What is colposcopy today, few people know, because this procedure has only recently become desirable, and in some clinics - and mandatory. Many women, having learned that they are scheduled to undergo colposcopy, get scared and harass their gynecologists with questions about why colposcopy is needed, whether it hurts.
In fact, there is nothing terrible and painful in this procedure. The question of what is colposcopy can be answered very simply: it is a gynecological procedure, during which a detailed examination of the cervix is performed using a microscope.
If you describe colposcopy in detail, you can find out that this procedure is very similar to the usual gynecological examination: when it is carried out, the patient's vagina walls are divorced with a gynecological mirror, and a colposcope is brought to the cervix, a device that combines a binocular microscope and an illuminator. Colposcopy does not take much time. Its average duration is 20-30 minutes.
It should be noted that colposcopy was recognized as the safest of all diagnostic methods used in obstetrics and gynecology. And the fact that the procedure is performed without any anesthesia only confirms its painlessness - patients may experience only minor discomfort.
In some cases, this procedure can cause health damage. Especially if the unpleasant consequences of the inspection were not identified on time. Therefore, knowing what colposcopy is, one should keep in mind its possible consequences.
So, if the colposcopy was performed with insufficient accuracy, the walls of the vagina or the cervix can be damaged, and infection can also be carried in them. Therefore, if after carrying out this procedure, the patient has symptoms such as severe incessant bleeding, the appearance of strange vaginal discharge, pain and discomfort in the lower abdomen, as well as fever, she should immediately consult a gynecologist.
The desire to know as much as possible about the upcoming procedure is quite natural, so many patients ask not only what colposcopy is, but why it is needed. Perhaps many secretly hope that this procedure is not at all necessary for them, and can be avoided.
To their disappointment, colposcopy is an absolutely irreplaceable procedure that allows to reveal many diseases of the female reproductive system, which are asymptomatic.
Thus, colposcopy can detect cervical erosion, benign and malignant tumors, as well as various damage to the cervix itself, the vagina and vulva.
In addition, this procedure greatly facilitates the conduct of various samples (Schiller and Hrobak samples, adrenaline and acetic acid samples), as well as targeted cervical biopsy, in which a small piece of tissue is taken from the most affected area for laboratory testing.
Colposcopy during pregnancy is also extremely important, since during this period the health of the woman is especially fragile. Colposcopy is not carried out in the first trimester of pregnancy, as at this time it creates a threat of miscarriage. But on the second and third trimester, this procedure is highly desirable, since it is during pregnancy that cervical erosion progresses very intensively. And if this unpleasant disease does not begin to heal in time, then at birth it can lead to rupture of the cervix.
Generally, colposcopy is desirable annually. This procedure is shown to all sexually active women. It should be borne in mind that a couple of days before colposcopy you must refrain from unprotected sexual intercourse, and also not to use gel-lubricants, not to carry out douching. You need to take a gasket with you for the procedure, as after colposcopy weak bleeding is possible.
Colposcopy as a method of cervical examination
The method allows you to explore the cervix, vagina and vaginal entrance. Due to the examination of the epithelial surface, it is possible to establish an accurate diagnosis and select the optimal therapeutic method.
Examination using a binocular microscope allows you to examine the mucous membrane of the vagina and cervix, increasing the study areas in 6-40 times. The device was purposefully designed to detect cervical cancer and precancerous conditions of tissues.
With the help of a colposcope, not only oncological tumor processes are detected, but also benign ones. During the procedure, a biopsy is often performed for histological examination of the material. In addition, you can capture the affected areas of the mucous membrane by photographing them, or make a Hrobak test by clicking on the suspicious area with a probe. If there are neoplastic lesions, the site of the depression will bleed.
A slight increase during diagnosis allows the gynecologist to determine the presence of problems and assess their degree. Specialist examines the damaged mucous membrane, significantly increasing the picture. To get a good view of the vessels, a special green filter is turned on. Several specialists can participate in the diagnostics at once, examining the area of interest on the monitor.
Diagnostic examination is carried out exclusively in the first half of the menstrual cycle. It is recommended to come to the procedure 3 days after the end of the regulation, then the results of the survey will be the most accurate. There are two types of colposcopic examination:
- idle time - a visual assessment of the cervix and cervical canal is performed, the doctor also notes the existing gaps, scars and neoplasms,
- advanced - this type of research is carried out with detailed study of vessels; for this purpose, the mucous is treated with acetic acid, fluorochrome, Lugol solution, iodine and potassium.
Indications for the purpose of the study
Colposcopy is often appointed by the gynecologist after examining the patient. The reason for the procedure are atypical vaginal discharge (with an unpleasant smell or blood), pain during and after sex, the periodic appearance of pulling pain in the lower abdomen.
There are a number of ailments when a colposcopic examination is necessary:
- cervical erosion - inspection is necessary to identify all the cracks in the mucosa,
- leukoplakia - the epithelial layer is examined,
- endometriosis - it is checked whether there is endometrial formation outside the uterus,
- polyps - these neoplasms are easily detected using a colposcope,
- Oncology - colposcopic procedure allows to detect a tumor on the cervix at an early stage of development.
Contraindications for colposcopy
Can you do colposcopy during menstruation? No, the procedure is not carried out at regulations. The result of such a violation will be pain during the inspection, and because of the poor visibility of the vagina and cervix, the results will be unreliable.
Do colposcopy for women after childbirth? Usually, newly born mothers are not assigned to the study. Within two months the vagina is a recovery process, and in the case of the inspection results will be questionable. Contraindications also include:
- inflammatory process (after completion of treatment, it is necessary to wait 3 weeks before the examination),
- atrophied vaginal mucosa,
- discharge with pus,
- ovulation period - under the influence of hormones, a lot of viscous mucus is formed, which makes it difficult to examine and negatively affect its results.
Colposcopy is recommended when planning pregnancy and before taking an egg for in vitro fertilization. When abnormal changes in the genitals are detected, they are necessarily removed before conception.
What is the colposcopic diagnosis during pregnancy, because any intervention is dangerous for its course? The procedure is prescribed only when suspected polyposis or erosion. Since the immune forces of pregnant women are significantly reduced, and the hormones are changing dramatically, this contributes to the development of any ailment. In this case, the treatment of future mothers is carried out without the use of aggressive chemicals, and biopsy is performed only in exceptional cases. If there are lesions on the mucosa, therapeutic measures are taken after childbirth.
Preparation for the study
There are no special recommendations for preparing for the examination with the help of a colposcope, but there are a number of rules that a woman should be aware of. These include:
- restriction of sexual intercourse on the eve of the study (the minimum abstinence period is 24 hours),
- refusal from tampons before the procedure,
- survey planning is necessarily done taking into account the menstrual cycle - you can choose any day before ovulation, but better in the first week after the end of menstruation,
- douching, use of local contraceptives, vaginal suppositories and tablets before the procedure is unacceptable,
- taking painkillers before the inspection is allowed,
- before the examination, it is necessary to empty the intestines and bladder, as well as to carry out hygienic procedures with baby soap.
How is the diagnostic inspection performed?
Colposcopy is painless, but a feeling of pressure and spasms may still be present. It lasts about twenty minutes. A woman sits in a special chair. First, the specialist will install the mirror, and then the colposcope itself.
Sometimes after inspection, the cervix is treated with forceps and a cotton swab soaked in acetic acid or Lugol. The patient needs to lie down for a few minutes, then the gynecologist will examine how evenly the areas are stained. If he finds suspicious areas, he will recommend a biopsy — a tiny tissue sample taken with long forceps. In some cases, a self-absorbable suture is applied.
Before the biopsy, the patient will be given an anesthetic injection. Also, material intake is necessary if there are large polyps, scars that bleed, or erosion with eversion.
How to behave after the study?
Most restrictions apply to cases where the procedure was combined with a biopsy. A woman should refrain from having sex for two weeks. In addition, it is forbidden to do douching, use tampons and physically over-exert yourself.
After colposcopic diagnosis (without biopsy) should:
- give up sex and douching for at least five days,
- monitor personal hygiene (you should not take a bath),
- abandon the menstrual cup and tampons, use only pads,
- Do not drink acetylsalicylic acid tablets and other blood thinners.
After colposcopy, especially if it was performed with a biopsy, women often complain of dull nagging pains. Discomfort may persist for two weeks. In addition, it may be accompanied by a bloody bloody discharge. Sometimes they have a greenish or brown tint - depending on the preparation used during the procedure.
These conditions are considered normal and do not require medical care. However, if too much discharge, chills, fever, intense pain, or discharge with a foul odor, medical intervention is necessary. Symptoms may indicate bleeding or infection of the genital tract. Quite often, after an examination, gynecologists prescribe a second reception to assess the results of treatment and exclude possible recurrence.
What will the result tell?
The smooth surface of the cervix pink hue indicates the patient's health and the absence of pathologies. If the gynecologist noted abnormal changes in the blood vessels, found red spots on the mucous membrane or iodine-negative areas became visible as a result of the treatment of the cervix, this indicates the presence of diseases. Based on the results of colposcopy, the following diagnoses are established:
- cervical erosion,
- cystic dilated glands
- presence of acetowhite epithelium,
What is colposcopy in gynecology
A colposcopic examination is an examination of the walls of the vagina and the outer part of the cervix, which is performed using special optical equipment - a colposcope. This device is equipped with a special optical and illumination system, which provides an increase in the visibility of internal organs by a factor of 10–40, helping to conduct a thorough examination and reveal even minor pathological changes that are invisible to the naked eye.
A more advanced equipment for such research is a video-camera, equipped with a digital camera. With it, the image of the visually inspected internal organs is displayed on the monitor. The results of the video-colposcopy are saved, and subsequently experts can view them, analyzing the effectiveness of treatment or evaluating the progression of pathological processes.
Since colposcopy is used to diagnose many gynecological diseases, it has a large number of indications for conducting. This examination must be prescribed for unsatisfactory results of smear analysis for cytology and if genital warts are detected during the examination. In addition, the doctor may recommend a colpo test to a woman if the following symptoms are present:
- prolonged abdominal pain,
- vaginal discharge, itching,
- vaginal bleeding not related to menstruation,
- spotting and pain during intercourse.
Also colposcopy can be prescribed in the absence of explicit evidence as a survey, necessary to assess the results of the treatment. This procedure has no strict contraindications. The only restriction for its implementation is an increased sensitivity to acetic acid, iodine preparations or other reagents that are used in advanced colposcopy.
Colposcopy of the cervix helps to identify vascular changes of the mucous, accurately diagnose diseases such as endometriosis, ectopia, erythroplasty, dysplasia and leukoplakia, to study in detail the nature and stage of development of erosion or other damage. With the help of colposcopy, a gynecologist can detect oncological pathologies at the early stages of development - malignant tumors.
When is it better to do
On which day of the cycle is colposcopy performed? The recommended time for the implementation of this procedure is the first half of the cycle, and best of all, if it can be completed in the first 3-5 days after the menstruation. During menstruation, such diagnostic tests are not prescribed. Colposcopy during pregnancy is not prohibited and may be prescribed at different times.
Preparing for colposcopy
Having learned about the features of cervical colposcopy, what it is and when they do the examination, it remains to figure out how to prepare for it. In order for this diagnostic procedure to be as informative as possible, several days before the visit to the gynecologist, you will need to follow certain rules regarding intimate hygiene, medication and sexual activity. If the doctor prescribes colposcopy for the woman, she needs to:
- at least 2 days before the procedure to refuse sexual intercourse,
- during the week prior to the examination, do not douche, do not use special means for intimate hygiene,
- refrain from using contraceptive creams, vaginal suppositories or sprays, unless prescribed by a doctor who is knowledgeable about the upcoming procedure.
What is an extended cervical colposcopy
What are the features of an extended cervical colposcopy, what is it and how are its results interpreted? After a visual inspection, the doctor using a tampon applies a little 3% acetic acid solution to the cervix. Under its influence, the blood vessels in the mucosa are narrowed, and this makes any pathological changes more pronounced and noticeable.
In addition to acetic acid, for additional examination can be used iodine or special reagents that can glow under ultraviolet radiation. If there are affected areas on the uterine cervix, then when applying iodine, they will not turn a dark color, which will allow the doctor to accurately determine their location and scale. When using other reagents, the affected tissues can be painted in a certain color under the light of an ultraviolet lamp.
После окончания процедуры специалист составляет письменный протокол – бланк, в котором содержатся сведения об особенностях состояния шейки и наличии или отсутствии признаков, указывающих на возможное развитие патологий. Interpretation of colposcopy results may contain descriptions of such anomalies as the formation of pathological vessels, the presence of whitened areas after treatment with acetic acid, the presence of areas that are not overgrown with iodine.
Colposcopy is a safe examination, does not cause such side effects and complications as pain or bleeding, does not require time to recover. In rare cases, after the procedure, there may be slight painful sensations in the lower abdomen or slight discharges with an iodine impurity content, which disappear in 2–3 days.
Special video materials will help you to learn more about colposcopy and methods of decoding its results. In them, the experts disclose in detail information about the features of this survey, give advice on preparing for it, and tell about all the stages of its conduct. After watching the video, the woman will not have any outstanding questions.
Svetlana, 27 years old
I was prescribed colposcopy due to suspected cervical ectopia. It did not hurt at all, only experienced some unpleasant sensations when the doctor moved the mirror, and pinched a little while she applied iodine. In general, there is nothing terrible in this procedure, the degree of discomfort is the same as during a standard examination, and I spent no more than 15 minutes in the chair.
Thanks to colposcopy, I was revealed in time by progressive erosion. This procedure is often prescribed, but many do not go through it, so the disease remains undetermined. At first I was also afraid, but I calmed down when I read the reviews. It really turned out not to hurt. It is better to undergo a diagnosis than in a few years to face an incurable disease.
When I was examined in the antenatal clinic during pregnancy, the gynecologist discovered erosion. A few months after giving birth, I decided to be examined, went to a paid clinic, where I was prescribed a colposcopy. The price was acceptable, only 700 rubles. The procedure itself is quick, does not cause any painful sensations and does not need to wait long for results.
What is colposcopy?
Under colposcopy refers to the inspection of the cervix under the increase with the use of a special device, a colposcope.
Patients often worry that the procedure is too long, so they wonder how long the colposcopy lasts. The duration of the study is a maximum of 30 minutes, and you should not be afraid of it.
Distinguish colposcopy simple and extended. In the first case, during the inspection, it is possible to determine the shape and size of the test organ, as well as to identify its defects. A more informative second method of colposcopy, which requires the use of additional tests.
As a developer, a solution of iodine or Lugol can be used. When applied, it is not healthy tissue that changes their shade, but the affected ones do not change. For better visualization, various light filters are used. The technique allows you to effectively identify those tissues that are most suspicious.
When identifying areas of the epithelium with manifestations of pathology, a biopsy is performed. This operation is absolutely safe and practically painless. In addition to mild discomfort, the woman will not feel anything. If a biopsy of the vulva or vagina arises, local anesthesia is used.
Concerns regarding the pain or the likelihood of erosion processes are completely groundless.
Indications for the procedure
Colposcopy in gynecology is an indispensable procedure, as it makes it possible to detect a number of gynecological pathologies.
As a result of the initial examination of the patient, the following symptoms may be grounds for prescribing a colposcopy:
- non-specific vaginal discharge that irritates the mucous membrane, which causes itching,
- bleeding not related to menstruation,
- pain during intercourse and after it,
- the presence of uncharacteristic pain in the lower abdomen.
If it is necessary to undergo gynecological manipulations, some women have a psychological barrier and a lack of understanding why colposcopy is necessary. You should know that there are a number of diseases that require the mandatory conduct of this study. These diseases are listed below.
Endometriosis. With its development, ectopic formations of the endometrium are observed. Using colposcopy is determined by the presence of this process in the vagina or on the cervix. More about endometriosis →
Erosion. Colposcopy for cervical erosion makes it possible to see pathological fissures, which are represented multiple on the organ mucosa. In addition, the study allows to identify the development of various tumors at an early stage. More about erosion →
Crayfish. The development of oncology, affecting the cervix, is the result of the activity of the papillomavirus when a woman is infected. Using colposcopy, it is possible to recognize the nature of the processes and prevent the development of a cancerous tumor at an early stage.
Polyps. These unpleasant neoplasms are easily detected during a colposcopic examination.
Eritroplakia, or leukoplakia. Timely diagnosis of changes in the thickness of the epithelial layer allows you to take appropriate measures for the treatment of the disease.
Advantages and disadvantages of the method
Often the circumstances are such that, when you need to do colposcopy, women have doubts about the safety and the need for the procedure. For an objective understanding of the effect of this type of diagnosis on health, you should weigh the pros and cons.
Colposcopy, like no other technique, has a high diagnostic value. With its help, the doctor receives complete information about the state of tissues, possible pathologies, oncological changes, as well as the presence of tumors and inflammations. As a result of the study, the accuracy of the diagnosis is maximal. If necessary, the doctor can capture the image and view it again if in doubt.
Colposcopic examination is simple and there is no need for difficult preparation of the patient. Despite the complexity of the event, it is completely painless.
The disadvantages of the technique include the possibility of conducting a study only for women who are already sexually active. The event can not be carried out during menstruation, which somewhat limits its capabilities.
In addition, a prerequisite is the need to take into account the individual cycle of a woman so that it is possible to obtain the full amount of information required. Thus, sometimes it takes some time after a visit to the doctor.
The probability of complications is minimal.
How is the procedure?
In literal translation, the name of this method of diagnosis means observation of the vagina. The main focus of the procedure is the identification of pathological changes in the cervix. The design of the colposcope consists of a binocular microscope, which allows to obtain a stereoscopic image.
Binocular capable of giving an increase of 4 to 40 times. The tripod is equipped with an illuminator.
Costly models have additional equipment that allows for photo and video fixation, which makes it possible to follow the dynamics of the treatment process.
A routine gynecological examination is preliminarily carried out, and if a pathology is suspected, a colposcopy is prescribed. A simple procedure, as we have already noted, is to visually inspect the object of study.
A detailed study involves the sampling of epithelium and tissue staining. The area around the cervix is pre-treated with a low-grade solution of vinegar. As a result of this action, short-term swelling of the mucous membrane and slowing of blood circulation occur. At the same time there is a reduction of small vessels. If this does not happen, then this phenomenon is evidence of atypia of the vessels.
After that, Lugol's solution is applied, which lubricates the area around the cervix. This organ has a multi-layered epithelium, which contains glycogen capable of reacting to the components of the solution.
During a chemical reaction, staining of a healthy cervix occurs evenly. If during colposcopy the area is not stained with iodine, then this indicates pathological changes on it. This is explained by the properties of the cylindrical epithelium, which are poorly served by staining with iodine-containing substances.
If pathology is detected, the doctor decides whether a biopsy is necessary. This means that a small piece of tissue is taken for histological examination. Special tweezers serve as a tool for this operation; therefore, the occurrence of unpleasant sensations resembling a spasm or mild pressure is possible.
After the procedure
If the colposcopic examination was not accompanied by a biopsy, then you can lead a normal life, there are no restrictions on work. If blood is stained after colposcopy, this is not a cause for concern. After one, maximum three days, the selection will stop.
Burning after colposcopy is possible for a short time if a biopsy was performed. But this is not the only unpleasant side effect of the procedure. Do not be afraid if your stomach hurts after colposcopy. In a couple of days, the discomfort will be gone.
At the end of the procedure, doctors recommend to abstain from sex life for a week after it, and you should not douche or use tampons.
We hope that we have dispelled all the doubts and fears that some women associate with colposcopy. The importance of this procedure for diagnosis is difficult to overestimate, as the correct diagnosis and adequate treatment will help not only to preserve the patient's health, but also to give a new life.
Author: Sergey Shoroh,
specifically for Mama66.ru
What is a cervical colposcopy for?
Colposcopy of the cervix in gynecology is used in the following situations:
- ulcerative pathology of the vaginal mucosa of the cervix,
- proliferation of endometrial cells outside the inner layer of the uterine wall,
- the presence of atypical cells in the cervix,
- ectopic epithelium of the cervix,
- atrophy of the epithelium, which covers the cervix,
- papillomavirus development
- cancer conditions.
In order to avoid the appearance of serious diseases, it is recommended that all women undergo colposcopy once a year with a specialist. If pathologies are detected, he will promptly prescribe measures to eliminate them, which will protect the patient from complications.
Refer to the gynecologist should be with symptoms such as:
- unreasonable pain in the lower abdomen,
- pain during intimacy
- copious discharge from the vagina of unknown origin.
How to prepare for the procedure
Preparing for colposcopy of the cervix is to follow a few simple recommendations. First, a few days before the procedure, it is desirable to exclude sexual contact. Secondly, you should not use vaginal tampons, intimate gels and other hygiene supplies. Thirdly, you can not hold douching. It is necessary to wash with boiled water at room temperature.
It is worth noting that it is not recommended to use any vaginal medicines.
The procedure should be carried out a couple of days after the end of menstruation and no later than a few days before the start of menstruation.
Extended colposcopy of the cervix is considered an inexpensive and informative method for the diagnosis of gynecological diseases.
The result of the procedure is influenced by the following factors:
- lack of estrogen or progesterone in the patient's body,
- phase of the menstrual cycle
- the stage at which the disease is located
- age of the woman.
Description of colposcopy of the cervix
Colposcopy of the cervix with erosion and other diseases is a procedure that many women want to know everything about. After all, they have to imagine why they appointed the procedure and how it is carried out.
How do colposcopy of the cervix? First, the patient must completely undress from the waist to the legs and lie down in the gynecological chair. A gynecologist inserts a mirror into the woman's vagina. She should remain in a relaxed state for 20 minutes while the doctor conducts the examination. At the initial stage of the study, he uses the green filters of the device. With their help, you can determine the presence of atypically located vessels on the cervix.
Before the beginning of the second stage of the examination, the gynecologist ascertains whether the patient is allergic to drugs. If not, it processes the mucous membranes with a weak acetic solution, then repeats the manipulation with iodine solution. The doctor makes a diagnosis, focusing on the staining of the mucous membranes.
The procedure for colposcopy of the cervix is completed by removing the mirror from the vagina. The result of colposcopy can be announced immediately.
Pathologies that can be identified during the procedure
One of the common pathologies is Nabot cysts - benign neoplasms on the cervix, which are located in its vaginal area. Often, their size is not more than 3 cm. The main factor that provokes their appearance is the ability of the epithelium to change. The causes of nabot cysts are hormonal changes, abortions, sexually transmitted diseases, inflammation of the genital organs, injuries after surgical interventions.
Treatment of pathology consists in removing a cyst using an electrocoagulation procedure.
Quite often, when a colposcopy of the cervix uteri, a specialist notices exophytic warts. They are formed on the surface of the mucous membrane, have a multilayer coating of the epithelium, and keratinization is often present. The disease is asymptomatic, so the woman learns about it only after an examination by a gynecologist. If the pathology is in a neglected form, then a woman may have such unpleasant symptoms as: white discharge with a specific odor, itching and burning, pain syndrome during sexual contact.
The disease is almost not treatable. Eliminating the virus in the body is very difficult. The most common methods of treatment are:
- destructive effect on surgical laser neoplasms,
- removal of warts beam of high-frequency radio waves,
- the burning of tumors with a special device using high temperature,
- chemical burning of condylomas by means based on nitric acid,
- destruction of condylo liquid nitrogen.
Another major problem is cervical erosion. It occurs in approximately 66% of women of childbearing age during colposcopy. For the disease is characterized by the formation of ulcers on the mucous membrane of the cervix. It is important to start treatment in a timely manner, otherwise, over time, the pathology can develop into cervical cancer.
Causes of cervical erosion can be infectious diseases, for example, chlamydosis, herpes on the genitals, etc. Pathology occurs because of the development of candidiasis, vaginitis or colpitis.
The following factors provoke erosion: hormonal failure, different sexual partners, reduced immunity.
Treatment of identified diseases after colposcopy
After a colposcopy, when the gynecologist has diagnosed, he takes a portion of the cervix for a biopsy. This procedure involves taking a sample of the affected tissue for histological analysis to determine if the patient has oncology. The accuracy of the study is 99%. A biopsy is performed on the 5-7th day of the menstrual cycle. The procedure is contraindicated in patients with poor blood clotting and inflammatory processes in the genitals.
After a biopsy, a woman is not recommended for 20 days to carry out douching, use vaginal tampons and contraceptives, wear narrow underwear made of synthetic fabrics. In addition, it is necessary to avoid sexual contact, the body should not be subjected to excessive physical exertion. It is strictly forbidden to take a bath, go to the sauna, swim in the pool and ponds. After a biopsy, a woman may experience slight discharge and pain in the groin.
The most popular methods for eliminating erosion are cryodestruction, radiowave effect and laser coagulation.
Radio wave treatment is carried out with a radio wave knife. It acts on high-frequency waves, thereby cutting the tissue without physical contact. The operation should be carried out immediately after the end of the month. This is due to the fact that during such a period the woman is sure that she is not pregnant, the wounds disappear before the next menstruation, and it is at this time that the amount of estrogen in the blood is increased, which affects the acceleration of tissue regeneration.
The radio wave treatment method has several advantages: a short duration of the operation, the absence of a scar after the intervention, the elimination of microbes, which reduces the likelihood of infectious complications, the absence of the risk of bleeding. The disadvantages of radio wave exposure include high cost and expensive equipment, which is not in every clinic.
Суть химической коагуляции заключается в воздействии на эрозию шейки матки азотной или уксусной кислотой. Она не затрагивает здоровые области. После коагуляции не возникают никакие осложнения и отсутствуют воспаления.
Quite often, with a colposcopy of the cervix, a specialist diagnoses a disease such as vaginitis.
The disease occurs in every 3rd woman. It is an inflammation of the vaginal mucosa. Vaginitis can occur from infectious pathologies that can be infected through sexual contact, with reduced immunity, in patients with diabetes and overweight, if personal hygiene rules are not followed, etc.
There are 2 forms of the disease: acute and chronic. Symptoms such as the appearance of yellow vaginal discharge on the underwear, itching, swelling and redness of the genital organs from the outside are typical for acute. Often, during sexual intercourse, a woman feels pain. During urination she may feel burning and pain in the lower abdomen. Chronic form of vaginitis is characterized by discharge and a long course of pathology with possible relapses.
Topical treatment for vaginitis includes douching and herbal bath. For douching use a solution of bicarbonate soda. To prepare it, you need to take 40 g of soda and pour 250 ml of water. This procedure is necessary for those patients who are concerned about purulent or mucous vaginal discharge. 20 minutes after it should be douching with potassium permanganate.
Well helps when vaginitis decoction of Hypericum. It should fill 2 liters of water 3 tbsp. l dry raw materials, then put on a slow fire and boil for 20 minutes. After the specified time, strain and use for douching.
You can make a remedy from yarrow in combination with sage, oak bark and rosemary. It is necessary to take all the components in the same proportions and pour 3 liters of boiling water, then put on a low heat and boil for at least 5 minutes, closing the container with a lid. After this, the broth must be filtered and douching.
Walnut is an effective treatment for vaginitis. It should take 50 g of leaves and pour 1 liter of water. Put on the fire for half an hour, after the time has elapsed. Apply the resulting decoction for douching 2 times a day. Instead of walnut, you can use calendula or nettle.
It should be noted that factors such as: blood during menstruation, uterine discharge after childbirth, sperm and intimate hygiene have a devastating effect on the vaginal microflora. Doctors recommend not to use soap during washing. After each intimate closeness should be washed genitals under running water.
Often, vaginitis develops due to a deficiency of estrogen in the female body. Herbal tinctures based on medicinal plants, which contain a large amount of estrogen, will help replenish their “reserves”. For example, you can make a tincture of licorice root. In the enameled container should pour 1 tbsp. l chopped licorice root, add 2 cups of boiling water to it, cover with a lid and put it in a water bath for at least 20 minutes, then put in a cool place for 1 hour. After the time the tool must be filtered. Take the resulting tincture should be at least 3 times a day. You can use a decoction for douching.
Sedative baths and douching infusions of celandine and chamomile are widely used to relieve inflammation.
Another popular remedy is rinsing with vinegar. To do this, take ½ tbsp. vinegar and pour 250 ml of water. Then the woman should sit down over the basin, dip the finger into the mixture and enter into the vagina, she will find white discharge on the finger. After washing her finger under running water, she must repeat the procedure several times. The procedure lasts until the discharge disappears completely.
For any gynecological disease, special attention should be paid to nutrition. Fatty fish and fish oil should be included in the diet. It is forbidden to eat large quantities of sweets, dishes with a high content of salt and pepper. It is recommended to eat foods that contain minerals.
Why do it?
Kolposkopichesky method allows to identify many problems:
Examines mainly the vulva, vagina, cervix. But in some cases, the uterus is also diagnosed using a colposcope.
In this case, the study is relevant for the detection of lesions of the epithelium of the lower part of the cervix, to determine their nature and location. Using the study, you can confirm or deny the need for a biopsy.
Types of research
Colposcopy is divided into simple and extended.
The first type is carried out visually without the use of special solutions. In this form, it is easy to establish the size and shape of the cervix, to identify the features of the vascular pattern, to determine the presence of scars, tumors, ruptures and other features.
Extended colposcopy is performed using various reagents:
- acetic acid,
- Lugol solution,
- iodine and potassium,
Sometimes it is advisable to carry out hormonal tests with adrenaline, but today this method is not popular.
Sample Hrobaka involves the use of a thin probe. The doctor with his help clicks on a suspicious piece of tissue. If bleeding begins, then suspicion of neoplasia is placed.
How to prepare?
Usually the doctor does not give any recommendations for colposcopy before the procedure, but there are general rules. They should stick to:
- it's worth refraining from vaginal sex for a day or two,
- do not use tampons the day before
- You can take any non-prescription pain medication.
- choose the timing of the procedure so that the inspection does not take place during the menstruation period.
How research is carried out: description
By the time the study takes no more than 20 minutes. The patient lies in a gynecological chair. The gynecologist inserts a mirror into the vagina. Then one of the formulations described above is applied to the cervix.
Usually they do not cause any discomfort. When applying the composition of the fabric change color, and in the presence of abnormal cells, the shade remains unchanged.
Video on how to do colposcopy of the cervix:
When unhealthy cells are found, the doctor performs a biopsy, takes a small sample of tissue.
The procedure is quite simple, does not cause pain, but sometimes women experience a feeling of pressure or spasms. Gynecologists often use anesthetics to reduce discomfort.
On which day of the cycle is it better to do the analysis?
For more accurate information, it is recommended to perform colposcopy at a specific time of the menstrual cycle. It is better to come in the first half of it. The doctor may recommend to do it on the third day after the end of the month.
It is not prohibited to do it on another day of the cycle (except for the bleeding period). But after ovulation, the cervical canal is filled with a lot of mucus, so the results are sometimes distorted.
In the second half, the rate of tissue regeneration decreases, and therefore discomfort may appear. They persist for a day or more.
If a simple procedure was carried out, then there can be no restrictions and consequences. After an extended dark color may be saved. They should not be afraid, because it is usually associated with the use of reagents, in particular iodine.
Within 1-2 days, some women experience bleeding. This is a rare phenomenon that does not require a visit to a doctor. The exception is the pregnancy of the girl.
The consequences of colposcopy and biopsy during pregnancy can become bleeding, miscarriage or premature birth. Therefore, during this period, diagnosis is appointed only in rare cases.
In the result you can see the normal values. This means that the cervix is pink and smooth, there are no pathological cells. Abnormal values indicate the presence of changes in the structure.
About them testifies:
- Abnormal drawing of blood vessels. They can be twisted, similar to a mosaic.
- Punctuation. Accuracy is expressed by small reddish spots.
- Iodinegative sites. They do not rise above the surface, have unusual shapes.
The survey of the transformation zone is given considerable influence. All women have it, but not everyone can see it. It is most often found signs of infection with HPV, the formation of malignant tumors.
Frequently asked questions
1. Does colposcopy hurt?
Most women report discomfort, but there is almost no pain. If you wish, ask your doctor to treat the area being examined with anesthetic.
2. Is it possible to do colposcopy during pregnancy?
You can do, but only with the correct location of the placenta, in the absence of the threat of interruption. Especially if you plan to take a biopsy. Doctors recommend conducting research in the earliest stages of pregnancy and only when necessary.
3. Is it possible to do colposcopy during menstruation?
It is best to wait a few days, since the blood in the cervix will distort the results, not the dates of the mucous in the desired color.
4. Is it possible to do colposcopy for thrush?
Not desirable, since the presence of mucus will reduce the accuracy of diagnosis.
5. How long does colposcopy last?
The study itself takes 10-20 minutes. In municipal clinics, the results are ready in about two weeks.
6. How often do colpolscopy?
Women over 35 years old are appointed once every 6 months. To girls from the period of the beginning of a sexual life and till 35 years once a year. This is true for those cases where the diagnostic procedure is carried out only prophylactically.
According to most girls, the diagnosis is important because it can detect cancer in its early stages.
They spend it in the office of an ordinary gynecologist and gynecologist-endocrinologist. Today, disposable mirrors are used for it. They are plastic, so do not cause such a feeling of discomfort as metal.
Often, when processing iodine, a small, quite tolerable tingling is observed. The doctor can comment on all his actions to relieve stress from the person.
The price of colposcopy of the cervix depends on the type of research chosen, the reagents used. Prices start at 1300 both in Moscow and in St. Petersburg.
Do not forget that with a paid passage of the study, you first need to visit the consultation of a doctor. In the most modern clinics using digital equipment, diagnostics will cost 2500 rubles.
Where can I do the analysis?
They do colposcopy in multidisciplinary centers (World of Family, Dr. Kuprin clinic, Neo-Med, Med-art and others), federal clinics networks (SM-clinic). In all work specialists of high categories. If necessary, they will provide a photo or record a video.
A large flow of women go to the centers of the Oncology Research Institute, dispensaries, and women's clinics. In most of them, the diagnosis is carried out according to the policy or quota. More information can be obtained from your doctor.
Web collar colposcopy:
So, what are the goals and objectives of this procedure, why do we need a colposcopy for a woman? In the first place - it is the identification of any gynecological pathology, which can be detected by inspection. To analyze the state of the mucous membrane of the vagina and cervix, to conduct chemical tests with reagents, to make the right conclusion can only be an experienced doctor. Sometimes, at the initial stage, the disease is difficult to see even under a microscope, and in fact, to miss precious time is to miss the chance of a possible recovery.
When a suspicious area is identified, colposcopy with scraping or biopsy of the tissue is often used for further histological examination. If no deviations are detected during the procedure, an appropriate conclusion is made. It is colposcopy that allows the gynecologist to see those parts of the altered mucous of the vagina and cervix that could not be seen at the usual examination with the help of mirrors. Moreover, they can not only be carefully examined under high magnification, but also determine their boundaries, structural features, topography, blood supply, color change for reagents. That's why women do colposcopy.
Varieties of colposcopy
- through color filters.
The second is not used for a long time, because it does not give the doctor any useful information. The advanced method involves the use of special chemical reagents for staining pathological foci of the mucous. What tests does the doctor? There are only 6 of them, although only 3 are used in practice.
Acetic Acid Test
Reaction with a 3% solution of acetic acid involves the treatment of areas of the mucous. After 1-2 minutes, normal healthy tissue evenly pales due to vasospasm (positive test). If there are pathological foci, where the arteries are not sensitive to vinegar, then the color does not change. The test in the latter case is considered negative, which speaks in favor of the disease (often neoplasia).
Conduct it immediately after the first test. A 3% solution of Lugol with glycerin, which also stains the cervix brown, is used. Unpainted visible areas indicate pathology, of which further material is taken for biopsy. Schiller's test does not allow to answer the question of what kind of process is it. Only the results of histological research solve this problem.
Indications for examination
Sometimes, with the usual visual examination of a doctor, doubts remain in the correct diagnosis. To dispel them, there are additional more accurate methods of diagnosis: general and cytological smear, scraping, seeding, carried out during colposcopy. There are certain indications for the procedure; they simply do not follow it at will.
The survey is appointed in the following cases:
- Bleeding from the genital tract,
- Infertility (along with other diagnostic methods)
- Control after treatment,
- Presence of erosion, pseudo-erosion, polyp, condyloma,
- Cancers of the genital organs (to eliminate metastasis),
- Detection of atypical cells in a cytological smear or suspicion of malignancy (mandatory indications for colposcopy),
- The duration of inflammatory diseases of the genital organs in women.
Obligatory and urgent indication (necessity) for colposcopy is the identification of atypical cells in a smear!
Preparation for the survey
In order for the procedure of extended colposcopy to be successful, for 3-4 days it is necessary to exclude sex life, treatment with vaginal preparations (candles, pills, douching). Also important is the day of the cycle. Do not prescribe colposcopy during menstruation or immediately after it. Pregnant women can be diagnosed any day.
What is this procedure and how is it performed? For a woman, this study is practically no different from the usual examination on a gynecological chair. Some ladies feel a slight soreness. Colposcopy during erosion can cause a burning sensation due to the application of reagents. With a low pain threshold, it is recommended to take an antispasmodic before the examination.
After the location of the mirror, the doctor brings the colposcope as close as possible and begins a phased examination. First, they perform a revision of the vulva, then the walls of the vagina and cervix. Careful examination under repeated magnification allows us to study the color, relief, folding of the mucous membrane, vascular pattern, the shape and contour of the organs, the appearance of the epithelium, discharge.
The most frequent finds during the inspection are:
- Erosion and pseudo cervix,
- Epithelial dysplasia,
- Leukoplakia (means a precancerous disease),
- Polyps and adenomatosis (also a precancer),
- Inflammation and hyperplasia of the mucous membranes,
- Atrophic processes in old age,
Many of the diseases identified during colposcopy require a biopsy for cytohistological examination in order to clarify the diagnosis, determine the extent, stage and type of pathological education. The doctor takes a small piece of modified tissue with a special scalpel or forceps and sends it to a laboratory in a sterile tube. The procedure of colposcopy lasts 15-20 minutes in time, and if you need scraping, then a little longer. After taking the mucosal area for analysis, a protective regime is recommended for the woman.
What not to do after colposcopy:
- Do not have a sex life
- Do not take a bath.
After a colposcopy procedure, spotting is possible within a few days (more often it happens during erosion)!
Complications (pain in the lower abdomen, bleeding, inflammation) are very rare. What should a woman do if after the procedure there are unpleasant symptoms? The answer is simple: immediately contact the antenatal clinic, and not wait for the next appointment!
The histology results will be available in a week. As a rule, the attending physician prescribes a second dose for the announcement of the laboratory conclusion and the appointment of the necessary treatment. The accuracy of the survey is very high (more than 87%).
Where do colposcopy?
Almost always a gynecologist directs this procedure, so the doctor will tell you where to do a colposcopy. As a rule, the colposcopic office is located at the base of a maternity clinic, so you won't need to go far.If a woman herself expresses a desire to undergo colposcopy for prophylactic purposes, then where it can always be done, it is in commercial medical institutions for a fee.
Disadvantages of colposcopy
Even with this seemingly accurate examination, errors and false results are possible. In most cases, the reason for diagnostic inaccuracies is considered to be the low level of qualification of medical staff. That is why all the detected pathological changes in this diagnosis (polyp, erosion, leukoplakia, others) are usually confirmed by the results of a histological examination of the biopsy material. When the conclusions coincide, the accuracy of the diagnosis rises to 99%, which is of great importance for successful treatment. Despite false-positive or false-negative results, colposcopy today remains the most necessary and best procedure in the diagnosis of gynecological diseases.
So what is colposcopy in gynecology and why is it performed? Colposcopy is called gynecological examination, which is a thorough examination of the female genital organs (vulva, cervix, vagina). She is appointed when detecting any changes in cytological analysis.
If some abnormal formations are detected during colposcopy, the doctor may, without delay, take the material for biopsy. The question remains: what does the study show, and why is colposcopy prescribed?
Indications for the study
The procedure is carried out to detect or confirm some gynecological diseases. Among the diseases that shows colposcopy, the following are distinguished:
- warty formations on the genitals,
- erosion, malignant processes in the cervix,
- inflammation in the neck, that is, cervicitis,
- cancer of the vulva, vagina,
- precancerous changes in the genitals.
Colposcopy is carried out only under strict indications with the help of a special device called a colposcope. It can help explore all the necessary tissues of the female genitalia. The study consists primarily of a complete examination of the mucous membrane of the vagina itself and the study of the characteristics of the structure and state of the cervix.
Here are some indications for colposcopy:
- diagnosis of the mucous membrane of the vagina and cervix,
- detection of some gynecological diseases,
- confirmation of a previously made diagnosis.
The main purpose of colposcopy is the detection of altered vaginal tissues and the determination of how much the affected part occupies. The study helps to quickly distinguish between benign and malignant tumors. With the help of this study, further diagnosis is carried out and the results of the treatment are evaluated. Colposcopy indications, although it is quite specific, but there are some contraindications to its implementation.
Contraindications for colposcopy
There are no absolute contraindications for this procedure. This can be explained by the fact that the study is quite simple and does not bring absolutely no harm to the woman's body. The main and only indication, due to which the procedure may be postponed, is considered menstrual bleeding. Therefore, colposcopy is usually carried out after the complete cessation of menstruation. Pregnancy is not a contraindication.
Colposcopy during pregnancy
For pregnant women, this procedure does not pose any danger at all. However, the doctor must necessarily know about the situation of the patient. If any changes are revealed, then all necessary treatment is postponed until the very birth of the child and the restoration of the woman who has given birth.
Even with the development of any formations, when it is necessary to take material for a biopsy, colposcopy is not dangerous for pregnant women. A treatment is postponed only for the reason that any intervention during pregnancy can provoke a sudden bleeding.
A colposcopy procedure is done for pregnant women when cancer is suspected in the cervix. Due to the fact that during pregnancy there are some changes in the cervical canal and in the structure of the cervix itself, the procedure should be carried out by a specialist with extensive experience, who can accurately determine if any changes are in the woman. Strong discharge after colposcopy are considered pathological and require immediate treatment in a medical facility.
Is the study dangerous?
Colposcopy is a completely safe, painless procedure. Only in extremely rare cases, there is a burning sensation with the direct contact of the acid reagent with the mucous membrane. However, it rarely happens that some complications may arise as a result of the procedure:
- pain in the lower abdomen,
- nosocomial infection,
- profuse bleeding.
When bleeding continues for 2–3 days after colposcopy, as well as fever, chills and severe abdominal pain, you should immediately seek qualified medical help.
What is a colposcope?
Many women do not know what is colposcopy in gynecology, despite the fact that it is a simple and common procedure, recommended even for prophylactic purposes. Colposcopy is a sequence of actions aimed at studying the state of the vagina, cervix with a special device - a colposcope (see the photo).
It is a special microscope that allows you to show the surface of the mucous membrane in a magnified view up to 300 times.
But there is also a kolkoskop, which broadcasts the image on the video in real time. Thus, to assess the condition of the organs of a woman can several doctors, located in front of the monitor. Its magnification and accuracy are so high that the method reveals changes even at the cellular level.
This gynecological examination allows early detection of many women's diseases, including cervical cancer. And the sooner the result is known, the sooner you can begin treatment. Accordingly, there is a greater chance that this process will end in complete recovery.
During colposcopy often take a biopsy - a tiny piece of tissue for analysis. It will show whether the malignant process is going on or benign, and with a high probability will allow to detect the onset of cancer.
How and when it is necessary to do colposcopy, sets the doctor individually. However, as a preventive measure, it would be good to conduct it to all sexually active women once a year. And over 35 years old - every six months. As often it is possible and necessary to carry out colposcopy in the control of various diseases, the doctor determines on an individual basis. Which day of the cycle is better in this case too.
Important and necessary procedure
The gynecologist recommends colposcopy if he has a suspicion that a woman has certain diseases, and a standard examination does not allow determining this with high confidence. This is what colposcopy is for and what diseases it shows:
- Ectopia, it is erosion. One of the most common problems in gynecology. In this pathology, the epithelium lining the cervical canal enters the vaginal part of the cervix. In some cases, it passes on its own, but most require treatment. Significantly worsens the quality of a woman’s sexual life - pains occur during intimacy, and after that often there is blood.
- Neoplasia or cervical dysplasia. Pathological proliferation of cellular tissue is characteristic of this process. As a rule, dysplasia goes to cancer and is considered a precancerous condition. If you do not start her treatment, the results can be disastrous.
- Polyps. Benign neoplasm of the cervix, vagina. When they are detected, the removal procedure is immediately shown.
- Condyloma. Small outgrowths on the mucous membrane. A woman’s sex life is worsening, and if they are injured, bleeding can occur. Caused by human papillomavirus, which is the most common cause of cervical cancer.
- Endometriosis. Common disease. It can affect both the uterus, ovaries, and the cervix, vagina, which shows colposcopy. It represents the growth and ingrowth of the endometrium - the inner mucous layer lining the uterus. With endometriosis, often the stomach hurts, especially before menstruation, the volume and duration of menstrual bleeding increases.
- Cervicitis. It is an inflammation of the uterus, cervix or its canal. Often combined with erosion. It is produced by the entry into the female genital tract of pathogenic microorganisms.
- Leukoplakia. It affects the mucous membranes, causing the keratinization of individual parts of their epithelium.
Cervical cancer. Malignant proliferation of cervical cells. In the early stages, medical procedures can bring a positive result, in severe cases it is necessary to remove the affected organ.
That's why you need to do colposcopy, and in no case should not refuse it if prescribed by a doctor. Serious, serious diseases, leading to sad results, are successfully detected colposcopically in the early stages, when the treatment will be as effective as possible.
It will help reduce the fear of colposcopy that this study is performed in a regular gynecological chair. And the process itself is not much different from the standard inspection. Preparation for the procedure is that the woman is located in the chair, and an ordinary gynecological mirror is inserted into the vagina. On the contrary, a colposcope is installed with a backlight. The doctor will look at the state of the mucous membranes through a microscope or on the monitor if it is a video colposcope.
A simple examination of the vagina and cervix is the usual colposcopy. However, there is also an extended colposcopy. What is this procedure and how is it different from the usual? Do not be afraid, the device will remain in place, and no new discomfort will be added. It is done in the same way, but with the use of reagents. They are a solution of acetic acid - a three percent, as well as solutions of iodine or lugol.
Extended colposcopy reveals invisible tissue changes with the naked eye. So, treatment with vinegar helps to assess the condition of the vessels. Iodine also paints healthy tissues in a uniform color, while the diseased tissues remain unstained. The reagent treatment procedure is completely painless. The only thing that can cause a slight instant pain is a biopsy sampling. It is made with the help of small tweezers. If a woman is afraid that this process will be too painful, she should ask the doctor to treat the tissue with an anesthetic.
How long a colposcopy lasts in time depends on whether it is normal or extended. In the first case, as a rule, 10–15 minutes is enough, in the second process, the maximum will last half an hour.
Indications and Contraindications
You can do colposcopy for all women of reproductive age, sexually active. Colposcopy after childbirth is surely shown after 1.5–2 months. And also the indications for this diagnostic procedure are:
- pain during sexual intercourse,
- bleeding between menstruation,
- bleeding after sex
- bleeding after menopause,
- abdominal pain of obscure nature,
- recovery period after childbirth and postponed gynecological operations.
Colposcopy is not recommended for menstruation, since bleeding will make the result unreliable. A relative contraindication is the patient's pregnancy. To say that it is impossible to do it at all during this period will be false. If the study is necessary, while the fetus is located correctly and there is no threat of miscarriage, the procedure is carried out, but only the usual one - without the use of reagents. At the slightest risk, it should not be done, because intervention in the female organs during pregnancy can lead to its interruption.
Do not perform colposcopy immediately after childbirth, abortion, operations performed on female organs. After that, at least a month and a half should pass. It is not necessary to carry out not only colposcopy during menstruation, but also during ovulation, because during this period the cervical canal is filled with mucus, which makes it difficult to examine. And also the doctor must decide when it is better to do this procedure, and when another - for example, hysteroscopy.
Why appoint kolkopkopiyu
Colposcopy in gynecology is a frequently prescribed test. Its essence lies in the examination of the cervix with a colposcope - a special binocular microscope equipped with a backlight. Colposcopic examination involves the study of the structure of the mucous lining of the vulva, vagina and cervix under magnification.
Women undergo colposcopy of the cervix in order to identify oncopathology, as well as precancerous diseases or benign conditions.
Also during colposcopy, cervical swabs are taken, a biopsy is taken for subsequent cytological examination. In addition, the procedure allows to obtain photographs of the lesions of the pathological process under the required magnification.
With the help of a colposcope you can zoom in 6-40 times. With a small increase specialist determines the presence of lesions of pathology, assesses their color, surface, location, shape. Then, with a high magnification, the doctor examines suspicious areas of the mucous membrane. If necessary, a better visualization of the vessels of the microvasculature specialist uses a green filter. This approach is necessary to identify invasive cervical cancer.
The doctor adjusts the colposcope
Kolposkop consists of optical and lighting systems. The device is adapted for carrying out the procedure by a contactless method. The design of the colposcope includes an optical head, a tripod and a base. This is necessary for ease of installation and use of the device. The optical head includes prismatic binoculars, equipped with eyepieces, which allow to examine the tissues under study. The head also contains an illuminator that creates the light needed for operation.
Colposcopic examination of the cervix can be simple and advanced.
- During a simple procedure, the mucous lining of the cervix is studied directly without the use of any additional reagents.
- Extended colposcopy of the cervix involves examination of the cervix after treatment with 3% acetic acid solution. This manipulation is necessary for a clearer identification of pathological changes in the structure of tissues. This is explained by the fact that acetic acid causes short-term edema of the mucous membrane and vascular contraction.
Also, with extended microscopy, treatment with Lugol’s solution can be performed to determine glycogen in the cells. This manipulation is called the Schiller test. In precancerous conditions, mucosal epithelium cells contain little glycogen, so they are not stained with Lugol's solution. In the study, they look like whitish spots on the background of healthy tissues, evenly colored brown. Treatment with Lugol's solution facilitates site selection for subsequent cervical biopsy.
Indications for colposcopic examination of the cervix
Referral to colposcopy is necessary if there are such clinical indications:
- Detection of diseased cells in a smear from the cervical canal.
- Suspicion of cancer and a number of other pathologies (for example, genital warts).
- A positive test result for the presence of human papillomavirus in the body.
- Extra menstrual bleeding.
- Chronic inflammation of the cervix.
- Pathological discharge.
- Itching and discomfort.
- Long pain whining character in the lower abdomen.
These states are the answer to the question of when you need to do a colposcopy.
Purpose of colposcopy
What is colposcopy needed for and why is it done? The objectives of this procedure are:
- determination of precancerous pathologies and cancers in patients with a positive Pap smear,
- detailed examination of the cervical canal and vagina,
- monitoring the effectiveness of treatment of neoplastic processes.
The doctor must explain to the patient why they do colposcopy and how to properly prepare for it.
Rules of preparation for the procedure
In preparation for the colposcopic examination, there is no need to correct the diet. There are some limitations, namely:
- Two days before colposcopy it is impossible to perform douching.
- Two days before the test, intimate hygiene products cannot be used.
- During intercourse use a condom.
- For several days, do not use vaginal tablets, suppositories and other local medicines.
Following simple recommendations allows you to get the most adequate results.
How is colposcopy performed
Colposcopy is performed outside of menstruation. More often, the procedure is prescribed for the 7-10 day of the cycle. Это объясняется тем, что в данный период слизь в цервикальном канале прозрачная и не провоцирует никаких затруднений при проведении обследования.
Looking from a clinical point of view, what is cervical colposcopy and how is it performed? The procedure is performed both in outpatient and in-patient conditions. When prescribing this manipulation, the doctor should explain to the patient why colposcopy is necessary in a given clinical situation, what information allows her to receive. After that, the woman is told about the rules of preparation for the procedure. Also, the patient should be notified that during the implementation of the study may require biopsy of the biomaterial for subsequent cytological examination.
A woman can be bothered if it hurts or not - to perform colposcopy. Usually the procedure brings light discomfort and does not provoke pain. However, with cervicitis, with thrush and some other pathological conditions, painful sensations are still possible. Pain accompanies the biopsy. Also, after discomfort, discomfort may persist for a short time, but this should pass quickly.
It is also often asked whether colposcopy is done to virgins. The answer can only be affirmative if serious gynecological pathologies are suspected. If there are no risks for the patient, the procedure is not performed for girls.
What is this procedure, if we consider directly the sequence of actions during its implementation? You should pay attention to such moments:
- during the implementation of the procedure, the woman is placed on a gynecological chair,
- first the introduction of mirrors, then the colposcope,
- then they examine the cervical canal and vagina with a small increase, if necessary, drain the discharge with a cotton swab,
- upon examination, a specialist assesses the presence, size, quantity, nature, color of pathological foci,
- using a green filter, the doctor assesses the state of the vascular network,
- in the presence of formations, the specialist indicates their character: polyps, condylomas, cysts, etc.,
- if necessary, an extended examination, the neck is treated with a solution of acetic acid, after ten seconds the mucus is removed,
- then the determination of foci of pathology on the mucosal surface,
- a Schiller test is performed (treatment with a Lugol solution containing 2% potassium iodide, 1% iodine) and the detection of iodine-negative sites, which are examined in more detail using a large increase,
- if necessary, a biopsy is taken, which is subsequently sent to a laboratory for histological examination.
Is there a need for a procedure during pregnancy?
Is colposcopy done during pregnancy? In the early stages it is carried out in case of dubious or poor smear results on oncocytology from the cervix. What does the manipulation give in this case? It is necessary for the timely diagnosis of oncopathology and determination of the tactics of the patient during the gestation before the delivery process. It should be noted that simple colposcopy is usually used rather than extended. In the later periods colposcopic examination is not appointed because of the danger of provocation of infection and bleeding.
What to do after the procedure
After the manipulation there are no restrictions, the patient leads a habitual way of life for her. One or two days should be used daily pads - possible discharge.
- If a biopsy was performed during the procedure, it is forbidden to take baths, go to the sauna and bath, use tampons and douches, have a sex life, take medicines containing aspirin for 10 days.
- The next day, you must remove the tampon, which was administered to stop the bleeding.
- In rare cases, after the procedure such complications as cervicitis and vaginitis, bleeding, allergic reactions to iodine and other reagents are observed.
If after the manipulation during the day, copious bloody discharges have not stopped, or purulent discharge has appeared, the body temperature has increased, the lower abdomen hurts and weakness and dizziness are observed - immediately seek medical help.
You can also get acquainted with what shows colposcopy on the video: