostic method in this case is the ultrasound procedure. All other methods of diagnosis are used much less frequently, and only in cases where the patient needs additional examination to confirm the diagnosis more accurately.

When it comes to cancer, it is quite simple to identify it, because this disease characterizes a number of additional signs, such as polyps in the ovarian region, increased blood flow in the region of the diseased organ, and ovarian lesions on both sides.

Attention! If the ultrasound procedure shows signs characteristic of ovarian cancer, then to confirm the diagnosis, it is necessary to undergo the procedure for tumor markers, which will accurately determine whether there is follicular cancer in the body, or not.

Thus, the ovaries are the most important part of the reproductive system of a woman, which is responsible for the most valuable thing: the opportunity to have children. Follicles on the ovary in menopause can significantly complicate the course of menopause. В период климакса яичники подвергаются различного рода заболеваниям, именно поэтому очень важно следить за их здоровьем и вовремя ходить к врачу, чтобы не было слишком поздно.

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Какие функции выполняют эти органы

The ovaries are organs of the reproductive system of a woman, having an oval shape. They are located on both sides of the uterus. In the tissues of the ovaries are special bubbles - follicles, designed for the development of eggs. They are clearly visible on ultrasound, and also produce female hormones: progesterone and estrogen.

From the first day of the menstrual cycle begins the process of growth and maturation of follicles under the influence of estrogen. One follicle is ahead in growth of others. An egg cell matures in it, and it is called dominant. The growth of other follicles is slowed down. During ovulation, the follicle is torn, and the egg cell leaves it. A torn follicle transforms into a corpus luteum, which produces progesterone.

Under the influence of sex hormones, the reproductive function of the woman is ensured, and this is possible only during normal ovarian function. When the fertilization of the egg occurs, pregnancy begins. If the egg is not fertilized, then the menstrual cycle will end in menstruation.

In girls' eggs during intrauterine development, a certain number of follicles are laid. Over the entire reproductive period, hundreds of oocytes mature, most of which remain unfertilized. When the supply of follicles in the ovaries is depleted, then menopause begins. Normal menopause comes to a woman in 50 years.

How does the size of the body during menopause

In women of reproductive age, the size of the ovaries normally have the following parameters:

  • organ length - 20-35 mm,
  • its width is 15-20 mm
  • thickness - 20-25 mm.

Both bodies differ in size. Such a distinction is considered normal. A forty-year-old woman has a body weight of 9.5 g.

At the stage of premenopause

The climacteric period has three stages, during which the ovaries change their size. The first stage is called premenopause. It starts with the first menopausal manifestations - hot flashes, increased sweating, blood pressure jumps, excessive irritability and others. They are triggered by a hormonal imbalance, which arises from the fact that the ovaries begin to produce fewer sex hormones.

In premenopause, the menstrual cycle is disturbed. It becomes shorter or longer, and the number of critical days and the profusion of menstrual flow change. More often in women there are delays. First for a few days, and then weeks and months. The number of menstrual flow decreases, and they go less days.

The first changes in the ovaries occur in the premenopause against a background of low estrogen levels. The number of follicles remaining with each menstruation decreases. Cortical substance containing previously follicles, is replaced by connective tissue.

The ovaries begin to decrease in size to the following parameters:

  • length does not exceed 25 mm,
  • width not more than 15 mm
  • thickness within 9-12 mm.

The ovaries are constantly decreasing in size. After a few months, both organs become the same size.

With menopause and postmenopausal

In the period of menopause are the last independent menstruation. They can be installed only retrospectively. Therefore, menopause is diagnosed 12 months after the menstrual period, if there were no menstrual flow. Throughout this year, the ovaries continue to shrink in size.

The accepted norm is considered the following dimensions of the ovaries in menopause:

  • length is in the range of 20-25 mm
  • width - 12-15 mm,
  • thickness - 9-12 mm.

The volume of the body is reduced to a value of 1.5-4 cm 3. In some women, the follicles in the ovaries during menopause still remain in small numbers, but they can no longer develop. Accordingly, ovulation does not occur. If a lady passes a urine test, then there will be a high level of estrogen, which the adrenal cortex produces.

Postmenopause is the final stage of menopause. In postmenopausal menstrual function is completely absent. Many wonder what is happening with the ovaries work, which in the female body is fully completed.

They continue to decrease in size. So, 5 years after the beginning of this stage, the volume of the ovaries will be about 2.5 cm 3, and 10 years later - 1.5 cm 3. The body weight of a 60-year-old lady normally does not exceed 4 g.

Even the most "scary" menopause can be defeated at home! Just do not forget two or three times a day.

Pathologies in the period of menopause

Normally, the ovaries should shrink. When an increase in organs is detected during ultrasound diagnosis, it is necessary to undergo a more thorough examination in order to diagnose the pathology that has arisen.

  1. Cyst.
    In women in menopause, only 30% affects both organs. In the overwhelming majority of cases, pathological changes occur with only one ovary - a follicular cyst is formed. These are anechoic formations of a round shape, having a thin-walled capsule. They occur with hormonal disorders and can resolve themselves over a period of 2-3 menstrual cycles. When this does not happen, it is treated. If an endometrioid cyst develops, then it has a firmer capsule and is capable of degenerating into a malignant neoplasm. Therefore, it is removed by surgery.
  2. Polycystic.
    In this disease, several cysts can form simultaneously in the ovary. Such education during menopause occurs more often than single cysts. This is due to the fact that the level of female sex hormones has significantly decreased, and the number of male hormones, on the contrary, has increased. This result leads to long-term use of oral contraceptives, which were not appointed by the gynecologist and were not suitable for a particular organism. Polycystic can be a side effect taken by hormone replacement therapy for menopause.

Hormonal medications treat menopausal symptoms, but they contribute to the development of tumors. Therefore, it is absolutely impossible to independently take such funds.

Malignant neoplasms

According to the medical statistics, ovarian cancers are the second most common oncological diseases, resulting in the death of women after menopause.

Therefore, all women should know the symptoms of ovarian cancer:

  1. There are pains in the pelvic region that cause discomfort to the woman.
  2. There is swelling or bloating, like with overeating.
  3. Constant indigestion, which should be a reason to visit a doctor and undergo a medical examination.
  4. The frequency of urination increases. And, every time there can be desires for immediate urination.
  5. Worsening appetite.
  6. A woman's weight changes very quickly, either upwards or downwards.
  7. Increases waist size.
  8. Sexual intercourse causes pain.
  9. The lower back or lower abdomen may hurt.

With the development of ovarian cancer, these symptoms may be constantly present, and they will also be exacerbated. The most basic symptom of the development of a cancer is the presence of urine, feces and sputum. Moreover, this symptom manifests itself, as with a small amount of a malignant neoplasm, and a large tumor.

What you need to know about ovarian cancer

The main causes of ovarian cancer include the absence of childbirth and ongoing abortions. Can provoke the development of malignant tumors, taken hormones.

All women need to know what to do when they detect these symptoms and if they are suspected of developing cancer. It should immediately be examined by a gynecologist and an oncologist. So, the lady will keep her health and life.

Cancer has 4 stages, which differ in the spread of the disease in the female body:

  1. Stage I - the tumor was formed on only one ovary.
  2. Stage II - a neoplasm develops on one or two organs, but at the same time it has spread to the pelvic region.
  3. Stage III - the tumor affects one or two ovaries, and metastases are located outside the pelvis and can penetrate into the retroperitoneal lymph nodes.
  4. Stage IV - a malignant tumor is on one or both ovaries, and metastases already have a separate character of distribution and manifestation.

In the early stages, the disease is easier and faster to cure. The main method of cancer treatment is surgery. Chemotherapy is used in combination with him. Radiation therapy in the development of a cancer on the ovary is ineffective.

What diagnosis is needed after menopause

In order not to miss the pathological processes occurring in the reproductive system, a woman should undergo a routine physical examination at the gynecologist at least once a year. Doctors advise to do it more often - once every six months. The doctor will conduct a gynecological examination and refer the woman to an ultrasound of the pelvic organs.

This study allows to assess the condition of the ovaries and uterus. The specialist will determine the size and structure of the organs, as well as assess the compliance with the normal parameters for a particular age. If a tumor has appeared on the organs, then with the help of this study it is possible to accurately determine its location and size.

A woman who can always find time to visit a gynecologist, if she wishes. Regular ultrasound during menopause will detect the occurrence of pathology at the earliest stages, despite the natural reduction of organs. When the ovary is abnormally enlarged, the woman will be sent for a consultation with an oncologist.

If the tumor is detected at the initial stage of development, it will be easier to treat it. Most oncologists are of the opinion that after diagnosing menopause in a woman, any cyst or tumor on the ovary should be removed. The size of the tumor is not significant. This position is associated with a high risk of the transformation of a benign neoplasm into a malignant neoplasm against the background of prolonged low estrogen levels.

Ladies who have menopause, should understand that the cessation of menstrual function does not lead to the absence of problems in the reproductive system, but rather on the contrary, requires increased attention to it. Work of the ovaries with the onset of menopause stops, but they are susceptible to the development of pathologies and cancerous tumors.

Conducting permanent medical examinations will help detect only the tumor that has appeared, and prevent its growth to the last stage of the disease, when the treatment does not always give a positive result. We wish you good health!

What do you know about ovarian changes during menopause?

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The normal size of the ovaries of women of reproductive age

In healthy women of reproductive age, the ovaries have an oval shape and are characterized by a developed follicular apparatus. When conducting ultrasound diagnostics follicles are clearly visible.

Their characteristics largely depend on the day of the menstrual cycle. Approximately 8-9 days after the onset of menstruation, the dominant follicle is already visible, from which the egg cell will later emerge. It reaches a diameter of 15 mm, while the others rarely exceed 10 mm. When ovulation occurs, the size of the dominant follicle is 18-24 mm.

The size of the ovaries in a woman of reproductive age is as follows:

  • length - about 20-35 mm,
  • width - 15-20 mm
  • thickness - 20-25 mm.

The size of the ovaries may vary slightly in one direction or another, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle.

Ovaries at menopause

The first changes in the ovaries are observed during the premenopause, when all the unpleasant symptoms of menopause appear. At this time, long delays occur, due to a decrease in the concentration of sex hormones. At this time, connective tissue begins to dominate in the ovaries. It replaces the cortical substance, which is rich in follicles. Ovaries with menopause also significantly reduced. During this period, their size is:

  • length - no more than 25 mm,
  • width - no more than 15 mm,
  • thickness - about 9-12 mm.

With each month, these parameters are even more downward. Also, as the climacteric process progresses, the difference between the sizes of the right and left ovary is eliminated. In women of the reproductive organ, these glands are slightly different, which is quite normal.

Changes in the ovaries in menopause are even more significant. After the cessation of menstruation after 1 year, their volume does not exceed 4.5 cu. see If the period of postmenopause lasts about 5 years, this figure is 2.5 cubic meters. see, and after 10 years - 1.5 cu. When examining a 60-year-old woman, it is possible to reveal that the weight of one ovary does not exceed 4 g on average. For example, at 40, this figure is 9.5 g.

Also, when menopause occurs, there is a gradual decrease in the number of follicles in the ovaries, after which they disappear altogether. Against the background of such changes, the female sex glands are not as susceptible to the effects of pituitary hormones (FSH, LH). Usually these substances are excreted in large quantities, but this does not lead to the maturation of the follicles.

They can be detected during ultrasound only at the beginning of climacteric changes in the woman's body. In some cases, a certain number of follicles still remain in the ovaries, even with prolonged menopause. However, they can not develop normally, which eliminates the appearance of ovulation. In this case, when examining a woman’s urine, an elevated estrogen level is found. The function of the production of this hormone in a small amount is carried out by the adrenal glands.

How can I prolong the functioning of the ovaries?

In some cases, doctors recommend artificially prolong the work of the ovaries for a certain period. This is justified by the poor state of health of the woman, the presence of a large number of unpleasant symptoms that lead to partial or complete loss of ability to work. They also resort to drug therapy, when a woman has menopause too early, and she wants to prolong her youth for a short while. In such cases, doctors prescribe the following drugs:

  • in some cases, to ensure the normal functioning of the ovaries, it is enough to change the diet by including products containing phytoestrogens. They are present in many vegetables, fruits, legumes. At the same time, it is recommended to completely abandon the junk food - spicy, fatty, salty. Also, it is impossible to normalize the work of the ovaries without a quality rest, a reasonable physical exertion,
  • hormone replacement therapy. In severe cases, doctors recommend to resort to this in order to neutralize the imbalance in the body. Hormonal drugs are prescribed with caution and under the close supervision of a physician, since they can cause dangerous side effects. If you use the wrong means or the wrong dosage, the risk of developing tumors or the appearance of other unpleasant diseases increases significantly. Popular hormonal agents - Proginova, Divigel, Divina and others,

  • preparations based on plant extracts. These funds are prescribed by many doctors, because when they are used there are no serious side effects. They have a mild effect on the woman's body and allow you to eliminate the imbalance of hormones. Remens, Klimaktoplan, Klimadinon and others are considered popular drugs from this group.

  • ethnoscience. It has been observed that many herbs have a positive effect on the woman’s body and help the ovaries to begin normal functioning. As a result, hot flashes, headaches disappear, mood improves and there is a surge of vital energy. These properties have field horsetail, licorice or calamus, lungwort and many others. From these herbs prepare medicinal decoctions or tinctures, which take several weeks to improve.

What is the reason for the increase in the size of the ovaries at the onset of menopause?

If after carrying out ultrasound diagnosis revealed a significant increase in the size of the ovaries, it is necessary to undergo a more thorough examination. Normally, their volume should decrease due to the absence of follicles and the predominance of connective tissue. An increase in the size of the ovaries always signals the development of certain pathologies that carry potential danger.

These include:

  • the appearance of cysts. Only in 30% of cases during the menopause, two glands are affected. When menopause occurs, cysts are not functional. They are not able to resolve themselves. Get rid of these cysts can only be surgically. Most often they are epithelial, which are capable of malignant degeneration,
  • polycystic ovary. This disease is characterized by the formation of multiple cysts. During menopause, polycystosis develops more actively due to the critical decrease in estrogen levels and an increase in the concentration of male hormones. Этому негативному процессу способствует долгий прием оральных контрацептивов или гормонозаместительная терапия,
  • развитие рака. Рак яичников находится на втором месте среди виновников смерти женщин разного возраста. Чаще всего злокачественные процессы начинаются именно после прекращения менструаций. In many cases, this is prompted by the lack of childbirth, frequent abortions, and long-term hormone therapy.

How to take care of your health when menopause?

With climacteric changes in the body, there is a gradual extinction of the functioning of the ovaries. But this is not a reason for neglecting their own health. At this time, the woman is obliged to regularly visit the gynecologist for preventive examinations, which will help identify many dangerous diseases in the initial stages.

Also in the diagnostic procedures should include ultrasound of the pelvic organs. It allows you to accurately determine the size of the ovaries, their structure, location and the presence of any tumors. Also, using this procedure, it is easy to identify other pathologies affecting the uterus, which is also not uncommon when menopause occurs.

But sometimes in a healthy woman, it is very difficult to find the ovaries and determine their condition when performing ultrasound diagnostics. Even with a filled bladder due to the lack of follicles, the sex glands are hardly visible. In this case, women are recommended to undergo transvaginal ultrasound, which is more accurate.

The normal size of the ovaries in menopause by ultrasound in women

The ovaries play a very important role in the female reproductive system. Without their normal work, a lady cannot have children. Ovaries with menopause stop their work and decrease in size.

However, they are prone to various dangerous diseases, including the formation of cancerous tumors. In this publication we will look at how the size of the ovaries during menopause should normally change, what pathologies of this organ are possible, as well as methods for diagnosing its condition.

The size of the ovaries and cervix with menopause

With the onset of menopause in the body of a woman there are many changes that are associated with its hormonal changes. Most often, this process begins in 40-45 years and ends closer to 50. The functioning of the ovaries, which secrete sex hormones, stops gradually.

Against the background of these changes, other unpleasant symptoms develop. Most often these are hot flashes, headaches, increased blood pressure, etc. When examining the organs of the small pelvis (in particular, the ovaries), changes in their size, structure, and other parameters are observed.

On this basis, it is concluded that the climacteric period and its normal or pathological course.

Climax and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Difference of Symptoms, Interrelation, Treatment, Prevention

Climax in women occurs due to the gradual decrease in the level of hormones, while hormonal imbalance leads to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). But can reduced production of sex hormones during menopause even out the imbalance caused by PCOS?

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition that leads to the formation of cysts in the female ovaries. This happens when the hormone levels of progesterone and estrogen are out of balance.

Menopause is a time when a woman stops her menstrual cycles due to a gradual decrease in the level of sex hormones.

Since both PCOS and menopause are associated with hormonal changes, many women are interested in how these two conditions are related and whether one of them can alleviate the symptoms of the other.

Within the framework of this material, we will explain how these states interact, we will indicate their key differences and suggest effective treatment methods.

articles: 1. Do PCOS and menopause affect each other? 2. What is the role of hormones in the development of PCOS and menopause? 2.1. Hormones for PCOS 2.2. Hormones during menopause 3. What are the symptoms of PCOS and menopause? 3.1. Common symptoms for menopause and PCOS 3.2. Different symptoms for menopause and PCOS 4. Changes come over time 5. Treatment of PCOS symptoms and menopause 5.1. Weight Management 5.2. Improving sleep quality 5.3. Combating unwanted hair growth 5.4. Relief of hot flashes 6. Conclusion

Do PCOS and menopause affect each other?

Symptoms of PCOS can be observed both during menopause and after it.

It is believed that a woman entered menopause when she did not have menstruation for 12 months. On average, menopause occurs at age 51.

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome go through menopause, on average, two years later than women who do not suffer from this condition.

Menopause does not relieve PCOS. When women go through menopause, they continue to experience both PCOS symptoms and menopause symptoms.

Hormones for PCOS

Symptoms that women experience with polycystic ovary syndrome are the result of an imbalance of sex hormones. However, the causes of this imbalance are studied superficially and not precisely defined.

In women suffering from PCOS, the body produces a higher level of the male sex hormone testosterone compared with most other women. They may also have low levels of the female sex hormone progesterone.

Increasing testosterone levels leads to the symptoms below. This increase also affects the activity of another hormone, called insulin. Insulin helps control blood sugar levels.

Increasing testosterone levels in a woman can make her body less susceptible to the effects of insulin. In fact, this means that insulin is not able to effectively control blood sugar levels, which often leads to high sugar levels and increases the risk of diabetes.

Hormones during menopause

Menopause is caused by a gradual decrease in the level of female hormones progesterone and estrogen. This decline begins before the onset of menopause, that is, during the period that is called perimenopause.

As soon as the level of female sex hormones becomes quite low, the woman stops ovulation. This leads to the cessation of menstrual cycles.

Remember! The decrease in hormone levels that occurs when a woman approaches menopause does not compensate for the imbalance of hormones caused by polycystic ovary syndrome. That is, menopause cannot relieve PCOS symptoms.

What are the symptoms of PCOS and menopause?

Hair loss is a symptom that can occur in perimenopause and PCOS.

If people talk about the symptoms of menopause, then they usually mean what a woman is worried about during the perimenopause, that is, when the woman’s body is preparing for menopause.

Menopause itself means the cessation of the menstrual cycles, and perimenopause leads to this and is associated with the most acute and unpleasant symptoms.

Some of the symptoms of perimenopause correspond to the symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome.

If the symptoms of PCOS come in the forties or fifties, that is, at the moment when perimenopause begins or continues, then it is difficult for women to separate one state from another.

What happens to female sex hormones during menopause

April 01, 2013

The culprits of all the changes that occur in the woman's body during menopause are the sex hormones. Their role in the life of a woman is difficult to overestimate: they not only help a woman to perform a reproductive function, but also affect virtually all organs and tissues, protecting their health.

How does the female reproductive system work?

In order to understand the nature of the changes that occur during menopause, it is necessary to recall the basic principles of the female reproductive system.

The central organ of the reproductive system is the ovaries: the female sex glands, which are responsible for the maturation and production of eggs, and secrete sex hormones (estrogens, progesterone, and a small amount of androgens).

The management of these functions is provided by a multi-level regulation system, the interaction between the links of which takes place according to the principle of "feedback".

The "control center" of this complex mechanism is located in the brain, in the pituitary and hypothalamus, which, by isolating gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating - FSH and luteinizing hormone - LH), regulate the function of the sex glands - the ovaries.

The cyclical production of female sex hormones in reproductive age provides changes in the ovaries and uterus, called the menstrual cycle. FSH provides egg maturation and stimulates the production of estrogen hormones.

The day before ovulation, the amount of estrogen reaches a peak value, as a result of which FSH secretion stops and LH starts to be produced, which is responsible for ovulation and stimulates the secretion of progesterone.

Progesterone is produced in the corpus luteum of the ovary, which is formed at the site of the release of the egg. The task of this hormone: to prepare the uterine mucosa for pregnancy - it becomes loose, enriched with blood vessels.

If the pregnancy has not come, the corpus luteum reduces the production of progesterone, the uterine mucosa is rejected and menstruation occurs.

In a healthy woman of reproductive age, this mechanism works exactly as a clock and therefore the duration of the menstrual cycle is stable (28 days on average).

Under the influence of various external factors and the state of health of a woman, the duration of the menstrual cycle may vary. The period during which a woman will have menstruation is laid genetically and depends on the number of eggs in the ovaries.

As soon as their supply is exhausted, changes begin to occur in the woman’s body leading to the onset of menopause.

What is the role of sex hormones in a woman's body?

For a long time it was believed that the main points of application of sex hormones are the uterus and mammary glands. However, thanks to the development of modern science, receptors for sex hormones have been identified in many organs and tissues, which confirmed their great significance.

It is proved that sex hormones are involved in more than 400 different processes and functions of the body. They affect the cardiovascular, bone system, brain, immune system, sexual behavior, sleep, food absorption processes in the intestines, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, skin condition.

Today, among the target organs of sex hormones, they produce reproductive and non-reproductive:

Reproductive targets

  • Sex organs
  • Mammary gland
  • Hypothalamus and pituitary gland

Non-reproductive targets

  • The cardiovascular system
  • Brain
  • Musculoskeletal system
  • Bladder and urethra
  • Skin and hair
  • Liver
  • Colon

Estrogen. Three types of estrogen hormones are secreted in the ovaries: estradiol, estrone and estriol. Despite the fact that they are very similar in structure, the severity of action on target organs is different. Estradiol exhibits the greatest biological activity in a woman’s body.

As mentioned above, estrogens play a major role in the first phase of the menstrual cycle, that is, they contribute to the maturation of the egg. In the second phase, estrogens continue to secrete, but with markedly less intensity.

Estrogen receptors are found in many systems of the body, which causes a variety of their functions:

  • obstruction of arterial spasm,
  • normalization of blood clotting,
  • lowering cholesterol and “bad” blood lipids,
  • normalization of blood glucose levels
  • regulation of the absorption of trace elements, in particular, magnesium and calcium,
  • participation in bone remodeling,
  • stimulation of growth and moisture of the mucosal epithelium,
  • participation in the synthesis of collagen and elastin of the skin, preventing its aging,
  • improving the condition of nails and hair,
  • effect on the autonomic nervous system,
  • participation in metabolic processes in brain cells and the impact on cognitive functions: memory, thinking, learning ability,
  • influence on the brain, responsible for the emotional state of the woman.

Progesterone. The main function of this hormone is to prepare and preserve pregnancy, it reduces the tone of the smooth muscles of the uterus, regulates the proliferation of the mucous membrane of the uterus and affects the breast tissue, preparing them for lactation.

But even if there is no pregnancy, the hormone “does not sit idle”: progesterone affects the subcortical structures of the brain. With the prevalence of this hormone, a woman feels calm, tranquility and harmony.

In addition, progesterone affects the centers of regulation of sleep: it provides sufficient depth and a normal ratio of sleep phases, which is necessary for proper rest and recovery of the body.

Testosterone belongs to the male sex hormones, but in small quantities, it is still secreted by the ovaries.

The amount of testosterone to some extent depends on libido (sexual desire), insulin levels, muscle development and bone tissue.

In addition, male sex hormones in the female body are responsible for resistance to stress, tolerance of emotional stress and ability to work.

How hormonal changes during menopause?

On average, after 40 years, the number of eggs in the ovaries is significantly reduced, followed by the release of sex hormones: estrogen and progesterone. The menstrual cycle becomes irregular, oligomenorrhea is observed, the intervals between menstruation increase.

Progesterone levels decrease more sharply than estrogen. 3-5 years before menopause, about 50% of the menstrual cycles are anovulatory (ovulation does not occur) and, as a result, the secretion of progesterone decreases, which leads to sleep disorders, irritability and nervousness. After menopause, the production of this hormone is terminated.

Among estrogens, synthesis of estradiol, the most biologically active hormone, is reduced in the first place. Achieving him a certain critical level causes a stop of menstruation (menopause).

After menopause, literally in a few months the release of estradiol practically stops. During this period, estrone becomes the main estrogen, which is synthesized in adipose tissue from androgens.

However, its activity is 3 times lower than that of estradiol, and therefore the protective effect of estrone on the woman’s body is insignificant.

The decrease in estradiol production has an effect on the thyroid gland, in particular, on the production of calcitonin, which is involved in phosphorus-calcium metabolism. The effect of calcitonin is to suppress bone mass resorption and prevent the release of calcium and phosphorus from it. With a decrease in estrogen levels, calcitonin production decreases, which leads to the development of osteoporosis.

After the onset of menopause, the male sex hormones continue to be synthesized in the ovaries and in the adrenal glands, and in this connection, a relative hyperandrogeny occurs, which is manifested by increased male-type hair growth.

However, androgens play an important role: after the onset of menopause, these hormones prevent the development of osteoporosis and heart disease for some time. It is proved that androgens provide an easier transition from reproductive to non-reproductive age.

In particular, women who have undergone artificial menopause after the removal of the ovaries have more pronounced symptoms of menopause. This is due not only to the sharply reduced estrogen deficiency, but also to the disappearance of androgens.

How is the shortage of sex hormones?

Climacteric disorders that occur as a result of the deficiency of sex hormones are conditionally divided into three groups: early, medium-term and late. The early ones appear during the first months after the onset of menopause, the medium-term ones - during the first few years, and the later ones - after 4-5 years.

  1. Early symptoms
    • Vasomotor - hot flashes, chills, excessive sweating, headaches, high or low blood pressure, attacks of heart palpitations.
    • Emotionally-vegetative - emotional lability, irritability, anxiety, depression, inattention, fast fatigue of sleep disorders, memory impairment, decreased libido.
  2. Moderate symptoms
    • Urogenital - dryness and itching in the vagina, pain during sexual intercourse, urinary incontinence, frequent painful urination, infections of the lower urinary tract.
    • The skin and its appendages - dryness, reduced skin elasticity, the appearance of wrinkles, brittle nails, dryness, graying and hair loss.
  3. Late symptoms
    • Exchange disorders - postmenopausal osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases (vascular atherosclerosis, heart attacks, strokes, arterial hypertension), Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia).

What is the treatment of menopause?

As we already know, the main role in the occurrence of all climacteric disorders is played by the deficiency of sex hormones, the main treatment for this condition is hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

HRT involves the use of hormonal drugs, analogues of natural female hormones. Almost every woman in any of the stages of menopause may need to use HRT.

Препараты этой группы решают большинство проблем, связанных с периодом менопаузы: они снимают ранние проявления климакса и предупреждают развитие поздних его последствий.

HRT is of particular importance in early and artificial menopause, in which the manifestations of menopause are more severe. The scheme of use, the dose and type of drug are selected by the doctor individually, depending on the period of menopause and the presence of concomitant diseases.

Often, the reluctance of the doctor and woman to interfere with the “natural” onset of old age leads to a marked decrease in the quality of life due to menopause. Undoubtedly, menopause is not a disease, but, nevertheless, if there are ways to reduce its manifestations and prevent serious consequences, they must be used!